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5.2.5 A European descriptivism  


These three strands came together from the late 1960s, especially following a 

conference in Bratislava, Slovakia, in 1968 (see Holmes ed. 1970). Collective work was 

then carried out in the 1970s (see Holmes et al. eds. 1978), with some of the main 

scholars meeting as the Translation Committee of the International Comparative 

Literature Association. Toury (1978) built the bridge with Even-Zohar’s work on the 

way cultures develop. A series of influential papers by most of the scholars was then 

brought together in the volume The Manipulation of Literature (ed. Hermans 1985), and 

for some time the group was half-jokingly dubbed the “manipulation” school, although 

the term says very little about what they were doing.  

As the diverse backgrounds would suggest, this was far from a group of scholars 

sharing the same theories (see Hermans 1999 for a detailed survey). They would all 

nevertheless agree that a scientific approach should be used to find out about the world

rather than to evaluate or criticize what is found. They would thus more or less agree 

that the previous work on translation, including many of the theories elaborated within 

the equivalence paradigm, was “pre-scientific” (a harsh term, but it was used freely 

enough). And they all agreed, obviously, that translation was worth studying seriously

and that this opposed them in part to literary studies that had mostly seen translations as 

marginal products, inherently inferior to originals, and thus of little interest. As for the 

rest, each theorist’s precepts and interests tended to work in very different ways and on 

various different levels.  


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