Lesson general information about cotton



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LESSON 2. General information about cotton




General information about cotton and its processing products
Cotton - the oldest cultural plant appeared almost simultaneously with the birth of agriculture. The native land of cotton is India, China and Egypt.
Cotton is a perennial plant belongs to the botanical genus Gossypium, the Malvian family; its individual forms are year-round fruiting, perennial shrubs and even trees reaching 5-7 m height. In culture, mostly low-growing forms are used - an annual plant.
The culture of cultivation of cotton leaves in a deep antiquity - the era of the Paleolithic.
The birthplace of cotton is India, many thousands of years ago, as stated in the Indian laws of Manu, clergymen used to decorate their divine robes with mesh gowns made of cotton thread. The ancient Greek historian Herodotus (Vat.BC.e.) wrote that the ancient Hindus wore clothes made of cotton fiber collected from wild plants, and then this fiber was called wood wool. India was the cradle of cotton, from which it spread westward to Iran, Turkey and to the east - to China and Japan. In Egypt, cotton was cultivated during the reign of the pharaohs.
According to the external (morphological) form, cotton is a well-branched bush with a height of 0.7 to 1.5 m., consisting of the main vertical stem (monopodial branch) and branches that branch off from it (simopodial branches - fruit), which carry leaves and flowers, from the latter are formed boxes of cotton. The period of development (vegetation) of cotton from sowing to harvesting in Central Asia continues for 100-150 days. A sufficiently large gradient of the vegetation period runaway is due to climatic conditions, since cotton should receive a sufficient amount of thermal energy to form a mature fiber. Cellulose is the carrier of the mechanical properties of the fiber, therefore, with the increase in the maturity of the fiber, its strength increases under the influence of internal, elastic forces, the fiber acquires a crimp, which determines its main valuable spinning property.
Cotton fiber serves as the main type of raw materials for textile, knitting and other industries of light industry. Cotton is very important for the national economy. There is no single branch of the national economy, wherever cotton or products of its processing are used.


Answer the questions:


  1. Where can we use cotton?

  2. From what polymers fibers are made?

  3. What polymers are called fiber-forming polymers?

  4. What features does cotton have?

  5. Have you got something made from cotton?



Vocabulary


Cultivation–yetishtirish - выращивание antiquity– qadimiy - антик
divine – ilohiy- божественный perennial–ko’p yillik - круглогодичный shrubs- butalar -кустарники
pharaohs- fir’avnlar- фараоны maturity- yetuklik – зрелость
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