Microsoft Word 05 descriptions doc



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expectations,” in the sense that they do not take account of the way people actually 

behave. When these expectations are defeated (we find that there are criminals), the 

legal norms do not adapt accordingly (criminals must still be punished, no matter how 

many criminals there are). Many expectancy norms concerning translations could be of 

this counterfactual kind. For example, no matter how often we find that translations are 

domesticating (or foreignizing, or explanatory, or full of shifts, etc.), users of 

translations might still insist that they should not be. If some norms are working like 

this, then the bottom-up counting of facts and frequencies will never connect with the 

social pronouncements of what is acceptable or unacceptable. This is one very basic 



reason why a descriptive approach to norms requires theoretical concepts. And that is 

another reason why, in turn, the descriptive paradigm is full of theories.  

Whenever theorists tell us about norms, we should ask exactly how they have 

discovered those norms. If bottom-up, the empirical patterns may not all have equal 

status as psychological or social facts. And if top-down, then we should ask where the 

theorist found the categories of analysis, and why.  

 


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