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  Support for composition in other languages

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4.1.3.  Support for composition in other languages 

Composition is to some degree supported in object-oriented languages 


Part objects. C++ and Eiffel [Mey88] support part objects. In C++ a class attribute 

may be a instance of another class. In Eiffel it is a property of the class whether or not 

an instance of it is a part object. This means that all instances of a class are either part 

objects or referenced from other objects. They cannot be both. 


In BETA a part object may be an instance of any class and a part object may also be 

referenced from other objects. 


In BETA a part object may also bind virtual patterns


 in the object being instantiated 

and operations in the part object may thus have an effect upon the enclosing object. 

This is possible by combining a part object with block structure and singular objects. 

This feature is a useful alternative to multiple inheritance, which is further discussed in 

section 4.2. 


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