In the life of the society of the divine savior according to the plans of father francis mary of the cross jordan

The Mission of the Collaborators and the Third Order

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4. The Mission of the Collaborators and the Third Order

in the Life of the Society of the Divine Savior
Father Jordan was distinguished by his incessant concern for deepening the faith and understanding its crucial role, in particular in the face of the violent upheavals and social transformations that took place in Europe in his time. The Founder of the male and female Salvatorian religious congregations appreciated the significance of the activity of lay people at a time of increasing liberalization of social life and considerable secularization in Western Europe. He was deeply convinced that in the face of the changes that were taking place lay people were called to deepen their living faith and to pass it on to the youth and children. However, Father Jordan did not want to confine his efforts to stressing the significance of the propagation of the faith or to living it consciously in the family circle, or even throughout the process of school education. Instead, he would frequently point to the importance of propagating the faith in the workshops, in places of recreation and in offices, as those were the places where individuals who performed responsible duties could profoundly influence young generations. He also called young people to spread the faith to others. Thus everyone was to feel responsible for a conscious experience of the crucial role of the faith and for spreading it in his or her milieu. It was to be done by both deepening one’s own living faith and spreading it, through apostolic activity, in various social settings. In the early years of the history of his apostolic Institute, Father Jordan appealed primarily to parents, teachers and educators to participate in the mission of spreading the Catholic faith consciously. However, owing to the universal character of his work, which in time was becoming more and more evident, the vocation to spread the knowledge of the Savior and to bring salvation to all the souls acquired a more open character and was to be undertaken by individuals from all the social classes.

Father Jordan would urge the faithful to employ various spiritual means in the apostolic mission they conducted in their lives, so that it would become more fruitful. Among them, was an encouragement for the faithful to seek good spiritual reading and to devote a fixed time to it systematically. Religious reading was to be done by them weekly. The focus of the early booklets was the significance of establishing reading groups, for instance in the families, in the places of work and in oratories. The proposal of reading in common was expressed in the Italian statutes (Società Apostolica Istruttiva of 1882), which might have referred to the idea and tradition of the oratory started by St. Philip Neri. In the statutes of the Apostolic Teaching Society published in German in 1882 we read about a “home service” (“Hausandacht”). In the Italian statutes of 1881 (Regolamenti Della Società Apostolica Istruttiva), we find two descriptions, namely, “encounters” („adunanze”) and “readings” (“letture”). In the early history of the Congregation, the significance of group reading was stressed, above all in reference to the family circle, where the basic message of the faith was transmitted. Subsequently, the transfer of the faith was to be integrated with the life of the entire parish. However, the question remains open whether group meetings were to be held also within the parish community. Together with the growth of the Congregation, in particular after 1883, encouragements to join the Third Order of St. Francis frequently appeared in the Salvatorian press, and at the same time the Third Order for lay people within the Congregation itself was formed. Yet the encouragements in question were not primarily addressed to the collaborators, but rather to the apostolically minded faithful. Among the significant apostolic tasks of lay collaborators, were religious reading and spreading the knowledge of books worth reading. Thus their apostolic activity contributed not only to the living of the faith, but also to setting a barrier against the enemy spiritual currents of the time. In particular, young people were to be continually instructed and educated, so that they could become mature Christians in the future. In the adult life, a mature “confession of the faith” was to provide an effective barrier against the growing secularization of all the domains of public life. In the Italian edition of the statutes for members of the Third Grade of 1881, we can even find a mention of the apostolic task given to young people: students and other young people were expected to provide religious instruction for the youth. That idea was indirectly conveyed in one of Father Jordan’s initial programmatic texts concerning the Societas Catholica, where we read that young people not only have their own place in the work he has designed, but that they are entrusted with an apostolic mission. Even the children sodality, the Angel Sodality, was seen as a way of making new apostles: both religious and lay ones.

The prayer undoubtedly constitutes the spiritual foundation of the Congregation. Its essential significance was stressed, in reference to members of all the three grades, already in the earliest history of the Congregation. In the face of a fast growth of the Salvatorian religious communities the request for financial support for the religious institute was frequently made. The lay collaborators were expected to awaken and support the new vocations to the Congregation. The Short Instruction published in 1883 encouraged the collaborators to send their reports to Rome, and to describe in them the apostolic works they had undertaken for the sake of the growth of the Congregation. In return, the Society was committed to offer them spiritual support and direction, as well as to remember about them in the Salvatorian prayers.

The Founder and those who closely cooperated with him found it important to guide the collaborators in such a way as to make them bind their living faith with the practice of every day life. Therefore, in various editions of the Salavatorian statutes for lay people, attention is focused on the substantial role of the use of the Sacrament of Penance. Also receiving the Holy Communion frequently was stressed, although in those days it was not a universal practice yet. The statutes included also special religious reflection for Sunday and for the days on which the Holy Communion was received. It was to contribute to awakening and revitalizing the apostolic spirit of the lay members of the Congregation. They were also admonished to receive the Holy Communion in a dignified way, and in the case of families, to receive it together. In that way, the families were to demonstrate that they nourished the spirit of the faith. The Society put a lot of weight to celebrating Sunday and to participation in the life of the Church. The latter was to be expressed by means of the testimony of the faith, by being open to the needs of the Church, as well as by joining in the prayer for the whole Church. The purpose of all those activities was to help lay people sanctify their everyday lives, which was to manifest itself in their performance of the duties that belonged to them. In their attitudes, they were to demonstrate the apostolic dimension of their personal vocations. The stress on the significance of the pursuit of holiness was even stronger in the encouragement to join the Third Order. Its members were to feel connected with the two religious branches of the Congregation, namely, with the First and the Second Order, by accepting specific suggestions, such as those of daily meditation (for half an hour or for a quarter of an hour), monthly or yearly spiritual concentration days, prayers prescribed for each day, including certain parts of the liturgical prayer of the Church, encouragement to use the sacrament of Penance frequently (every fortnight, or even more often, that is on every eighth day). The apostolic tasks of the members of the Third Order were not described in greater detail though, but undoubtedly great zeal and devotion to the life and growth of the Congregation were expected.

Thus we can distinguish some clear lines of action drawn by Father Jordan and his closest collaborators. Entrusting lay people with an apostolic mission was a response to the threats to religious life brought by some destructive intellectual trends, by growing secularization and by the attitudes of religious indifference. The Founder and his closest collaborators saw the good and the bad side of the mass media of the time, and their purpose was to warn lay people of the latter and prepare them for a spiritual confrontation with the growing wave of destructive changes in the life of the society. That role was undertaken by the periodical Der Missionär. In every issue, its editors would include accurate evaluations of the Church life and of the life of the society, with a focus on the significance of missions and of the apostolate of lay people. Therefore, it was also pointed that those who wanted to join the Society should be concerned in the first instance about a deeper understanding of their own living faith. That concern was the foundation on which their aspirations to conduct an apostolic mission rested. It was also the foundation of their readiness to give a public testimony to their faith and to struggle against the negative results of the growing process of secularization. Ultimately, it was the foundation on which their conscious contribution to the life of the Church could be made. Thus, in the efforts of Father Jordan and of those who cooperated with him closely, we perceive an attempt at creating a spiritual and apostolic unity among all the newly created Salvatorian groups: that unity was to be built above all on prayer, but also on the apostolate of the press and on supporting one another in the realization of the particular apostolates.

To conclude our reflection on Father Jordan’s vision of the participation of lay people in his work, let us make the following observation: The foundation of the Union of Salvatorian Collaborators and of the Third Order grew out of Father Jordan’s fundamental desire to revitalize the faith and strengthen its significance in the life of the society of his time, during a period of violent transformation. The youth were to be guided towards a conscious experience of the faith, and it was for that purpose that the wide masses of the apostolically and missionary minded Christians who felt closely bound with the Church were to be formed.91

1 Cf. S. C. L. Threser, SDS, Francis Jordan’s Apostolic Vision - a Light for Living in the New Millennium, in: Salvatorian Key Elemnts, Part I, p. 27.

2 Spiritual Diary, I, p. 1.

3 Ibid., p. 82f.

4 Spiritual Diary, II, p. 166.

5 Ibid., p. 182.

6 Spiritual Diary, I, p. 192-193.

7 Ibid, p. 202.

8 Spiritual Diary, II, p. 1-2.

9 Ibid. p. 12, 34, 43 (Dec. 17, 1902).

10 Spiritual Diary, I, p. 79.

11 Ibid,. p. 145.

12 Ibid., p. 149.

13 Ibid.

14 Ibid., p. 151.

15 Ibid., p. 152.

16 Cf. ibid., p. 153.

17 Ibid., p. 154.

18 Ibid., p. 151 a.

19 Ibid.

20 APS, E 1201. The text “Societas catholica” was published in DSS II, pp. 17-22.

21 APS, F 50,3.1; text published in: Documenta et Studia Salvatoriana (DSS) XX.II, pp. 8-9.

22 Spiritual Diary I, p. 157*.

23 Cf. A. Kiełbasa, Ksiądz Franciszek Maria od Krzyża Jordan (1848-1918) założyciel Salwatorianów. Jego idee, plany i realizacja [Father Francis Mary of the Cross Jordan (1848-1918) Founder of the Salvatorians. His Ideas Plans and Realization] Cracow 1994, p. 97-99.

24 Ibid., p. 125.

25 Ks. A. Kiełbasa SDS, Ksiądz Franciszek Maria od Krzyża Jordan, ss. 129-134.

26 See: Father Jordan and Laity. An Historical Overview. A Working Paper for the Fourteenth General Chapter 1987 (The International Historical Commission); A. Kiełbasa, SDS, op. cit., p. 113, footnote. 14.

27 Sodalizio Angelico, Costituzioni, 1885; text published in DSS II, p. 285.

28 See: The testimony of Fr. D. Daunderer, Ex Processu Rogatoriali Passaviensi, Summarium, § 583.

29 “Viris Academicis Societatis Catholicae Instructivae. Propositum et Adhortatio”, Nuntius Romanus (Annus III), Romae1884, p. 35-36; Statutum Academiae Societatis Catholicae Instructivae, Romae die 8 Februarii 1884, Petrus Archiepiscopus Carthaginensis; see: ibid., p. 36-38; the statute was also published as a booklet Romae Typis Societatis Catholicae Instructivae, in: APS, E 1243; text published in: DSS II, p. 265-267.

30 See: Statutum Academiae Societatis Catholicae Instructivae sub coelesti protectione Beatae Virginis Mariae Reginae Apostolorum, Romae 1890, in: APS, E 1244 b; text published in: DSS II, p. 279-281.

31 See: Statuten für die Mitarbeiter & Mitarbeiterinnen der katholischen Lehrgesellschaft, Rom 1883, in: APS, E 1232; stampati in DSS II, p. 175-194; Regolamento per i Cooperatori e le Cooperatrici della Società Cattolica Istruttiva, Roma 1883, in: APS, E 1233; text published in: DSS II, p. 211-234.

32 Cf. Fr. A. Kiełbasa, Salwatorianie z ziem polskich w latach 1881-1903 [Salvatorians from the Polish terrirory in the period from 1881 to 1903], Wrocław 1998, p. 67.

33 See: “Der dritte Orden des hl. Franziskus, Der Missionär 3 (1883), No. 10 (27. May), p. 119; „Die neue Constitution unseres hl. Vaters Leo XIII. Über den dritten Orden des hl. Franziskus,“ Der Missionär 3 (1883), No. 13 (8. July), p. 149-152; No. 14 (29. July), s. 161-164.

34 Cf. T. Edwein, Der junge Gründer 1878-1886, p. 441; A. Kiełbasa, Salwatorianie z ziem polskich, p. 69f.

35 Father Jordan formulated the following request: “Sacerdos J. B. Jordan Director Generalis Societatis Catholicae Instructivae humiliter supplicat ut Paternitas Vestra Revma dignetur ipsi concedere facultatem adscribendi Tertio Ordini S. Francisci sodales utriusque sexus eiusdem Societatis, necnon illos qualiqua ratione eidem societati adscripti sunt”, and he received the following reply: “Indulgemus juxta preces quandiu Orator in munere Directoris glis praefatae Societatis legitime perduraverit. Romae, die 7 Octobris anni 1883”; in: APS, E 34; cf. T. Edwein, Der junge Gründer 1878-1886, p. 441.

36 Il Monitore Romano, No. 24 (1884), p. 191.

37 See: Kurze Instruction für die Hochwürdigen Herren Orts-Direktoren der III. Stufe der katholischen Lehrgesellschaft in Deutschland und Oesterreich, Rom, im Advent des Jahres 1883; text published in: DSS II, p. 237-239. There is also another instruction in Latin: Instructio Brevis ad Reverendos Directores Locales Cooperatorum et Cooperatricum Societatis Catholicae Instructivae, text published in: DSS II, p. 243f.

38 Ibid.

39 See: Breve Istruzione per gli Zelatori e le Zelatrici della Società Cattolica Istruttiva, Il Monitore Romano, No. 21 (1883), p. 167f.

40 Various statutes intended for lay collaborators and stored in the General and Postulation Archives were published in: DSS XI.I. See: Mitarbeiter der kathol. Lehrgesellschaft, p. 271f.; Statuto per i Cooperatori e per le Cooperatrici ossia per i Soci del III. Grado della Società Cattolica Istruttiva, Roma 1884, p. 273-276; Diploma Aggregationis pro Cooperatoribus Catholicae Instructivae, p. 278; Aufnahmsdiplom für die Mitarbeiter der katholischen Lehrgesellschaft, p. 279; Diploma di aggregazione fra i Cooperatori della Società Cattolica Istruttiva, p. 281; Statuten für die Mitarbeiter und Mitarbeiterinnen der katholischen Lehrgesellschaft, 1888, p. 289-292; Diplome D’Admission pour les Coopérateurs et les Coopératrices de la Société Catholique Instructive, p. 295; Instruction pour les Coopérateurs et les Coopératrices de la Société Catholique Instructive, p. 296; Für die Mitglieder der III Stufe oder die Mitarbeiter & Mitarbeiterinnen der kathol. Lehrgesellschaft, p. 297-300; I Cooperatori della Società del Divin Salvatore, p. 301-304; Statuten der Mitarbeiter der Gesellschaft des Göttlichen Heilandes, p. 305-308; Statuten für die Mitarbeiter der Gesellschaft des Göttlichen Heilandes, p. 317-320; Die Mitarbeiter der Gesellschaft des göttl. Heilandes, p. 321-324; 325-328; 329-332; Die grossen Wohltäter der Gesellschaft des Göttlichen Heilandes, p. 333-336; 337-340; Statut dla współpracowników i współpracowniczek katolickiego towarzystwa naukowego, p. 343-346.

41 See: “Gedanken über das Laien-Apostolat”, Der Missionär 4 (1884), No 1 (13 January), p. 7-9; No. 4 (24 February), p. 43; No. 9 (11 May, p. 106f.; No. 17 (14 September), p. 159; „Einladung zum Beitritt zur III. Stufe der katholischen Lehrgesellschaft, (Mitarbeiter oder Mitarbeiterinnen der kath. Lehrg.,” Der Missionär 4 (1884), No. 1 (13. January), p. 9f.; Kurze Instruktion für die Förderer der katholischen Lehrgesellschaft, ibid., p. 10; Quest’ultima istruzione fu già stampata nell’anno precedente, Der Missionär 3 (1883), No. 21 (11 November), p. 250f.

42 “III. Stufe der katholischen Lehrgesellschaft. Bitte, einen Schritt näher”; Der Missionär 4 (1884), No. 21 (9 November), p. 241-243.

43 Cf. Der Missionär 4 (1884), No. 11 (8 June), p. 131; No. 24 (28 December), p. 286.

44 Cf. A. Kiełbasa, Salwatorianie z ziem polskich, p. 68.

45 See: “Die Kinder und die Zeitschrift «Manna», das neue Organ der katholischen Lehrgesellschaft für die Kinder,“ Der Missionär, 4 (1884), No. 1 (13 January), p. 5f.

46 Cf. Der Missionär 4 (1884), No. 18 (28 September), p. 214; Der Missionär 4 (1884), No. 23 (14 December), p. 276.

47 Cf. The testimony of Fr. C. Sonntag, Ex Processu Rogatoriali Passaviensi, Summarium, § 352.

48 Cf. ibid., §§ 375-376.

49 Cf. The testimony of Fr. H. Benz, Ex Processu Rogatoriali Passaviensi, Summarium, §§ 949-950.

50 Cf. The Testimony of Fr. M. M. Wambacher, Ex Processu Rogatoriali Paderbonensi, Summarium, § 1207.

51 Cf. A. Kiełbasa, Salwatorianie z ziem polskich, p. 68.

52 Cf. „Engel-Bündniss,” Der Missionär, 4 (1884), No. 24 (28 December), p. 278.

53 Cf. “Ein Brief unseres Ehrwürdigen Paters an die Kinder” (Rom, am heil. Weihnachtsfest 1884); Manna für Kinder 2 (1885), No. 1, p. 1-3.

54 See: “Das Engelbündniss für Kinder. Regel,” ibid., p. 3-5.

55 Cf. „Mitglieder des Engelbündnisses! Kennt ihr auch die 5 Punkte eurer Regel gut auswendig? Befolgt ihr sie auch genau?,” Manna für Kinder 2 (1885), No. 3, p. 21.

56 Cf. “Engelbündniss,” Manna für Kinder 2 (1885), No. 5, p. 33.

57 Cf. “Das Engelbündniss für Kinder. Was das Gebet dabei soll,” Manna für Kinder 2 (1885), No. 5, p. 37-38; No. 6, p. 47f.; No. 7; p. 54; No. 8, p. 60.

58 Cf. Manna für Kinder 2 (1885), No. 1, p. 5.

59 Cf. “Engelbündniss. (Sodalitium angelicum. Kinder-Verein der katholischen Lehrgesellschaft)”, Der Missionär, 5 (1885), No. 1 (11 January), p. 3-7; “Engelbündniss”, No. 3 (8 February), p. 33; “Förderer, Mitarbeiter und Engelbündniss”, No. 4 (22 February), p. 42f., 44f.; Das “Manna” für Kinder, No. 22 (29. November), p. 261f..

60 Cf. Il Monitore Romano, 5 (1885), No. 1 (1 Dom. di Gen.), p. 5-7.

61 Cf. Il Monitore Romano, 5 (1885), No. 4 (3 Dom. di Feb.), p. 32.

62 See: “Liebe Kinder! (P. Jordan. Rom, am Feste der unbefleckten Empfängniss Mariä 1885), Manna für Kinder 2 (1885), No. 24, p. 185f.

63 See: Costituzione del Sodalizio Angelico, in: APS, E 1246; for the text of the Constitutions in Italian see: DSS II, p. 285-288; for the text of the Constitutions in German see: DSS II, p. 291-294).

64 See: Costituzione ed Approvazione Canonica del Sodalizio Angelico, Il Monitore Romano 6 (1886), No. 17 (2 Dom. di Sett.), p. 134f.; “Ein wichtiger Fortschritt des Engelbündnisses. Konstitution des Engelbündnisses. Dekret (L. M. Kardinal [Parocchi]), Manna für Kinder 3 (1886), No. 17, p. 129-132; “Kanonische Errichtung des Engelbündnisses in Rom”, Der Missionär 6 (1886), No. 17 (12 September), p. 195-197.

65 See: Costituzione del Sodalizio Angelico, in: APS, E 1246.

66 Cf. Ordinationes Primi Capituli Generalis, p. 11.

67 Regula Tertii Ordinis Saecularis Societatis Catholicae Instructivae, Romae, 1885, in: APS, E 1236; text published in: DSS II, p. 253-255.

68 Those appeals and cards from Father Jordan, addressed to the lay collaborators and benefactors, were published in the Salvatorian magazines. Cf. Il Monitore Romano 6 (1886), p. 185; APS, E 238. The cards were also published in leaflets. See: Theurer und geliebte Wohlthaeter! Rom, den 1. Januar 1888. P. Fr. vom Kreuze Jordan, in: APS, E 222; Geliebte Freunde und Wohlthaeter! Teure Mitaerbeiter und Förderer! (Rom, Borgo Vecchio, im Advent 1893. Ihr ergebenster Diener P. Jordan, in: APS, E 226.

69 See: APS, E 122.

70 See: APS, E 125 (in Italian); APS, E 123 (in German); APS, E 124 (in Polish).

71 See: APS, E 127.

72 See: APS, E 128 (in Italian).

73 APS, E 130, 131, 132, 134, 135 136.

74 See: Ein internationales Mutterhaus für die katholische Lehrgesellschaft in der heiligen Stadt Rom (in January 1888; APS, E 137); Hochwürdiger Herr Confrater! (1 March 1888; APS, E 138); Hochwürdiger Herr! (16 March 1888; APS, E 139); La Società Cattolica Istruttiva. Cattolici (March 1888; APS, E 140); Hochwürdige Frau Oberin! (March 1888; APS, E 141); “stone pictures” made in 1888 (APS, E 142,143).

75 See: Die Förderer oder Förderinnen erhalten ein eigenes mit dem Stempel der Gesellschaft versehenes, auf ihren Namen lautendes Diplom von der Generaldirection der Gesellschaft ausgesteilt; Kurze Instruction für die Förderer (Förderinnen) der Katholischen Lehrgesellschaft (September 1888), in: APS, E 146; published in: DSS XI.I, p. 285-288; for other diplomas see: APS, E 102.18; published in: DSS XI.I, p. 283; APS, E 102.2.

76 See: Kurze Instruction für die Förderer und Förderinnen der katholischen Lehrgesellschaft (APS, E 102.6); Instruction pour les Coopérateurs et les Coopératrices de la Société Catholique Instructive (APS, E 102.9); Sammelliste für die Förderer & Förderinnen der kath. Lehrgesellschaft (APS, E 102.7); quest’ultimo cfr. Collezione dei Documenti, No. 6.

77 Cf. A. Kiełbasa, Salwatorianie z ziem polskich, p. 70.

78 Cf. ibid.

79 Cf. Die grossen Wohltäter der Gesellschaft des Göttlichen Heilandes; text published in: DSS XI.I, p. 335.

80 See: La Società Cattolica Istruttiva (Brevi Cenni) (1894), in: APS, E 166.

81 See: APS, E 1242; for the text of Regulae Tertiariorum Societatis Divini Salvatoris see: APS, E 1240; also other texts can be found there, see: III Ordo Societatis Divini Salvatoris (APS, E 1239); Regeln der Tertiarier der Gesellschaft des göttlichen Heilandes (APS, E 1241 a e b).

82 See: Ordinationes Primi Capituli Generalis Societatis Divini Salvatoris, Romae a die 5 Oct. usque ad diem 19 Oct. Celebrati 1902, p. 36, text published in: DSS XI.I, p. 11; the quotation translated after: A. Kiełbasa, Salwatorianie z ziem polskich, p. 69.

83 In 1903 he wrote in his circular letter: “Langjährige Erfahrung hat uns aber gezeigt, dass gerade Mitarbeiter einer der wirksamsten und dauerndsten Mittel ist, dieses Ziel zu erreichen”; Rundbrief, 25 April 1903; text published in: T. Edwein, Der Gründer und sein Werk in der Bewährung: Ausbreitung und Krise 1898-1906, V. II, DSS XVI.II, Rom-Zug-Steinfeld 1985, p. 458, footnote 5.

84 See: The Testimony of Fr. P. M. Pabst, Ex Processu Ordinario Romano, Summarium, § 134.

85 See: The Testimony of Fr. G. Bürger, Ex Processu Rogatoriali Passaviensi, Summarium, §§ 297-298.

86 See: The Testimony of Fr. C. Sonntag, Ex Processu Rogatoriali Passaviensi, Summarium, § 425.

87 Cf. ibid., § 442.

88 See: The Testimony of Fr. O. Forster, Ex Processu Rogatoriali Passaviensi, Summarium, § 512.

89 See: The Testimony of Fr.D. Daunderer, Ex Processu Rogatoriali Passaviensi, Summarium, §§ 615-616.

90 See: The Testimony of Fr. H. Kreutzer, Ex Processu Rogatoriali Paderbonensi, Summarium, § 1293.

91 See: S. Horn SDS, „Zum Auftrag der Mitarbeiter und des Dritten Ordens In der salvatorianischen Gemeinschaft. Eine erste Untersuchung der frühen Statuten und Werbeschriften“ (unpublished article, APS, Rome).

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