Relative Clause



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Relative Clause


Subject

 Object

 Possessive

who

whom, who

whose

which

which

whose

that

that

 





















We use who and whom for people, and which for things.
We use that for people or things.
We use relative pronouns to introduce relative clauses, which tell us more about people and things.

Relative clauses are clauses starting with the relative pronouns who, that, which, whose, where, when. They are most often used to define or identify the noun that precedes them.
Do you know the girl who started in grade 7 last week?

Can I have the pencil that I gave you this morning?

A notebook is a computer which can be carried around.

I won't eat in a restaurant whose cooks smoke.

I want to live in a place where there is lots to do.

Yesterday was a day when everything went wrong!
Note:There is a relative pronoun whom, which can be used as the object of the relative clause. For example: My science teacher is a person whom I like very much. To many people the word whom now sounds old-fashioned, and it is rarely used in spoken English.

1.The relative pronoun whose is used in place of the possessive pronoun. It must be followed by a noun.
Example:

There's a boy in grade 8 whose father is a professional tennis player. (There's a boy in grade 8. His father is a professional tennis player.)
2.The relative pronouns where and when are used with place and time nouns.
Examples: 

FIS is a school where children from more than 50 countries are educated. 2001 was the year when terrorists attacked the Twin Towers in New York.
Some relative clauses are not used to define or identify the preceding noun but to give extra information about it.
Examples:

The heavy rain, which was unusual for the time of year, destroyed most of the plants in my garden.
Einstein, who was born in Germany, is famous for his theory of relativity.
The boy, whose parents both work as teachers at the school, started a fire in the classroom.
My mother's company, which makes mobile phones, is moving soon from Frankfurt to London.
In the summer I'm going to visit Italy, where my brother lives.
3.Relative clauses which give extra information, as in the example sentences above, must be separated off by commas.
The relative pronoun that cannot be used to introduce an extra-information (non-defining) clause about a person.
Wrong: Neil Armstrong, that was born in 1930, was the first man to stand on the moon.

Correct: Neil Armstrong, who was born in 1930, was the first man to stand on the moon.

There are two common occasions, particularly in spoken English, when the relative pronoun is omitted:
1. When the pronoun is the object of the relative clause. In the following sentences the pronoun that can be left out is enclosed in (brackets):
Do you know the girl (who/m) he's talking to?

Where's the pencil (which) I gave you yesterday?

I haven't read any of the books (that) I got for Christmas.

I didn't like that girl (that) you brought to the party.

Did you find the money (which) you lost?
Note: You cannot omit the relative pronoun a.) if it starts a non-defining relative clause, or, b.) if it is the subject of a defining relative clause. For example, who is necessary in the following sentence: What's the name of the girl who won the tennis tournament?
2. When the relative clause contains a present or past participle and the auxiliary verb to be. In such cases both relative pronoun and auxiliary can be left out:
Who's that man (who is) standing by the gate?

The family (that is) living in the next house comes from Slovenia.

She was wearing a dress (which was) covered in blue flowers.

Most of the parents (who were) invited to the conference did not come.

Anyone (that is) caught writing on the walls will be expelled from school.
Clause after the object

She loves the chocolate (which / that) I bought.

We went to the village (which / that) Lucy recommended.

John met a woman (who / that) I had been to school with.

The police arrested a man (who / that) Jill worked with.
Clause comes after the object

Yesterday I called our friend Julie, who lives in New York.

The photographer called to the Queen, who looked annoyed.

Last week I bought a new computer, which I don't like now.

I really love the new Chinese restaurant, which we went to last night.
Clause after the subject

The bike (which / that) I loved was stolen.

The university (which / that) she likes is famous.

The woman (who / that) my brother loves is from Mexico.

The doctor (who / that) my grandmother liked lives in New York.
Clause comes after the subject

My boss, who is very nice, lives in Manchester.

My sister, who I live with, knows a lot about cars.

My bicycle, which I've had for more than ten years, is falling apart.

My mother's house, which I grew up in, is very small.
Relative clauses starting with a prepositon:

1. Note how to form relative clauses after prepositions:  preposition + which for inanimates or things, preposition + whom for people.
Examples:

The man with whom I was talking was angry.

The chair on which I sat down collapsed.   


2. If the relative pronoun is omitted, then the preposition must come at the end of the clause.
Examples:

The man I was talking with was angry.
The chair I sat down on collapsed.


Prepositions and relative clauses

If the verb in the relative clause needs a preposition, we put it at the end of the clause:


For example:

listen to

The music is good. Julie listens to the music.
The music (which / that) Julie listens to is good.
work with

My brother met a woman. I used to work with the woman.
My brother met a woman (who / that) I used to work with.
go to

The country is very hot. He went to the country.
The country (which / that) he went to is very hot.
come from

I visited the city. John comes from the city.
I visited the city (that / which) John comes from.
apply for

The job is well paid. She applied for the job.
The job (which / that) she applied for is well paid.

Whose

'Whose' is always the subject of the relative clause and can't be left out. It replaces a possessive. It can be used for people and things.
The dog is over there. The dog's / its owner lives next door.
The dog whose owner lives next door is over there.
The little girl is sad. The little girl's / her doll was lost.
The little girl whose doll was lost is sad.
The woman is coming tonight. Her car is a BMW.
The woman whose car is a BMW is coming tonight.
The house belongs to me. Its roof is very old.
The house whose roof is old belongs to me.
Where / when / why

We can sometimes use where / when / why

instead of relative pronouns and prepositions.
I live in a city. I study in the city.
I live in the city where I study.
I live in the city that / which I study in.
I live in the city in which I study.
The bar in Barcelona is still there. I met my wife in that bar.
The bar in Barcelona where I met my wife is still there.
The bar in Barcelona that / which I met my wife in is still there.
The bar in Barcelona in which I met my wife is still there.
The summer was long and hot. I graduated from university in the summer.
The summer when I graduated from university was long and hot.
The summer that / which I graduated from university in was long and hot.
The summer in which I graduated was long and hot.
Relative clauses which qualify a whole sentence

Sometimes we use a relative clause to qualify not just a noun or pronoun, but a whole sentence or clause. In such cases, the relative clause is introduced by which, never that or what.


Examples:

He drank too much, which is why he was sick. 
It was raining yesterday, which was a pity.
There aren't enough tables in the exam room,
which is rather a problem.
What

What is used as a "nominal relative pronoun" (sometimes called "free relative pronoun"). In this case, it is a single word which combines both the antecedent (stated or implied) and the relative pronoun.
Examples:

After what happened yesterday, you ought to be more careful.

You'll have to manage with what you can find.

What he said was rather interesting
Whoever, whatever, whichever

Though they are less common than what, whoever whatever and whichever  are all used as nominal personal pronouns, standing in the place of a noun + relative clause.
   

Examples:



Whoever heard such an ridiculous argument ?
 
     Meaning :  Is there any person who heard such a ridiculous argument ?
Whoever lost the key ought to find it again pretty quickly.
 
     Meaning :  The person who lost the key ought.....
Whatever you say, I'm not going to change my opinion.
 
     Meaning :  You can say anything that you want, but I'm....
We'll give the prize to whoever gets the right answer first.

You'll have to manage with whatever you can find.

He'll take whichever he prefers.
Whichever and whatever - but NOT  whoever - can also be used as relative adjectives, standing before a noun.
Examples:

Whichever team wins, he'll be a happy man.!
 
     Meaning :  The team that wins can be one or the other, and he'll..

We'll have to stay in whatever hotel we can find.
      Meaning :  We'll have to stay in any hotel which we can find

My Dad's promised to buy me whatever laptop I want if I pass my exam.
When, why, where and how

As relative pronouns, they are used to replace a longer phrase that would include a standard relative pronoun such as whom or which.
Examples:

We don't know when he's coming
 
     Meaning :  We don't know the time at which he's coming.
Can you explain why you did that?.
      Meaning :  Can you explain for what reason you did that ?
I can't remember where I left my car.
      Meaning :  I can't remember the place in which I left my car.
I hope you know how to mend it !.
      Meaning :  I hope you know the way in which to mend it?
Whenever his son comes to stay, they go out to a good restaurant.
      Meaning :  Each time that his son comes....
Wherever he goes, he leaves a trail of damage behind him.
      Meaning :  He leaves a trail of damage in every place to which he goes
However I try, I can't  get the right answer.
      Meaning :  I spite of all the ways in which I have tried, I can't get...
Relative adverb :  however

However can also be used as a relative adverb, qualifying an adjective or adverb.
Examples:

However hard I try, I can't manage to find the right answer!
 
     Meaning : I can't find the answer even if I try in ways which are very hard.
We'll have plenty of food however many people actually come.
      Meaning :  The number of people who come is not important, we'll have...

Relative clauses: typical errors

1. When we use a relative pronoun as a subject in the relative clause, we don’t use a personal pronoun or noun:
That’s the school that does lots of music and drama.

Not: That’s the school that it does lots of music and drama.



2. When a relative pronoun is the object of the relative clause, we need a subject (pronoun or noun) in the relative clause:
They met at the gallery that Jane had talked about.

Not: They met at the gallery that had talked about.


3. When a relative pronoun is the object of the relative clause, we don’t need another object (pronoun or noun) in the relative clause:
They went to the same restaurant that Mark had been to.

Not: They went to the same restaurant that Mark had been to it.


4. In writing, we don’t use commas in defining relative clauses:
Sally is a committee member who finds it difficult to make decisions.

Not: Sally is a committee member, who finds it difficult to make decisions.


TEST

1. John lives in a house     is 100 years old. 

2. A watch is a device     tells the time. 

3. This is a book     is about earth pollution. 

4. There are a few restaurants here     serve fresh food. 

5. Sheep are the animals     give us wool. 

6. A fridge is a machine     keeps food fresh. 

7. An airplane is a vehicle     flies in the air. 

8. A dolphin is an animal     helps people in the sea. 

9. Mrs Elen is the teacher     loves her students so much. 

10. The parcel     contains your present is on the table. 

11. A tin-opener is a tool     is used for opening tins and cans. 

12. A sewing machine is a machine     is used for sewing clothes. 

13. Neil Armstrong is the first man     landed on the moon. 

14. Antalya is a wonderful city     you can visit a lot of historical places. 



EXERCISES

1.Complete the text with the words in the box


Which whose who it where why who what when that

Sabrina Cohen,1 who is one of Wales’ top martial arts fighters, has fought 101 rounds to raise money for cancer charities. 22-year-old Cohen, 2----------- father Meir died of cancer 3-----------------she was nine years old, fought the marathon in Cardiff, 4------------------ she lives. She had planned to fight 100 rounds, but in the end she did an extra one 5---------------she dedicated to her father’s memory. This is for the man 6-------------------inspired me to do this’, she said as she heads into her final round. It is thought to be the first time 7-------------------such an event has been staged in the sport. ‘It doesn’t matter 8----------------you do’, she said. ‘The important thing is to make the effort. I’d definitely do 9-----------------again.’ Her friends commented: ‘We were concerned about Sabrina but we understood 10--------------------she wanted to do this and supported her all the way.


2.Circle the correct answers a, b, c.
1.The man…………..I was speaking to is from Chile.

A which b whose c who


2.She didn’t pass the exam,………….means she has to repeat the year.

A which b what c that


3.I don’t understand………………..he’s saying.

A which b that what


4.The boy…………..dog bit you phoned to apologise

A whose b who c which


5.……………they need is a new managing director.

A who b that c what

6.The skateboard …………….you ordered has arrived

A which b that c what


3.Mark the sentences D or A

D= the underlined part gives defining, important information about the person or thing (s)
A= the underlined part gives additional information about the person or thing (s)
1.Boys prefer subjects which requires thinking about systems …………
2.Simon Baron- Cohen, who has done intensive research, says there are big differences between male and females brains. …………..
3.Maths, physics, and engineering, which require high levels of systems-thinking are also largely male-chosen disciplines …………..
4.We talked to a man who has done intensive research on this topic. …………
4.Complete the text. Use the non-defining relative clauses and who, which or where.
My friend Kate lives next door. She’s very good-looking and sometimes does some modeling work, (1)………………… We met at school (2) ………………… She’s a good friend (3) ……………………… She is sometimes really stubborn, (4)…………………….. Her boyfriend, (5)…………………. is my brother.
5.Put commas round the relative clauses in these sentences where necessary.
1.People who have a slow-acting nervous systems are attracted to high-risks activities.
2.He abandoned the medical course which he had never enjoyed.
3.Her mother whose advice Sarah did not take was against the marriage.
4.Mount Asgard which is on Bafin Island was the scene of the most famous BASE jump of all.
6.Cross out the relative pronoun where it is unnecessary.
1.Those students who have passed their exams don’t need to come to the revision course.
2.The pasta that I had for lunch was delicious.
3.I have to take a train that stops in Birmingham
4.The book that I am reading is about the human body.
5.Saturday, which is my day-off, is the closing date for the competition.
7.Cross (x) the sentence, a or b, which means the same as the first statement in bold.
1)Not all the children got flu.

The children who went to the party got flu

The children, who went to the party, got flu.
2)They were looking for a restaurant with a smoking area.

They were hungry so they went into the first restaurant which had a smoking area.

They were hungry so they went into the first restaurant, which had a smoking area.
3)No one was allowed into the room.

The people who were late weren’t allowed into the room.

The people, who were late, weren’t allowed into the room.
4)I wanted to go to Florence.

I booked the first holiday I found which was in Florence.

I booked the first holiday I found, which was in Florence.
8.Fill in either who, that or which in the following sentences:
1.The man ____________ bought the car complained about the gearbox.
2.The horse ____________ won the race was very fast.
3.Richard Kelly, ____________ works at Siemens, has a company car.
4.Our dog Rover, ____________ is a labrador, goes for a walk twice a day.
5.My grandma, ____________ broke her hip last year, can’t walk very well.
6.The house ____________ we have bought needs to be repaired and decorated.
7.The clothes ____________ he was wearing were very nice.
8.The curtains ____________ you damaged are still being repaired.
9.Jenny, ____________ will be ten next year, is getting much taller.
10.Snow White, ____________ is a children’s film, was animated by Disney.
9.Combine the following pairs of sentences using a relative clause.
1.We met the man while we were on holiday. He was very nice.
2.The Smiths have a very big house. They have a large family.
3.I saw the dog in the pet shop. I decided to buy it.
4.I like James. He is very intelligent and agreeable.
5.We visited London. It was on our way home.
6.Sandra was travelling by bus. She had a long way to go.
7.John has plenty of spare time. He reads a lot.
8.The university has a large number of facilities. It is one of the best in the country.
9.Your shirt is very dirty. I only washed it yesterday.
10.The cat wasn’t hungry. The cat normally eats quite a lot.
10.Use the information given to make sentences using extra information clauses. The first answer is given as an example.
EX: Michael Jones, doctor, works nights.

Michael Jones, who is a doctor, works nights.
1.Our house, large garden, outside Prague.
2.My mother, sitting in the corner, is a teacher.
3.The Astronomical Clock, tourist attraction, very old.
4.Paris, capital of France, beautiful city.
5.The pyramids, wonder of the world, mysterious.
6.The book I have just read, interesting, written by Simon Disraeli.
7.My best friend, I don’t see very often, always very busy.
8.Coventry Cathedral, was very beautiful, bombed during the war.
9.Cows, gentle animals, mainly eat grass.
11.Choose the best answer:
1,James will only go to places…………..are recommended by his friends.

a. what b. where c. which d. how.


2.Miss Kelly took part in the singing contest………….she was on holiday in Japan.

a. what b. where c. when d. how.


3.Tom,……….is a monitor of the class, is also the captain of the football.

a. who b. which c. whom d. whose.


4.I saw the man……….owns that car walking towards the shop.

a. which b. whom c. who d. whose


5.The street…………leads to my school is very narrow.

a. who b. which c. whom d. whose.


6.Bring me the clock………………..is over there.

a. whom b. which c. whose d. who


7.My friend, …………aunt is nurse, would like to be a doctor someday.

a. who b. whom c. which d. whose


8.The dog, ………..tail I stepped on, bit me.

a. who b. whose c. which d. whom


9.Please give this to the beggar…………….is at the door.

a. who b. which c. whom d. whose


10.My father gave me the doll…………..I had been hoping for.

a. who b. which c. whom d. which


11.Yesterday I met my friend…………….gave me a dog on my birthday.

a. who b. whose c. whom d. which.


12.Any one………….disobeys the rules will be punished.

a. that b. which c. whom d. who.


13.Budapest,……….is on the Danube, is a beautiful city.

a. where b whose c. when d. which


14.The river from………….we get our water supply is nearly empty.

a. that b. which c. whom d. where.


15.The boy…………father is in prison is my friend.

a. whom b. who c. whose d. which


16.Do you know the driver………………took them to town last night.?

a. which b. whom c. where d. who


17.Anybody…………..is tired may leave.

a. whom b. who c. where d. which.


18.He talked about the books and the authors………….interested him.

a. which b. who c. that d. when


19.This is the book of …………….I was speaking.

a. which b. whom c. that d. where


20.The cat …………tail is long does not belong to me.

a. whom b. that c. which d. whose.


21.She is the finest woman…………….ever lived.

a. that b. whom c. who d. which


22.All the people…………I met are very friendly.

a. who b. whom c. whose d. that.


23.Karl Marx is the German philosopher…………..principles have changed word’s history.

a. whose b which c. who d. that.


24.We saw many soldiers and tanks…………..were moving to the front.

a. which b. whose c. that d. who.


25.We must find a time………………we can meet and a place…………..we can talk.

a. when/ whom b. who/where c. whom/whose d. when/where.


26.The decision was postponed, …………….was exactly what he wanted.

a. which b . when c. that d. where


27.He sees men, women, cat, dogs and cars…………….move mound and round.

a. that b. whose c. which d. who.


28.He reads all the books………….he can borrow.

a. which b. that c. whom d. who


29.Who is the boy…………..you’re looking for?

a. whom b. that c. whose d. who


30.Jim passed his driving test, ……………surprised everybody.

a. that b. which c. who d. whom.


31.It rained all the time, ……………was a pity.

a. which b. that c. whom d. whose.


32.The Titanic, ………….., was supposed to be unsinkable.

a. sank in 1922 b. that sank in 1922 c. which sinking in 1922 d. which sank in 1922.


33.Ann enjoys taking a walk at night, …………the streets are quiet.

a. when b. which c. that c. where.


34.My parents’ car broke down,……………..a nuisance.

a. which were b. when was c. that was d. which was


35.I always remember the first day……………. I met her.

a. when b. who c. where d. which


36.I wants to know……………he remains so thoughtful.

a. why b. which c. what d. when.


37.She didn’t tell me the reason…………she divorced her husband.

a. when b. why c. what d. who.


38.He was the first man………………the burning house.

a. left b. to leave c. leave d. to left.


39.She is the most beautiful girl………….. I have ever met.

a. who b. that c. which d. whom.


40. This is the restaurant to ………….. we went last time.

a. which b. where c. when d. that


12. Complete the following sentences, using relative clause.
1.This is Mrs. Jones ………………………………………….…………………………
2.We are moving to Paris …………………………………………….………………………
3.The police have just caught Tom …………………………………………...………………………
4.I don’t like Peter ……………………………………………………………..…….
5The book is about a girl …………………………………………….………………………
6.Alexander Bell was the man …………………………………………………..…………………
7.The police have caught the men …………………………………………………..………………..

8.I don’t like the people ………………………………………………………………………
9. What is the name of the horse ……………………………………………….…………………..?
10. Tell me the reason …………………………………

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