Landscape design



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LANDSCAPE DESIGN

Landscape Architecture as a Career

A landscape architect is an individual who arranges and modifies the

effects of natural scenery over a tract of land so as to produce the

best aesthetic effect for the land^?s use. Landscape architecture is the

design profession which applies artistic, cultural, and scientific

knowledge to the design, planning, and development of the land.

Landscape architects accept certain responsibilities related to the

health and welfare of the public and are concerned with resource

conservation of the land. The practice of landscape architecture

requires an appreciation and understanding of natural and social

processes, a creative imagination, and a commitment to preserve or

improve the environment for human use and enjoyment.

Landscape architects plan the most harmonious relationships between the

land and the objects on it by proper combination of open space and

planting, and by wise use of land formation (Concise 151). They may

work on parks, gardens, housing projects, school campuses, golf courses,

or airports. They begin a project by reviewing the needs and desires of

the client. They study the site, mapping such features as the slope of

the land, existing structures and the type of soil. They check local

building codes and availability of utilities, make drawings which

outline the work in detail, and draw up lists of materials to be used.

They then invite bids from construction companies and landscape nursery

companies. With the awarding of the contracts, their work may be

finished, or they may stay on to supervise the work as their client^?s

representative (151).

A major branch of landscape architecture, golf course architecture,

integrates the skills of a landscape architect on a larger scale. The

aim a golf course architect is to create a truly great golf course by

utilizing to the fullest extent possible the potential of a promising

piece of land (Golfplan 1). This potential is expressed in the site^?s

location, slope, vegetation, water features, soil types, climate and

orientation. The role a golf course architect is the realization of

this potential under the constraints of design criteria that separate

the truly great golf course from the ordinary (1).

Landscape architecture, the science and art of modifying land areas by

organizing natural, cultivated, or constructed elements according to an

aesthetic plan (Encarta 1). The elements

include topographical features such as hills, valleys, rivers, and

ponds; and growing things such as

trees, shrubbery, grass, and flowers; and constructions such as

buildings, terraces, roads, bridges, fountains, and statuary. No

unalterable rules exist in landscape architecture because each plot of

ground offers unique problems caused by variation in contour, climate,

and surrounding areas (1).

As early as the third millennium BC, the Egyptians planted gardens

within the walled enclosures surrounding their homes (Encarta 2). In

Mesopotamia, the Hanging Gardens of Babylon were one of the Seven

Wonders of the World. In ancient Greece, sacred groves were preserved

as the habitats of divinities. Greek houses included a walled court or

garden usually surrounded by a colonnade. In 5th-Century BC, Athens

public gardens and colonnaded walks attached to the Academy (^?school^?)

and the Lyceum (^?gymnasium^?) were much frequented by philosophers and

their disciples (2).

Domestic architecture in the first half of the 20th Century attempted

to achieve a closer integration of the house with it^?s surroundings, as

seen in the works of Sven Markelius in Sweden, Alvar Aalto in Finland,

and Frank Lloyd Wright in the United States (Encarta 5). The worldwide

economic depression between the two world wars forced a shift from

domestic settings to large-scale public works, in which landscape

architects and planners worked together on entire communities, regional

areas, and vast state and national projects. The proliferation of

shopping malls, new suburbs, cultural centers, revitalized urban cores,

and new educational facilities, has given landscape architects in the

later decades of this century unparalleled opportunities to refine their

art and to create new forms. They have become, in conjunction with

their colleagues in architecture, engineering, planning, and public

office, the shapers of both the future and the present physical

environment (Encarta 5).

The origin of today^?s profession of landscape architecture can be

traced to the early treatments of outdoor space by successive ancient

cultures, from Persia and Egypt through Greece and Rome (ASLA 3).

During the Renaissance, this interest in outdoor space, which had waned

during the Middle Ages, was revived with splendid results in Italy and

gave rise to ornate villas, gardens, and great outdoor piazzas. The

history of the profession in North America begins with Fredrick Law

Olmsted, who rejected the name ^?landscape gardener^? in favor of the

title of ^?landscape architect,^? which he felt better reflected the scope

of the profession (3). The history of landscape architecture places it

where is today.

The career of a landscape architect requires the use of many job

characteristics. Many personal qualifications and qualities are

required to become a landscape architect. Creative ability,

appreciation of nature, talent in art and design, and the ability to

work in detail are important. Business ability is necessary for those

who intend to open their own landscape architectural firms (VGM 241).

Other helpful qualities for landscape architects include such things as

an enjoyment in working with their hands, good communication skills, an

ability to get along well with others, and problem solving skills

(Discover 4).

Physically, the career of a landscape architect is not very demanding.

Physical demands of a landscape architect include reaching, handling,

talking, hearing, close vision, depth perception, and adjustment to

darkness (Discover 5). Like any other job, landscape architecture has

it^?s advantages and disadvantages. Advantages of being a landscape

architect are working indoors and outdoors, traveling, working on a

variety of projects, and good employment opportunities. Some

disadvantages include having to keep redoing plans, working with a

limited budget, working overtime to meet projected deadlines, and

dealing with difficult or demanding clients (5).

Landscape architects usually work for firms that provide landscape

architecture services and other architectural firms (Discover 2). They

may also work for federal, state, and local governments or they may also

be self-employed. Landscape architects spend most of their time indoors

in offices. The remainder of their time is spent outdoors at the

sites. Those who work in large firms may spend more time out of the

office because of travel to sites outside the local area. Salaried

employees in this field usually work a 40 hour week; self employed

landscape architects often work much longer hours (VGM 240).

Landscape architectural salaries vary depending on the years of

experience, geographical location and type of position (Schauman 2).

The Economic Research Institute reported that the average starting

salary was $22,500 in 1996 for a landscape architect. The average

salary was $40,500 for all workers in this field and $54,500 for those

with experience (Discover 4). According to the US Department of Labor,

average annual salaries for landscape architects with the federal

government were $47,000 in 1994. Workers with master^?s degrees start at

about $27,000 (4). A landscape architect^?s fringe benefits will vary

depending upon whether they are employed by a firm or if they are self

employed.



LANSHAFT DIZAYNI

Landshaft arxitekturasi karyera sifatida

Landshaft me'mori - bu shaxsni tartibga soluvchi va o'zgartiradigan shaxs

tabiiy manzaraning er yuzidagi buklamalarga ta'siri

yer uchun eng yaxshi estetik ta'sir ^? s foydalanish. Landshaft arxitekturasi bu

badiiy, madaniy va ilmiy sohalarni qamrab oluvchi dizaynerlik kasbi

erni loyihalash, rejalashtirish va rivojlantirish bo'yicha bilimlar.

Peyzaj me'morlari ular bilan bog'liq muayyan majburiyatlarni qabul qiladilar

sog'liqni saqlash va aholi farovonligi va resurs bilan bog'liq

erni saqlash. Landshaft arxitekturasi amaliyoti

tabiiy va ijtimoiy tushunish va tushunishni talab qiladi

jarayonlar, ijodiy tasavvur va saqlash yoki saqlash majburiyati

inson hayoti va lazzatlanish uchun atrof-muhitni yaxshilash.

Peyzaj me'morlari o'rtasidagi eng uyg'un munosabatlarni rejalashtirmoqdalar

ochiq maydonchani va kombinatsiyani hisobga olgan holda er va undagi narsalar

ekish va erdan oqilona foydalanish orqali (151-xulosa). Ular mumkin

bog'lar, bog'lar, uy-joy loyihalari, maktab kampuslari, golf maydonchalarida ishlash

yoki aeroportlar. Ular loyihani ehtiyoj va istaklarini ko'rib chiqishdan boshlaydilar

mijoz. Ular saytning qiyaligi kabi xususiyatlarni xaritada o'rganadilar

er, mavjud tuzilmalar va tuproq turi. Ular mahalliy tekshiradilar

qurilish kodlari va yordam dasturlari mavjudligi, chizmalar tuzish

ishlarni batafsil bayon qiling va foydalaniladigan materiallar ro'yxatini tuzing.

Keyin ular qurilish kompaniyalari va peyzaj bog'chalari takliflarini taklif qiladilar

kompaniyalari. Shartnomalar topshirilishi bilan ularning ishi bo'lishi mumkin

tugagan, yoki ular mijoz sifatida ish nazorat qilish ustida qolish mumkin ^? s

vakili (151).

Landshaft arxitekturasining asosiy yo'nalishi, golf maydoni me'morchiligi,

peyzaj me'morining ko'nikmalarini kengroq miqyosda birlashtiradi. The

Golf maydonining me'mori bu chindan ham ajoyib golf maydonchasini yaratishdir

istiqbolli imkoniyatlardan maksimal darajada foydalanish

er uchastkasi ( Golfplan 1). Ushbu imkoniyat ^ s saytida ifodalangan

joylashishi, qiyaligi, o'simliklari, suv xususiyatlari, tuproq turlari, iqlimi va

yo'naltirish. Golf maydoni me'morining roli - bu amalga oshirish

ajratib turadigan dizayn mezonlari cheklangan sharoitlarda ushbu potentsial

oddiydan haqiqiy golf maydonchasi (1).

Landshaft arxitekturasi, er maydonlarini o'zgartirish bo'yicha fan va san'at

muvofiq tabiiy, madaniy yoki qurilgan elementlarni tashkil qilish

estetik reja (Encarta 1). Elementlar

tepaliklar, vodiylar, daryolar va topografik xususiyatlarni o'z ichiga oladi

hovuzlar; kabi o'sayotgan narsalar

daraxtlar, butalar, o'tlar va gullar; kabi inshootlar

binolar, teraslar, yo'llar, ko'priklar, favvoralar va haykallar. Yo'q

landshaft arxitekturasida o'zgarmas qoidalar mavjud, chunki har bir uchastka

zamin kontur, iqlim o'zgarishiga bog'liq noyob muammolarni taklif etadi.

va atrofdagi joylar (1).

Miloddan avvalgi uchinchi ming yillikning boshlarida misrliklar bog'larni ekishgan

uylari atrofidagi devor bilan o'ralgan panjaralar ichida (Encarta 2). Ichida

Mesopotamiya, Bobilning osilgan bog'lari ettitadan biri edi

Dunyo mo'jizalari. Qadimgi Yunonistonda muqaddas bog'lar saqlanib qolgan

Ilohiyotlarning yashash joyi sifatida. Yunon uylari devor bilan o'ralgan kortni yoki

bog 'odatda ustunlar bilan o'ralgan. Miloddan avvalgi 5-asrda Afina

jamoat bog'lari va akademiyaga biriktirilgan ustunli sayr ( ^? maktab ^?)

va litsey ( ^? gimnaziya ^?) faylasuflar tomonidan juda ko'p bo'lgan

ularning shogirdlari (2).

20-asrning birinchi yarmida mahalliy me'morchilikka urinib ko'rildi

u bilan uyning bir yaqinroq integratsiyaga erishish uchun ^? s atrofi, deb

Shvetsiyadagi Sven Markelius , Finlyandiyadagi Alvar Aalto asarlarida ko'rgan ;

va Frank Lloyd Rayt (AQShda) (Encarta 5). Dunyo bo'ylab

Ikki jahon urushi o'rtasidagi iqtisodiy tushkunlik, bir mamlakatdan chiqib ketishga majbur qildi

landshaft qaysi keng ko'lamli jamoat ishlarining ichki sozlamalari

me'morlar va rejalashtiruvchilar butun mintaqalarda, mintaqalarda birgalikda ishladilar

sohalar va ulkan davlat va milliy loyihalar. Ning tarqalishi

savdo markazlari, yangi shahar atrofi, madaniy markazlar, jonlangan shahar markazlari,

va yangi o'quv muassasalari, me'morlarga manzara berdi

asrning keyingi o'n yilliklarida ularni takomillashtirish uchun mislsiz imkoniyatlar

san'at va yangi shakllarni yaratish. Ular bilan birgalikda

arxitektura, muhandislik, rejalashtirish va jamoat sohasidagi hamkasblari

ofis, kelajak va hozirgi jismoniy narsalar haqida

atrof-muhit (Encarta 5).

Bugungi kunda kelib chiqishi ^? S landshaft arxitekturasi kasb bo'lishi mumkin

ketma-ket qadimgi tashqi makonni davolashning dastlabki usullarini ko'rib chiqish

Fors va Misrdan Yunoniston va Rim orqali madaniyatlar (ASLA 3).

Uyg'onish davrida, tashqi makonga bo'lgan qiziqish so'nib bordi

O'rta asrlarda Italiyada ajoyib natijalar bilan jonlandi va

bezatilgan villalar, bog'lar va katta ochiq piazzalar paydo bo'ldi. The

Shimoliy Amerikadagi kasb tarixi Fredrik qonunidan boshlanadi

Olmsted, kim " landshaft bog'bon" degan nomni rad etgan ? ning foydasiga

^ landshaft me'mori unvoni , ^? u o'zini yaxshiroq qamrab olganini his qildi

kasbning (3). Landshaft arxitekturasining tarixi uni o'ziga bag'ishlaydi

bugun qayerda

Landshaft me'morining martaba ko'p ishlarni talab qiladi

xususiyatlari. Shaxsiy fazilatlar va fazilatlar ko'p

peyzaj me'mori bo'lish uchun talab qilinadi. Ijodiy qobiliyat,

tabiatni qadrlash, san'at va dizayndagi iste'dod va qobiliyat

batafsil ishlash muhimdir. Ishbilarmonlik qobiliyati ular uchun zarurdir

o'zlarining landshaft arxitektura firmalarini ochmoqchi bo'lganlar (VGM 241).

Peyzaj me'morlari uchun boshqa foydali fazilatlarga quyidagilar kiradi

o'z qo'llari bilan ishlashdan zavqlanish, yaxshi muloqot qobiliyati, a

boshqalar bilan yaxshi til topishish va muammolarni hal qilish ko'nikmalari

(4-kashf).

Jismoniy jihatdan, peyzaj me'morining martaba juda talabchan emas.

Landshaft me'morining jismoniy talablari: erishish, ishlov berish,

gaplashish, eshitish, yaqin ko'rish, chuqur idrok qilish va unga moslashish

qorong'ilik (5-sonli kashf). Har qanday boshqa ish singari, landshaft arxitekturasi ham bor

Bu ^? s afzalliklari va kamchiliklari. Peyzaj bo'lishning afzalliklari

me'mori etiladi A ustida ish, sayohat, ichki va tashqi ish

turli loyihalar va yaxshi ish imkoniyatlari. Biroz

Kamchiliklari, a bilan ishlash rejalarini qayta rejalashtirishga to'g'ri keladi

cheklangan byudjet, belgilangan muddatlarni bajarish uchun ortiqcha ish vaqti va

qiyin yoki talabchan mijozlar bilan ishlash (5).

Landshaft me'morlari odatda peyzajni ta'minlaydigan firmalar uchun ishlaydi

arxitektura xizmatlari va boshqa me'moriy firmalar (Discover 2). Ular

federal, shtatlar va mahalliy hukumatlar uchun ishlashi mumkin yoki ular ham ishlashlari mumkin

o'z-o'zini ish bilan ta'minlash. Landshaft me'morlari ko'p vaqtlarini uyda o'tkazadilar

idoralarda. Qolgan vaqtlari ochiq havoda o'tkaziladi

saytlar. Yirik firmalarda ishlaydiganlar ko'proq vaqt sarflashlari mumkin

ofis tashqarisidagi saytlarga sayohat qilish sababli. Ish haqi

ushbu sohadagi xodimlar odatda haftasiga 40 soat ishlaydi ; Shaxsiy ishini yurituvchi

peyzaj me'morlari ko'pincha ancha uzoq vaqt ishlaydilar (VGM 240).

Landshaft arxitektura ish haqi yillarga qarab o'zgaradi

tajribasi, geografik joylashuvi va joylashish turi ( Schauman 2).

Iqtisodiy tadqiqotlar institutining ma'lum qilishicha, o'rtacha boshlang'ich ko'rsatkich

1996 yilda landshaft arxitektori uchun ish haqi 22,500 dollarni tashkil etgan. O'rtacha

ish haqi ushbu sohadagi barcha ishchilar uchun 40,500 AQSh dollari va ular uchun 54,500 dollarni tashkil etdi

tajriba bilan (Discover 4). AQSh Mehnat Departamentiga ko'ra,

federal bilan peyzaj me'morlari uchun o'rtacha yillik ish haqi

hukumat ustasi bilan 1994 xodimlari bilan $ 47.000 edi ^? s daraja da boshlanadi

taxminan 27000 dollar (4). A Peyzaj me'moriy ^? S qo'shimcha imtiyozlar farq qiladi



ularning firma tomonidan ishga olinishiga yoki ular o'zlariga bog'liqligiga bog'liq

ish bilan band.
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