O`zbekiston Respublikasi Oliy va O`rta Maxsus Ta`lim Vazirligi Buxoro Davlat universiteti Ijtimoiy-iqtisodiy fakul’teti Iqtisodiy ta`lim va turizm kafedrasi


-rasm. Xizmat ko’rsatish va servis sohasining yalpi ichki mahsulotdagi ulushi



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3-rasm. Xizmat ko’rsatish va servis sohasining yalpi ichki mahsulotdagi ulushi.
mazkur ko’rsatkich 49 foizni tashkil etdi. Mamlakatimizda xizmat ko’rsatishva servis sohasi 2011 yilda jadal sur’atlar bilan rivojlanib, uning yalpi ichki mahsulotdagi ulushi 2000 yildagi 37 foiz o’rniga 50,5 foizni tashkil etdi.
2.2. Buxoro viloyatida mexmonxona industriyasining ahvoli.
Mamlakatimizda mustaqillikning dastlabki kunlaridanoq xizmatlar ko‘rsatish sohasidagi turizm xizmatlari iqtisodiy taraqqiyotning ustuvor yo‘nalishi sifatida talqin qilinib, unga e’tibor davlat siyosati darajasiga ko‘tarilgan. Soha rivoji uchun zaruriy tashkiliy-huquqiy mexanizmlar vujudga keltirilib, hukumat tomonidan tegishli me’yoriy hujjatlar qabul qilindi va bu yo‘nalishdagi ishlar hozir ham davom etmoqda. Xizmat ko‘rsatish va servis faoliyati bilan shug‘ullanuvchi korxona va tashkilotlar hamda yakka tartibdagi tadbirkorlar faoliyati milliyiqtisodiyotga katta hissa qo‘shmoqda.

O’zbekistonda bugungi kunda mexmonxona xo’jaligi jadal sur’atlarda rivojlanib kelmoqda.Shu jumladan Buxoro viloyatida ham bu sohadagi rivojlanishlar yaqqol ko’zga tashlanmoqda.“O’zbekturizm” MXK ning ma’lumotlari bunga yaqqol misol bo’la oladi. Ma’lumotlarga ko’ra, agar 1995 yilda Buxoro viloyatida jami 6 ta mexmonxona faoliyat yuritayotgan bo’lsa, 2013 yilga kelib ularning soni 68 taga yetdi, ya’ni 11 baravar ko’paydi (1-diagramma).



1-diagramma.

Buxoro viloyatidagi korxonalarda turizmning rivojlanish dinamikasi.

(Buxoro viloyatidagi mexmonxonalarning rivojlanish holati)
“O’zbekturizm” MXK ning 1995-2013 yillardagi ma’lumotlari.

Xozirgi kunda Buxoroda 60 taga yaqin xususiy mexmonxona mavjud. SHulardan ko’pisi eski shaxarda joylashgan bo’lib, xonalar soni 10-20 tadan oshmaydi. Asosan ular B&B xizmatlarini taklif qiladi. Undan tashqari Buxoro shaxrida biznes-otellar xam mavjud, ular shaharning markazida joylashgan va keng turdagi xizmatlarni taklif qiladi.


2-diagramma

Buxoro viloyatidagi korxonalarda turizmning rivojlanish dinamikasi.

(Buxoro viloyatidagi mexmonxonalarning rivojlanish holati, jumladan xususiy mexmonxonalar)
“O’zbekturizm” MXK ning 1995-2013 yillardagi ma’lumotlari.
Barcha sohalarda bo’lgani kabi mexmonxona xo’jaligida ham xususiy tadbirkorlikning rivojlanishi uchun barcha shart-sharoitlar yaratilgan (2-diagramma) da xususiy mexmonxonalarining o’sish sur’atlari aks ettirilgan. Bu diagrammada shuni ko’rishimiz mumkinki, 1995 yilda Buxoro hududida jami mexmonxonalarining soni 6 ta bo’lsa, shundan xususiy mexmonxonalar atigi 2 tagina bo’lib, 33 % ulushni tashkil etgan. 2005 yilda jami mexmonxonalar soni 37 taga va shundan xususiy mexmonxonalarining soni 34 taga yetgan. Bu o’z navbatida 10 yil ichida bu sohaning 6 baravarga oshganini ko’rsatmoqda.

Bundan tashqari Buxoro viloyatidagi barcha mexmonxonalardagi o’rin – joylar soniga ham nazar tashlaydigan bo’lsak, agar 1995 yilda jami o’rin-joylar soni 1225 ta bo’lsa, o’n yil ichida bu ko’rsatgich 1986 taga, 2013 yilga kelib esa 2800 taga yetdi. Bu esa o’z navbatida qariyb 44 % ni tashkil etib, 18 yil ichida 2,5 baravarga oshganini ko’rsatadi. Shulardan xususiy mexmonxonalarda, agarda 1995 yilda atigi 12 ta o’rin-joy bo’lgan bo’lsa, 2013 yilga kelib bu ko’rsatgich 1998 taga yetdi.Bu raqamlardan biz shuni

ko’rishimiz mumkinki, turizm sohasidagi xususiy mexmonxonalar juda tez rivojlanib bormoqda (3-diagramma).
3-diagramma.

Buxoro viloyatidagi korxonalarda turizmning rivojlanish dinamikasi.

(Buxoro viloyatidagi mexmonxonalarda o’rin-joylarning rivojlanish holati, jumladan xususiy mexmonxonalar).

“O’zbekturizm” MXK ning 1995-2013 yillardagi ma’lumotlari.



III BOB.BUXORO MEXMONXONALARIDA OILAVIY BIZNESNING RIVOJLANISH ISTIQBOLLAR

3.1. Buxoro hududida oilaviy mexmonxonalarning rivojlanish holati

Albatta turizmning rivojlanishi birinchi navbatda turizm industriyasining o’zagi bo’lgan mehmonxonalarning rivojlanishiga ijobiy ta’sir qilar ekan. Chunki, mehmonxona biznesi turizmning ajralmas qismi bo’lib, birinchi navbatda turistlarni qabul qiluvchi va turistlarning datlabki ehtiyojlarini qondiruvchi,murakkab xizmatlarni amalga oshiruvchi eng muxim infratuzilmalardan biri hisoblanadi.Shuning uchun ham XXI asr turizmida mehmonxonalar biznesida nafaqat xizmatlar sonini, turini ko’paytirishga e’tibor berilmoqda, balki ko’rsatilayotgan xizmatlar sifatini va samaradorligini oshirishga kuch berilmoqda, xizmatlarning sifatini va samaradorligini oshirish uchun yangi-yangi texnologiyalar ishlab chiqilmoqda.

Hukumatimiz tomonidan oilaviy biznesni rivojlantirish uchun berilayotgan imtiyozlar tufayli mexmonxona xo’jaligi sohasida ham oilaviy biznes faol rivojlanib kelmoqda.Ayniqsa Buxoro viloyatida.

Buxoro viloyatidagi bir nechta mexmonxonalar oilaviy biznes asosida faoliyat olib bormoqda. Masalan“Sasha & son”, “Ameliya boutique hotels”, “ Old sity”, “Olmos hotel”, “Rustam & Zuxra”, “Matluba & son”, “Nasriddin Navruz”, “Nazira & Azizbek”, “Mubindjan-dom”, “Doston guest house” va boshqalar shular jumlasidandir.

Shulardan bittasi “Doston guest house” yoki boshqacha uni “Doston house Restaurant” deb ham ataydilar.
Restoran Doston house , Buxara

Manzili: K.Kalon ko’chasi, 5 uy

Telefon:+99891 445 27 55

Oshxonasi: Uzbek milliy taomlari

To’lov turi: $ va so’mda.

“Doston guest house” 2009 yildan ishga tushib mehmonlarni qabul qila boshladi. 5 yildan beri kasanachilik asosida faoliyat olib bormoqda.

Restoran (uy) binosi Mirzo David yaxudiyning uyi bo’lgan, qadimiy hovli 2001 yilda Radjabov Dostonning otasi tomonidan sotib olingan va qayta rekonstruksiya qilingan. Hovli g’ishtdan qad rostlagan bo’lib, 2 qavatdan iborat. Birinchi qavatidagi xonalardan ikkitasi faqat restoran, oshxona sifatida ishlatilib ikkata ovqatlanish xonasi (zal) dan iborat. Birinchi zal 45 kishiga mo’ljallangan bo’lsa, ikkinchi zal 20 kishigacha turistga xizmat ko’rsatiladi. Ikkinchi qavatdagi xonalar turistlarning tunashi uchun mo’ljallangan. “Doston house Restaurant”da kommunikatsiya mavjud, ichimlik suvi Shahar Suv-oqava tomonidan ta’minlangan, elektrenergiya esa trans formator stansiyasi orqali ta’minlangan.

“Doston house Restaurant” qulay joyda joylashgan, Restoran (uy) binosi Labi havuz kompleksiga yaqin joyda joylashgan.Aeroportdan Restoran (uy) binosi gacha 15 minutda yetib kelsa bo’ladi.

Restoran (uy) binosining qurilish stili eski shaharning qadimiy uylari kabi ko’xna naqshlar va osori atiqalar yo’nalishida qurilgan. Shubilan birga barcha turistlarning zamoniy talablariga ham javob beradi.

“Doston house” Restaurantning ish faoliyatiga nazar tashlaydigan bo’lsak, oilaviy korxona sifatida ish olib boriladi. Oila boshlig’i (korxona rahbari) Radjabov Doston bir vaqtning o’zida ham raxbar ham ta’minotchi, ham menedjer va shular bilan birgalikda kelgan mexmonlarga xushmuomalali suhbatdosh.U kishining rafiqasi Shodmonova Nargiza opa oshpaz, uzoq qarindoshlari Xamroyev Mansur ofisiant-administrator, Doston akaning o’gli ofisiant yordamchisi bo’lib ishlaydilar va nihoyat , Doston akaning oyijonlar Kursiya aya va Sufiya ayalar o’z hayotiy tajrabalari va maslahatlari bilan galma – galdan o’rin almashib kelib “Doston house” Restaurantning ish faoliyati rovojiga o’z hissalarini qo’shmoqdalar.

Doston aka o’zi Turkiyada “Mexmonxona biznesini yuritish” bo’yicha o’qib kelgan. Bundan tashqari 45 kun AQSHda Restoran biznesi bo’yicha malakasini oshirib kelgan.

Bu oilaviy korxonada kelgan turistga xizmat ko’rsatish bilan bir qatorda, dasturxonga tortiladigan o’zbek milliy taomlarining qanday tayyorlanish jarayoni ham ko’rsatiladi. Bu esa o’z navbatida bu korxonaning boshqalardan ajralib turishini ko’rsatib turadi.

Hozirgi kunda bu korxona o’zining biznes rejasi loyihasini tuzib, faqatgina turistlarga restorant sifatida emas, mexmonxona sifatida ham faoliyat yuritishi uchun litsenziya olishga tayyorgarlik ko’rmoqda.

Asosan Restarant bilan quyidagi turistik firmalari hamkorlikda ish olib borishadi:



  1. ”Sarrafon travel ” Web sayti: www.sarrafon-travel.uz

E-mail: Info@sarrafon-travel.uz

2. “Orient voyages” Web sayti: www.tour-orient.com

E-mail: office@tour-orient.com

3. “Central Asia Journeys ” Web sayti : www.centralasiajourneys.com

4. “Sarbon – Tour” Incoming travel agency

Web sayti: www.sarbon-tour.com

E-mail: info@sarbon-tour.com

5. “Mocokko- Elite” Web sayti: www.mocokko.com

E-mail: info@mocokko.com

6. “Sun travel ” Web sayti: www.suntravel.uz

E-mail: info@suntravel.uz

7. “Sitara International Ltd.

8.Kets LTD.

9. « Advantour » Web sayti: www.advantour.com/uz


3.2. Buxoro mexmonxonalarida oilaviy biznesning rivojlanish istiqbollari
Kichik biznesni rivojlantirish mamlakat iqtisodiyotini yuksaltiribgina qolmasdan, oila farovonligini ta`minlashda ham muhim ahamiyat kasb etadi. Oila farovonligini manbai bozor munosabatlari sharoitida tubdan o`zgardi. CHunki, oldin oila daromadi asosan ish haqidan tarkib topgan bo`lsa, endilikda bu manba biznesga asoslangan oilaviy tadbirkorlik bilan shug’ullanishi lozimligini hayot taqozo qilmoqda. Ammo, shuni alohida ta`kidlash joizki, aholining, ayniqsa oilalarning turmush sharoitini, ya`ni farovonligini ifodalash uchun tegishli ko`rsatkichlar yoki ularni aniqlovchi usullar mamlakatimiz olimlari tomonidan hamon ishlab chiqilmoqda.

Hozirgi paytda oilalar daromadining to`rtdan bir qismi tadbirkorlik evaziga paydo bo`lmoqda. Kelajakda oila ehtiyojining 50 % ni shu yo`l bilan qoplanishiga erishish  maqsadga muvofiqdir.

Bu bizning mamlakatimiz uchun o`ta muhimdir. CHunki, Yevropa mamlakatlarida bir ishlovchiga 0,7 kishi mehnat yoshiga etmagan bolalar va nafaqadagi qariyalar to`g’ri kelsa, bu ko`rsatkich bizda 2,7 kishini tashkil qiladi. Tabiiyki, bunday sharoitda faqat oylik maosh bilan oilaning ehtiyojini to`liq ta`minlab bo`lmaydi. SHu tufayli, kelajakda har bir oilaning farovonligini ta`minlash uchun oilaviy tadbirkorlikni rivojlantirish maqsadga muvofiqdir.

Oilaviy tadbirkorlikning muhim yo`nalishlaridan biri oilalarning shaxsiy  tomorqasi, shaxsiy biznes, shaxsiy mexmonona, shaxsiy restoranlarda faoliyat ko`rsatishidir. Oilaviy tadbirkorlikni rivojlantirish bozor munosabatlari sharoitida muhim ijtimoiy-iqtisodiy ahamiyatga ega.Bu eng avvalo, oilalar farovonligini oshirishning muhim omilidir. Zero, ish haqi, o`rtacha daromad kabi ko`rsatkichlar  bozor munosabatlari sharoitida o`zining yashovchanlik mohiyatini yo`qotdi.

Mamlakatimiz taraqqiyotini pirovard maqsadi ozod va obod Vatan, erkin va farovon hayot kechirishga qaratilgan ekan, demak, iqtisodiy ko`rsatkichlar faqat o`rtacha ish haqi yoki boshqa o`rtacha ko`rsatkichlar bilan emas, balki har bir shaxs, fuqaroning farovonligi bilan belgilanadi.

Ishsizlik va oila bir-biri bilan bevosita bog’liq. Ishsiz u qaerdandir kelgan emas yoki jamiyatdan ajralib qolgan shaxs ham emas. Ishsiz bu ham oilamiz a`zosi. Oiladan bir kishi juda serdaromad ishda ishlasa, shu oila farovon, agar u ishsiz qolsa, shu oila kambag’allikka mahkum qilingan bo`ladi. SHu tufayli har bir oilada shunday ruhiyat shakllanishi kerakki, unda ishsiz odam bo`lmasligi kerak. Agar biror kishi ishdan bo`shadimi, tadbirkorlik bilan shug’ullanishi lozim, toki oilaning moddiy ta`minotida barqarorlik buzilmasin. Hozirgi paytda qishloqlarda ham biznes bilan shug’ullanish uchun  sharoit etarli. Zero, uning qonuniy asosi yaratildi, tegishli me`yoriy hujjatlar ham ishlab chiqildi.

Agar nazariy jihatdan qaraydigan bo`lsak, kichik biznes rivoj topgan joyda ishsizlik muammosi bo`lishi mumkin emas. CHunki, odam ishsiz bo`lsa, o`ziga ish topishi, o`zining tadbirkorlik faoliyatini yuritishi uchun tegishli sharoit yaratilishiga intiladi. Bu eng avvalo, oilaviy biznesda namoyon bo`ladi.

Hozirgi paytda oilaviy biznesni rivojlantirish uchun uning qonuniy asoslar yaratildi. Bularga «Tadbirkorlik faoliyatini erkinliklarining kafolatlari to`g’risida» kabi Qonunlarni kiritish mumkin. Ammo, hozirgi iqtisodiy muhit alohida «Oila tadbirkorligi va uni qo`llab — quvvatlash to`g’risida»gi  Qonunni qabul qilishni taqozo qiladi. Bunday qonunni  yaratilishi tabiiyki, islohotlar jadallashishida, eng muhim, oilalarning farovonligini oshishida asosiy omil bo`lib xizmat qiladi.

SHu tufayli, oila tadbirkorligini rivojlantirish bugungi qunda mamlakatimiz uchun o`ta muhim tadbir ekanligini idrok qilishimiz va unga tegishli e`tibor qaratishimiz lozim.

Shahrimizda turistik-mehmonxona majmualarida moliyaviy-xo’jalik faoliyatini tubdan yaxshilash, ularning iqtisodiy samaradorligini keskin oshirishga erishish lozim. Bunga, asosan, xorijiy turistlar va mahalliy turistlar oqimini ko’paytirish, ularga ko’rsatiladigan xizmatlar sifatini yanada oshirish evaziga erishish mumkin




XULOSA VA TAKLIFLAR
Turizmning rivojlanishi bevosita bu majmuaga aloqador sohalarning, jumladan mehmonxona xo’jaligining samaradorligini va sifatini oshirish bilan bog’liq. Boy turistik resurslarga ega bo’lishiga qaramay, O’zbekistonda mavjud imkoniyatdan foydalanish darajasi talab qilingan holatdan ancha kam. Turizm ko’lamining kengayishi bilan xizmat ko’rsatish korxonalarining, jumladan mehmonxonalar soni ham oshib boraveradi. Umuman 2009 yilda 2006 yildagiga qaraganda viloyatimizda turistik xarajatlar hajmi taxminan 7 barobar oshgan. Buxoro Respublikamizning turistik va xizmat ko’rsatish sohasida eng etakchi hududlaridan biri hisoblanadi.

Mehmonxonalar industriyasining rivojlanishida mehmondo’stlik, mehmonlarni kutib olish va kuzatib qo’yish xizmatlarining samaradorligini oshirishda birinchi navbatda joylashtirish infratuzilmalarini zamonaviy texnologiyalar talablari asosida yaratishni zaruriy shart qilib qo’ymoqda.

“Oilaviy tadbirkorlik to`g’risida”gi qonunda O`zbekiston Respublikasida oilaviy tadbirkorlik ikki shaklda, ya`ni yuridik shaxs tashkil etgan yoki tashkil etmagan holda amalga oshirilishi mumkinligi mustahkamlab qo`yilgan. Yuridik shaxs tashkil etmasdan oilaviy tadbirkorlikning shakli hisoblangan yakka tartibdagi tadbirkorlik ko`pchilikka tanish bo`lganligi sababli biz asosan yuridik shaxs tashkil etgan holda oilaviy tadbirkorlikni tashkil etish va yuritish to`g’risida mulohaza yuritamiz. Aslida “Oilaviy tadbirkorlik to`g’risida”gi qonunin` yangiligi va jozibadorligi ham yuridik shaxs tashkil etgan holda tadbirkorlik yuritishdadir.

O’zbekistonda bugungi kunda mexmonxona xo’jaligi tez sur’atlarda rivojlanib kelmoqda.Shu jumladan Buxoro viloyatida ham bu sohadagi rivojlanishlar yaqqol ko’zga tashlanmoqda.Hukumatimiz tomonidan oilaviy biznesni rivojlantirish uchun berilayotgan imtiyozlar tufayli mexmonxona xo’jaligi sohasida ham oilaviy biznes faol rivojlanib kelmoqda.



Buxoro hududida mexmonxona xo’jaligini rivojlantirishda oilaviy biznesni o’rnini nazariy va amaliy tahlil qilib quyidagi xulosalarga keldik:Buxoro viloyatida ham oilaviy tadbirkorlik asosida o’ndan ortiq turistik korxonalar (mexmonxonalar) faoliyat olib bormoqda. Bu turistik korxonalardagi oilaviy tadbirkorlik turizm sohasi rivojiga juda kata ta’sir ko’rsatayabti. Agarda har bir oila milliy urf-odatlarimizni, milliy hunarmandchiligimizni kelgan turistga ko’rsata olsa, bu ham o’zligimizni, o’z milliy qadriyatlarimizni olamga tanitish, ham butun bir oila farovonligini hammani o’z ishi bilan band qilgan holda ta’minlash hisoblanadi.

Gap oilaviy tadbirkorlik to`g’risida ketar ekan, uning qator afzalliklari to`g’risida ham gapirib o`tish joiz. Avvalo ta`kidlash lozimki, oilaviy korxona oila yashab turgan turar joyda faoliyat yuritishi va o`zi ishlab chiqargan maxsulotni shu joyning o`zida sotishi mumkin. Oilaviy korxonaga berilgan bunday imkoniyat oilaviy tadbirkorlikni boshlash va uni samarali davom ettirish ishini ancha osonlashtiradi.

Boshqa tashkiliy-huquqiy shaklga asoslangan yuridik shaxs tashkil etishdan ko`ra, oilaviy korxona tashkil etishning yana bir arzon va qulay jihati shundaki, oilaviy korxona ishtirokchilari korxona ustav fondini eng kam ish haqining o`n baravaridan past bo`lmagan miqdorda mustaqil holda belgilashlari mumkinligi qonunda belgilangan. Eng muhim oilaviy korxona ishtirokchilariga tegishli bo`lgan turar joylarni korxona ustav fondiga kiritish yoxud ulardan oilaviy korxona faoliyatida foydalanish maqsadida yashash uchun mo`ljallanmagan joylarga aylantirish talab qilinmaydi. Hatto qonun ishtirokchilarini ijtimoiy himoya qilish nuqtai-nazaridan ularning biriga tegishli bo`lgan yagona uy (kvartira)ni oilaviy korxonaning ustav fondiga kiritilishiga yo`l qo`ymaydi.

Oilaviy korxona yagona soliq to`lovchi hisoblanadi, ya`ni soliqlar va boshqa majburiy to`lovlar to`langandan keyin ularning ixtiyorida qoladigan foydaga soliq solinmaydi, bu foyda uning ishtirokchilari tasarrufiga o`tadi va bunda ishtirokchilar daromad solig’i to`lamaydilar. Agarda oilaviy korhona xalq badiiy hunarmandchiligi va amaliy san`ati buyumlarini ishlab chiqarish bilan shug’ullansa, ularni realizatsiya qilishdan olingan tushum bo`yicha yagona soliq to`lovini to`lashdan ham belgilangan tartibga binoan ozod qilinadilar.

Oilaviy korxona tashkil qilishning yana bir maqbul tomoni shundaki, agar bunday korxona turar joydan bir vaqtning o`zida unda istiqomat qilgan holda tovarlar ishlab chiqarish, ishlar bajarish, xizmatlar ko`rsatish uchun foydalanilgan taqdirda, kommunal infratuzilma xizmatlari, jumladan elektr, suv, kanalizatsiya, gaz, issiqlik ta`minoti haqini korxona uchun emas, balki aholi uchun belgilangan tariflar bo`yicha va shartlar asosida amalga oshirilishi belgilab qo`yilgan.

“Oilaviy tadbirkorlik to`g’risida”gi qonun aynan shunday ixcham, boshqarish oson, sodda va qulay korxona yaratish imkoniyatini yaratadi. Bunda korxonaning hamma narsasi qon-qarindosh bo`lgan shaxslarga tegishli bo`lib, qaysi yo`nalish bo`yicha ish yuritish masalasidan tortib to dam olish vaqti-yu, kimlarga qaysi vazifa topshirish ishigacha ularning o`zlari hal qilishadi. Ular o`zlariga, ya`ni ishtirokchilar va yollanma hodimlar uchun qonun hujjatlarida belgilangan imtiyozli mehnat va ijtimoiy-iqtisodiy shart-sharoitlardan mustaqil ravishda foydalanishga haqli hisoblanadilar.

Oilaviy korxona ishtirokchilari korxonani boshqarish, qarorlar qabul qilish, moliya-xo`jaliq faoliyatini nazorat qilish, foydadan o`z ulushini olishda, korxona tarkibidan ixtiyoriy ravishda chiqib ketish, chiqib ketishda oilaviy korxona ustav fondidagi o`zi kiritgan mol-mulk miqdorga mutanosib ravishda o`ziga mol-mulk ajratib berilishini talab qilish kabi qator huquqlarga egadir. Yana shuni ta`kidlash kerakki, ishtirokchilar va yollanma xodimlarning ishlagan vaqti davlat ijtimoiy sug’urtasi bo`yicha badallar to`langanligini tasdiqlovchi hujjatlar va mehnat daftarchasidagi yozuvlar asosida mehnat stajiga qo`shiladi.

Xulosa sifatida aytish mumkinki, “Oilaviy tadbirkorlik to`g’risida” gi qonunning kuchga kiritilishi va uni hayotga tatbiq qilinishi; 



birinchidan, oilalarning, qolaversa har bir oila a`zosining real daromadlari oshishiga, 

ikkinchidan, mamlakatda mahsulot sifati va hajmini ortishiga, 

uchinchidan, mahsulot ishlab chiqarish va xizmat ko`rsatish borasida raqobat muhitini shakllanishiga, 

to`rtinchidan, imkoniyati cheklangan shaxslar bo`lgan nog`ironlar, yoshi keksa, ammo tajribasi katta oila boshliqlarini, tahsil olayotgan yoshlarimiz mehnatidan foydalanishga, 

beshinchidan, norasmiy sektorda faoliyat yuritayotganlarni bosqichma-bosqich rasmiy sektorga olib chiqilishiga, 

oltinchidan, har bir individni ichki imkoniyatlarini, intellektual salohiyatini yuzaga chiqarishiga, mehnat faoliyatida o`zini ijtimoiy maqomini tanlab olishiga, 

ettinchidan, ijtimoiy ishlab chiqarish jarayonida mehnat resurslarini yanada kengroq jalb qilish imkoniyatini kengaytiradi va eng muhimi foydali mehnat bilan band bo`lgan aholi sonini oshishiga va o`rta sinfni shakllantirishda muhim omil sanaladi.

Yuqoridagi xulosalarga tayangan holda quyidagi takliflarni berishimiz mumkin:



birinchidan: oilaviy tadbirkorlik rivoji uchun hukumatimiz tomonidan qilinayotgan, xususan mexmonxona xo’jaligida,ishlarni yoshlar o’rtasida targ’ibot tashviqot ishlarini olib borish;

ikkinchidan: chet davlatlarga ishlash uchun ketmasdan, o’z ona yurtimizda o’z oilamiz bilan birlashgan holda milliylikni aks ettirib, o’z ish faoliyatini olib borish;

uchinchidan: Oilaviy mexmonxonalar ochilishini qo’llab-quvvatlash, oilaviy mexmonxonalar ochilishidagi to’siqlarni kamaytirish.

to’rtinchidan: Turizm sohasidagi Oilaviy biznesni rivojlantirish uchun imtiyozli kreditlarni uzoq muddatli qilib berish (10 yil va undan ortiq). Masalan, chet elda oilaviy biznesni rivojlantirish uchun bunday kreditlar 50 yilgacha beriladi. Chunki turizm sohasi mavsumiy bo’lganligi sababli 10 yildan kam muddatda ularni qaytarish mushkulroq.


ANNOTATION

But what is travel and tourism? Do they fit this industry mould? To answer these questions we need to define a tourist and tourism. Tourism - the business of providing and arranging holidays and services for people who are visiting a place. . Clearly, there is confusion and controversy surrounding the definitions of travel and tourism. Are they the same or are tourists only seeking pleasure whereas travellers may also be on business? How far must one travel from home to be a tourist/traveller? Does paying for a room make one a tourist? . . . And so forth. From the viewpoint of economic development and/or economic impact, a visitor, nominally called a tourist, is someone who comes to an area, spends money, and leaves. We employ an economic framework to be comparable with the concept of ‘industry,’ which is an economic term. The reasons for the visit, length of stay, length of trip, or distances from home are immaterial.

Thus, we define a tourist as a person travelling outside of his or her normal routine, either normal living or normal working routine, who spends money. This definition of visitor/tourist includes:
• People who stay in hotels, motels, resorts, or campgrounds;
• People who visit friends or relatives;
• People who visit while just passing through going somewhere else;
• People who are on a day trip (do not stay overnight); and
• An ‘all other’ category of people on boats, who sleep in a vehicle of some sort, or who otherwise do not fit the above.


Uzbekistan is a country with great potential for an expanded tourism industry. Many of its Central Asian cities were main points of trade on the Silk Road, linking Eastern and Western civilizations. Today the museums of Uzbekistan store over two million artifacts, evidence of the unique historical, cultural and spiritual life of the Central Asian peoples that have lived in the region. Uzbekistan attracts tourists with its historical, archeological, architectural and natural treasures.

According to the Statistical Internet Survey, carried out in May 7-August 27, 2008 by Pagetour jointly with Walter Kafer Fremdenverkehrdienstleistungen, the largest proportion of those surveyed (39%) visit the country because of their interest in the architectural and historical sites of Uzbekistan. The next-largest group (24%) visit Uzbekistan to observe its culture, way of life and customs.[1]

Tourist activities in Uzbekistan range from outdoor activities, such as rock-climbing, to exploration of its rich archeological and religious history.

In 2005, 240,000 tourists from 117 countries visited Uzbekistan. The industry earned US$30 million (90.9% of forecast). Overall, the tourism sector served 621,700 people and rendered services for 40.6 billion soums (73.1% of forecast). The industry earned 598.4 million soums. Each autumn, the Uzbek travel industry holds an International Tourism Fair. Unfortunately the country still has a legacy of complicated, Soviet-style visa requirements, which puts it at a disadvantage in a competitive market for international tourists. The main airport at Tashkent is often cited as one of the worst in the world from the point of view of passengers, who experience hectic conditions, long delays, and bureaucratic frustrations.

Uzbekistan is located on the Great Silk Road and many neighboring countries (including Kazakhstan, Kyrgyz Republic,Tajikistan and Turkmenistan) promote their countries based on their location along the Great Silk Road.

The World Tourism Organization's Silk Road Office was opened in 2004 in Samarkand. This office was commissioned to coordinate the efforts of international organisations and national tourism offices of countries located on the Silk Road. Uzbekistan is also member of The Region Initiative (TRI). TRI is a Tri-regional Umbrella of Tourism related organisations. TRI is functioning as a link between three regions----South Asia, Central Asia and Eastern Europe which is also by Armenia, Bangladesh, India, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, India, Pakistan, Nepal, Tajikistan, Russia, Sri Lanka, Turkey and Ukraine.

Uzbekistan has well preserved relics from the time when Central Asia was the centre of Tamerlane’s empire. Cities of today’s Uzbekistan, including Samarkand, Bukhara, Khiva, Tashkent and Shakhrisabz live in the imagination of the West as symbols of oriental beauty and mystery.

Many cities which are located on the territory of modern Uzbekistan, in ancient times were located on the Silk Road, on which caravans with goods traveled between the East and the West. The road got its name from silk - the Chinese good that was in great demand in Europe. The advantageous geographical location of the cities made them attractive for conquerors. The territory of modern Uzbekistan was conquered many times by various conquerors, including Alexander the Great. Alexander founded at least 8 cities in Central Asia between 334 - 323 years BC.

As for caravans, they started passing on the Great Silk Road later, since 138th AC when China opened its borders for trading.

During the period from 484 to 1150 the region was invaded by the west tribes: Huns, Turks and Arabs.  The Arabs brought a new religion - Islam. Within that period, many mosques and madrasahs had been built in Samarkand, Bukhara and Khiva. Most of them had been built during the reign of Samanids.

Many cities were totally destroyed during the invasion of Genghis Khan in 1220. Later, the great conqueror Timur, known in the West under the name of Tamerlane, revived the destroyed cities using for that those slaves and builders who had been captured during Timir’s successful military campaigns. Tamerlane annexed Persia, Baghdad, he had campaigns to Anatolia and India. The majority of the architectural buildings that were located in Samarkand today, were built by Tamerlane and his grandson Ulugbek.

Hospitality - an activity aimed at the development ( construction and renovation ) Hotel - rooms with furnished rooms for short-term tourist accommodation designed and equipped to provide guests with a range of services associated with travel : accommodation, accommodation , information and consumer services, leisure and etc.Today Hospitality performs key functions in the tourism industry.Modern hotels offer consumers not only accommodation and food services , but also a huge variety of entertainment , transport, communications, the services, as well as sports , medical services, beauty salons , etc. Of course , a set of services varies depending on the class of hotel.Such a variety of services dictated by high competition in the hotel industry . Hotel owners are forced to monitor changing customer preferences and try to fully satisfy them. Therefore, the success of the hotel business depends largely on compliance with customer needs and service quality.

In Russia, the hotel business has not so much developed as in the West, even if considered separately Moscow and St. Petersburg .Basically , hotel complexes represented the old buildings in which it is impossible to maintain a European level. Service leaves much to be desired.

However, in recent years the situation has begun to change for the better. Began large-scale construction of high class hotels , not only in the capital but also in the regional centers . Become more strict requirements for personnel, general services is the aim for European standards. This is largely due to the rise of the economy in our country , as well as increased levels of welfare.Advantour.com offers booking hotels in Bukhara and other cities of Uzbekistan. Book via the Internet your chosen hotel in Bukhara viewing features, compare prices

In Bukhara common private hotels . Most of them are located in the Old Town , near the main historical complex Bukhara - Labi- Hauz . Bukhara small private hotels , located in a private one-or two-storey houses of Bukhara , typical for their internal quadrangle . Travelers will appreciate the exotic oriental design, characteristic of private hotels Bukhara. This hotel B & B, where the morning breakfast , and lunch and dinner are prepared to order visitors. In Bukhara, there is also a business hotel located in the city center . They are built in the style of modern hotels in these modern facilities , a wide range of services provided.Promotion of small family businesses and innovation - an important factor in the stability of the economy

The report of the President of Uzbekistan Islam Karimov at the joint session of the Legislative Chamber and the Senate of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan " The Concept of further deepening democratic reforms and formation of civil society in the country ," it was noted that " For the expansion of small business and entrepreneurship it is time to legally define new organizational and legal form of business - family business. remains urgent adoption of legislation that would allow the further expansion of the role and stake in the country's economy and small businesses , primarily of private enterprise . "

At a solemn meeting dedicated to the 18th anniversary of the Constitution , declaring 2011 the Year of small business and private entrepreneurship, the head of state stressed that small business and.

During the discussion, it was pointed out that if in 2000 by the creation of a favorable environment and conditions for the development of small business and entrepreneurship as an important factor in securing employment, raise incomes and living standards of the population share of small business in the gross domestic product was 30 percent, by the end of 2010, this figure is projected to about 53 percent , currently employed in this field more than 74 percent of total employment in the economy, only in 2010 organized 480,000 jobs through the development of small business and entrepreneurship .

According to the adopted March 16, 2012 Law of the Republic of Uzbekistan " On family business " family business is the single tax payer in the manner prescribed by law . In the family business established taxation corresponding taxes in private enterprise .Family business profit after taxes and other obligatory payments placed at the disposal of its members and is not subject to another tax . Family company pays compulsory payments to social funds from the wage fund in the manner prescribed by law . Family businesses are exempt from the single tax on revenue received from the sale of products of national crafts and applied arts own making.

In the city of Bukhara, February 16 this year, in the framework of the goals and objectives of the project " Education professional development of women in the regions ", funded by the Public Fund under the Oliy Majlis of Uzbekistan held a seminar on "Development of national craftsmanship ."The event was organized Bukhara Regional Centre artisans "Hunarmand" and regional division of Women's Committee . The seminar was held in order to improve the legal, economic , and applied knowledge and skills of women entrepreneurs in the conduct of its business.The event was attended by representatives of the Center "Hunarmand" , the Women's Committee , the regional units " Uzbektourism " women entrepreneurs , residents of Mahalla citizens' assemblies involved family business.

Small business development - one of the main directions of structural reforms in the economy of Uzbekistan. This sector creates the necessary atmosphere of competition, contributes to the creation of additional jobs and income growth. To ensure the most favorable business environment to entrepreneurs provided various incentives and preferences, as well as to provide full support. Privatization is the basis for the formation of a mixed economy and the further development of market relations. Foreign experience shows that in developed countries, small and medium-sized enterprises make up 80 to 97 percent of the total number of enterprises, provide jobs for more than half of the workforce , and produce up to 70 percent of the national product. For example, in Singapore in small businesses employ about 80 percent of the total employed population. It provides about 4-5 percent of GDP growth. In China, small business manufactures most of its products and services. The main part of China's exported goods falls on the share of small business.

The dynamic development of small business is going through economic liberalization and the creation of a qualitatively new business environment. This has led to reduced costs of doing business and increase the utilization of material , labor and financial resources allowed to invest more in the development of production .

The main priorities of this sector - to create the most favorable business environment for business development , the implementation of measures to provide greater freedom of entrepreneurship , further large-scale reduction of state intervention and regulatory authorities in the financial and economic activities of businesses and the expansion of small business access to credit , raw materials , public procurement system, the creation of the necessary institutional , legal and financial mechanisms and conditions for the development of the export potential of this sector .

Given the importance and the role of small businesses in the economic development of Uzbekistan , the government recently passed legislation aimed at further development of this sector .

For the implementation of a wide range of targeted measures to create the most favorable conditions the Resolution of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan dated February 7, 2011 " On the State program " Year of small business and entrepreneurship . " During this period, provided a number of activities to support the further development of this sector, the expansion the participation of small businesses and private entrepreneurs in foreign economic activities and increase their export potential .

To ensure effective use of the state budget , increase access to public contracts for the supply of goods (works, services) , competition and transparency in public procurement adopted a decision of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan dated February 7, 2011 " On the optimization of the public procurement system and expanding bringing them to the small businesses . "

The results achieved and measures implemented since independence , aimed at the development of small business and entrepreneurship , - clear evidence that formed a favorable business climate , there are opportunities for further economic development of Uzbekistan .

Today in our country , with the full support of the leadership of the Government and the country's rapidly developing small business and entrepreneurship , increasing its share of GDP . Along with this, the increasing economic importance of family business , implemented in the form of home-based work also extends the dynamic emergence of a new social class - farmers, whose activity is mainly based on the family. Thus , the family became one of the constituents of the middle class and, of course , an element of economic stability.

During the past few years, luxurious hotels were built in Tashkent, Samarkand and Bukhara, which are managed by western hotel operators. In addition, there are a number of licensed independent hotels and B&B's that provide suitable accommodation at much lower price. It is necessary for visitors to obtain a registration during the stay in Uzbekistan, which is usually provided by the hotel that you will stay. Most tourist hotel rooms have a shower, private bath, air conditioning, telephone, satellite TV with international channels like CNN, BBC, ESPN. 



Bukhara - a Pearl of the East, is famous not only for its rich history and architectural monuments, but also for a wide selection of Hotels and Guest Houses decorated in national and European styles.

In 2014 ten modern hotels by international standards for 281 places are planned to open in Bukhara region.

Last year in the same region of Uzbekistan seven hotels were opened, thereby more than 160 places were created.

According to official figures, currently more than 1,500 people are employed in the tourism organizations, more than 1,300 are employed in the private travel agencies.

In Bukhara region besides the construction and reconstruction of hotel complexes special attention is paid to the development of new tourism destinations – ecotourism, agro-tourism, health tourism and the development of the popular tourist destinations of the ancient cities of Uzbekistan.

In 1993 Bukhara was included in UNESCO World Heritage List. And in 1997 under the auspices of UNESCO it was celebrated its 2500th anniversary. Today Bukhara offers its tourists to visit more than 400 archaeological and architecture monuments from the V century BC till the beginning of the last century. Annually only Bukhara State Architectural and Art Museum-Reserve is visited by about 415 thousand people.



At the moment, the interest of the world is being drawn to the great trans-continental routes of the ancient world. The Great Silk Road is a rich tapestry of tourism destinations and products based on the unique and outstandingly rich heritage, nature, and traditions of the dozens of distinct histories, peoples and cultures all along the timeless route, now extending a warm welcome to visitors.


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