Morphology



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MORFOLOGIYA
NURBEK BI0LOGIYA, Bolalarning ismi otasining ismi, Syntex, Bolalarning ismi otasining ismi, 000c6a1c-c01317cf, TADBIRKORLIK TAQVIM 3-KURS, TADBIRKORLIK TAQVIM 3-KURS, TADBIRKORLIK TAQVIM 2-KURS, TADBIRKORLIK TAQVIM 2-KURS

Morphology

MORFEMALAR

  • Defined as, “a minimal unit of meaning”
  • Not the same as a syllable, which is a unit of sound (e.g., tuxedo has one morpheme and three syllables, while sixths has three morphemes and one syllable)
  • Not the same as a word, although a word can contain only one morpheme (e.g., tree, tuxedo)
  • Some morphemes are bound, meaning they can only appear attached to some other morpheme (e.g., -s, -ly, -un). Free morphemes can appear by themselves as words

ALLOMOFLAR

  • Defined as “a variant of morpheme;” variant can be in pronunciation and/or spelling
  • Examples:
    • Hymn, hymnal
    • -ible, -able, gullible/gullibility, usable
    • Electric/electricity
    • Condemn/condemnation

MORFEMA TURLARI

  • Derivational Morphemes form new words, often changing the word class (part of speech) - E.g., bake/baker, legal/legalize
  • Inflectional Morphemes make a different form of the same word, such as plural or past tense. The eight inflectional morphemes in English will be shown on the next slide.

SO`Z YASOVCHI MORFEMALAR

  • On Nouns:
    • Plural -s
    • Possessive -’s
  • On Verbs:
    • 3rd person singular present tense -s
    • Past tense -ed
    • Part participle -en
    • Present participle -ing
  • On Adjectives:
    • Comparative -er
    • Superlative -est

MORFEMA TURLARI

  • Affixation - adding an affix (prefix or suffix) to a root (e.g., en-list-ed)
  • Compounding - combining two or more roots in a single word (e.g., eggplant, greenhouse)
  • Internal Change - changing part of the root (e.g., sit/sat, foot/feet, mouse/mice)
  • Suppletion - changing the root completely (e.g., good/better, is/am)
  • Zero-Change - changing nothing (e.g., fish/fish, hit/hit)

SIFAT YASOVCHI QO`SHIMCHALAR

OT YASOVCHI QO`SHIMCHALAR

OT YASOVCHI QO`SHIMCHALAR

Still More Noun Affixes

OT VA TESKARI MA`NO ANGLATUVCHI QO`SHIMCHALAR

GAP BO`LAKLARI

  • Form Class Words
    • Also known as “Content Words” and “Open Class Words”
    • Have Semantic Content
    • Nouns, Verbs, Adjectives, and Adverbs
  • Structure Class Words
    • Also know as “Function Words” and “Closed Class Words”
    • Have a Grammatical Function
    • Pronouns, Articles, Prepositions, Auxiliaries…

THANK YOU FOR ATTENTION


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