Plan: 1 History



Download 498.41 Kb.
bet7/10
Sana15.07.2021
Hajmi498.41 Kb.
1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   10
Developments in theory

Goal choice

Self-efficacy, past performance, and various other social factors influence goal setting. Failure to meet previous goals often leads to setting lower (and more likely achievable) goals.



Learning goals

There are times when having specific goals is not a best option; this is the case when the goal requires new skills or knowledge. Tunnel vision is a consequence of specific goals; if a person is too focused on attaining a specific goal, he or she may ignore the need to learn new skills or acquire new information. This concept is illustrated well by the "basketball game task" study in which observers watched a video of a group of people wearing white shirts and black shirts who are passing a basketball back and forth, and the observers were instructed to count the number of times a basketball is passed between only the players wearing white shirts. During the video, a woman carrying an open umbrella walks across the screen. Of 28 observers who were focused on counting the number of passes between only the players wearing white shirts, only 6 reported noticing the woman carrying the umbrella. When observers watched the video without focusing on a specific task, all of the observers noticed the umbrella woman. In situations where the risk of tunnel vision is high, the best option is to set a learning goal. A learning goal is a generalized goal to achieve knowledge in a certain topic or field, but it can ultimately lead to better performance in specific goals related to the learning goals.

Locke and Latham (2006) attribute this response to metacognition. They believe that "a learning goal facilitates or enhances metacognition—namely, planning, monitoring, and evaluating progress toward goal attainment". This is necessary in environments with little or no guidance and structure. Although jobs typically have set goals, individual goals and achievement can benefit from metacognition.

Framing

Framing, or how goals are viewed, influences performance. When one feels threatened and or intimidated by a high goal they perform poorer than those who view the goal as a challenge. The framing of a goal as a gain or a loss influences one's eventual performance.

Affect

Realization of goals has an effect on affect—that is, feelings of success and satisfaction. Achieving goals has a positive effect, and failing to meet goals has negative consequences. However, the effect of goals is not exclusive to one realm. Success in one's job can compensate for feelings of failure in one's personal life.



Group goals

The relationship between group goals and individual goals influences group performance; when goals are compatible there is a positive effect, but when goals are incompatible the effects can be detrimental to the group's performance. There is another factor at work in groups, and that is the sharing factor; a positive correlation exists between sharing information within the group and group performance.In the case of group goals, feedback needs to be related to the group, not individuals, in order for it to improve the group's performance.

Goal concordance (agreement) among members of groups as well as concordance across hierarchies in organizations has positive performance impacts. Research evaluating affects of goals on employee commitment found an indirect relationship mediated by employee perception of organizational support, suggesting that leaders to directly support goal setting by individual employees.


Download 498.41 Kb.

Do'stlaringiz bilan baham:
1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   10




Ma'lumotlar bazasi mualliflik huquqi bilan himoyalangan ©hozir.org 2020
ma'muriyatiga murojaat qiling

    Bosh sahifa
davlat universiteti
ta’lim vazirligi
maxsus ta’lim
O’zbekiston respublikasi
axborot texnologiyalari
zbekiston respublikasi
o’rta maxsus
nomidagi toshkent
guruh talabasi
davlat pedagogika
texnologiyalari universiteti
xorazmiy nomidagi
toshkent axborot
pedagogika instituti
rivojlantirish vazirligi
haqida tushuncha
toshkent davlat
Toshkent davlat
vazirligi toshkent
samarqand davlat
tashkil etish
kommunikatsiyalarini rivojlantirish
ta’limi vazirligi
matematika fakulteti
navoiy nomidagi
vazirligi muhammad
bilan ishlash
fanining predmeti
nomidagi samarqand
Darsning maqsadi
maxsus ta'lim
pedagogika universiteti
ta'lim vazirligi
Toshkent axborot
o’rta ta’lim
Ўзбекистон республикаси
sinflar uchun
haqida umumiy
fanlar fakulteti
fizika matematika
Alisher navoiy
Ishdan maqsad
universiteti fizika
Nizomiy nomidagi
moliya instituti
таълим вазирлиги
nazorat savollari
umumiy o’rta
respublikasi axborot
Referat mavzu
махсус таълим