Summary of several graph neural network methods



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Summary of several graph neural network methods

Primbetov Abbaz

Student id:LB2020013

Abstract


In recent years, graph neural networks have received more and more attention from everyone. In text classification, sequence labeling, neural machine translation, relation extraction, and event extraction, Image Classification, Visual Reasoning, Semantic Segmentation and other fields have some applications. This article mainly shares some of the most extensive graph neural network structures and this article gives a gentle introduction to Graph Neural Network. It covers some graph theories for the ease to understand graphs and the problems in analyzing graphs. It then introduces Graph Neural Network in different forms and their principles. It also covers what GNN can do and some applications of GNN.

Graph Theory



First, we need to know what is a graph. A graph is a data structure consisting of two components: vertices, and edges. It is used as a mathematical structure to analyze the pair-wise relationship between objects and entities. Typically, a graph is defined as G=(V, E), where is a set of nodes and is the edges between them.



A simple graph

A graph is often represented by an Adjacency matrix, A. If a graph has nodes, then A has a dimension of (NxN). People sometimes provide another feature matrix to describe the nodes in the graph. If each node has numbers of features, then the feature matrix has a dimension of (NxF).

In the world of computer science, graphs are a type of data structure having two components: Nodes (or vertices) and edges, which connect two nodes. Thus, a graph can be defined as a collection of loosely inter-connected nodes via edges



Image source: https://medium.com/data-structures-and-algorithms/graph-dd2b72c32f1f

The nodes of a graph can be homogenous with all nodes having a similar structure, or heterogenous nodes having different types of structure. The edges define the relationship one node has with another. Edges can be bidirectional (from one node u to another v and vice versa), or unidirectional (from one node u to another node v). Edges can also be weighted — having a weight assigned to the edge that might depict the edge’s cost or importance.

An example: Let us suppose a graph to be considered as a network of cities — the cities under observation being nodes and the roads connecting them being edges. Now, there can be various types of relevant problems that can be solved with graphs, such as finding out the shortest distance between cities (where roads can also be weighted as per the condition of the roads or traffic), or finding the cities which are well-connected to each other, etc.



Image Source: https://www.raywenderlich.com/773-swift-algorithm-club-graphs-with-adjacency-list

But why is graph difficult to analyze firstly, a graph does not exist in a Euclidean space, which means it cannot be represented by any coordinate systems that we are familiar with. This makes the interpretation of graph data much harder as compared to other types of data such as waves, images, or time-series signals (“text” can also be treated as time-series), which can be easily mapped to a 2-D or 3-D Euclidean space.

Secondly, a graph does not have a fixed form. Why? Look at the example below. Graph (A) and Graph (B) have a completely different structure and visually different. But when we convert it to adjacency matrix representation, the two graphs have the same adjacency matrix (if we don’t consider the weight of edges). So9, should we consider these two graphs are the same or different?



Graph(A) Graph (B)

And lastly, a graph is in general hard to visualize for human interpretation. I’m not talking about small graphs like the examples above. I’m talking about giant graphs that involve hundreds or thousands of nodes. The dimension is very high and nodes are densely grouped, making it even difficult for a human to understand the graph. Therefore, it is challenging to train a machine for this task. The example below shows a graph modeling the logic gates in an integrated circuit.



Example of a giant graph: circuit netlist. Figure from J. Baehr et. al. “Machine Learning and Structural Characteristics of Reverse Engineering”

The reasons that people choose to work on graphs can be summarized in a few points as listed below:

  1. Graphs provide a better way of dealing with abstract concepts like relationships and interactions. They also offer an intuitively visual way of thinking about these concepts. Graphs also form a natural basis for analyzing relationships in a social context.

  2. Graphs can solve more complex problems by simplifying the problems into simpler representations or transform the problems into representations from different perspectives.

  3. Graph Theories and concepts are used to study and model Social Networks, Fraud patterns, Power consumption patterns, Virality and Influence in Social Media. Social Network Analysis (SNA) is probably the best-known application of Graph Theory for Data Science.


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