Organic waste management; biogas micro-production

Table 1. Standard composition of biogas produced through anaerobic digestion [80

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Table 1. Standard composition of biogas produced through anaerobic digestion [80].

4. Proposed Biogas-Micro-Production Integrated System

This study aims to provide a domestic waterless toilet integrating an anaerobic biogas digester using basic and immediately available materials. The target is humanitarian camps and poor regions so that simplicity in the system assembly, easy-use, low cost and no maintenance need are of primary importance even if this generates some performance decrease [81]. In addition, the reuse of existing devices, e.g., tanks, and the recycle of materials, e.g., packaging, pipes, etc. is privileged. Globally, the system follows the general win–win strategy outlined in Section 1, simultaneously facing a sanitation issue through OWHB management while producing a useful secondary energy resource [13,67].

Starting from the configurations of Figure 2, the two-tank pattern is chosen, as in the fixed-dome digester, because it is simpler to build and more reliable than the other types. Two linked vessels are for OWHB digestion and the biogas collection and storage. Differently from the fixed-dome digester that uses masonry structures, cheaper and easy-moving tanks and jerry cans are used. They are typical relief items, common and immediately available devices within developing countries and humanitarian camps. The United Nations Humanitarian Response Depot (UNHRD) ships tanks of multiple shapes and capacities, e.g., from 5 to 200 litres, with humanitarian aid in almost all emergency response projects. Such tanks are collapsible and they have the same standard screwed top (diameter of 120 mm). Figure 3 presents the overview of the proposed anaerobic digester waterless toilet.

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