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Paradigmatic relations comprises all the units that can also occur in the same environment. PR are relations based on the principles of similarity. They exist between the units that can substitute one another. For instance, in the word-group A LOAF OF BREAD the word LOAF is in paradigmatic relations with the words SLICE, PIECE, ROLL, etc. The article can enter into PR with the units the, this, one, same, etc. According to different principles of similarity PR can be of three types:semantic, formal and functional.

  1. Semantic PR are based on the similarity of meaning: a book to read = a book for readingHeused to practice English every day – He would practice English every day.

  2. Formal PR are based on the similarity of forms. Such relations exist between the members of aparadigmman – men; play – played – will play – is playing.

  3. Functional PR are based on the similarity of function. They are established between the elements that can occur in the same position. For instance, noun determiners: a, the, this, his, Ann’s, some, each, etc.

PR are associated with the sphere of ‘language’. Paradigmatic relations exist between elements of the system outside the strings where they co-occur. In the sphere of phonology such series are built up by the correlations of phonemes that form binary opposition: voicedness :: devoicedness, length. In the sphere of vocabulary these series are based on the correlations of synonymy :: antonymy, word-building dependences. In the domain of grammar we can speak in terms of paradigmatic relations concerning grammatical numbers, cases, persons, tenses, gradation of modalities, sets ofsentence patterns.

Unlike syntagmatic relations, paradigmatic ones cannot be directly observed in utterances, that is why they are referred to as relations ‘in absentia’ = in the absence. The minimal paradigm consists of two form-stages – e.g. singular-plural. A more complex paradigm can be divided into component paradigmatic series (the system of finite verb forms.)

Syntagmatic are intermediate linear relations between units in a segmental sequence. E.g.:

Elephants’ survival depends on profiting from the experience of many lifetimes.

In this sentence syntagmatically connected are the words and word groups

Elephants’ survival …. depends on ….. depends on profiting ….. profiting from …. the experience ….. the experience of ….. many lifetimes.

Morphemes within the words are also connected syntagmatically – survi-val, profit-ing, life-times.
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