I. Find out the words in the dictionary. Write them down and learn



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U N I T 1

I. Find out the words in the dictionary. Write them down and learn.

phenomenon, nature, natural, to depend on (upon), knowledge,

theory, to devise, accurate, to formulate, law, to predict, on the basis

of, to correlate, distinct, to merge, to deal with, in terms of, matter,

hence, concept, to determine, characteristics, to govern, transforma-

tion, to exist, to indicate, investigation, to situate, to surround, to

revolve, stable, solid, gas, liquid, plasma



II. Read the text. Use a dictionary, if necessary.

TEXT: «WHAT IS PHYSICS»?

Physics is one of the most ancient sciences about nature. The word «physics» takes its origin from the Greek word «phewsis» meaning nature. The development of other sciences depends in many respects on the knowledge of physical phenomena. Physics studies various phenomena in nature: mechanical motion, heat, sound, electricity, magnetism and light. Physics divides itself very naturally into two great branches, experimental physics and theoretical physics. The former is the science of making observations and devising experiments which give us accurate knowledge of the actual behaviour of natural phenomena. On the basis of experimental facts theoretical physics formulates laws and predicts the behaviour of natural phenomena. Every physical law is based on experiments and is devised to correlate and to describe accurately these experiments. The wider the range of experience covered by such a law, the more important it is. Physics is divided into half a dozen or more different fields – mechanics, sound, heat, electricity and magnetism, light, molecular, atomic and nuclear physics. These different fields are not distinct but merge into each other. In all cases physics deals with phenomena that can be accurately described in terms of matter and energy. Hence, the basic concepts in all physical phenomena are the concepts of matter and energy. And it is important to determine accurately the characteristics of both matter and energy, the laws that govern their transformations, and the fundamental relations that exist between them. Matter. Every substance саn be divided into particles known as molecules. Chemical reactions indicate that the molecules are composed of smaller units, or atoms. Modern physical methods of investigation have shown that the atom consists of a centrally situated nucleus with a total positive charge surrounded by a number of electrons which revolve about the nucleus. In a stable atom, the total positive charge of the nucleus is equal to the total negative charge of the electrons which surround the nucleus. The total electrical charge is zero and this is the conventional state of most atoms. Matter can exist in four states: solid, gas, liquid and plasma.

III. Define the part of speech of the following words and translate

them into Uzbek.

a) physics – physicist – physical

nature – naturalist – natural

experiment – experimentalist – experimental

theory – theorist – theoretical

chemistry – chemist – chemical

observation – observer – observational

transformation – transformer – transformable

indication – indicator – indicative

b) accurate – accurately

mechanical – mechanically

natural – naturally

actual – actually

central – centrally

positive – positively

negative – negatively

IV. Translate the following word combinations and noun groups into Uzbek.

1. one of the most ancient sciences __________________________

2. takes its origin _______________________________________

3. the development of other sciences ________________________

4. the knowledge of physical phenomena _____________________

5. the former ___________________________________________

6. on the basis of experimental facts _________________________

7. predicts the behaviour of natural phenomena ________________

8. to describe accurately __________________________________

9. half a dozen or more different fields _______________________

10. deals with phenomena _________________________________

11. to determine accurately the characteristics _________________

12. the fundamental relations that exist between them ___________

V. Analyse the structure of the following sentences.

1. Modern physical methods of investigation have shown that the atom consists of a centrally situated nucleus with a total positive charge surrounded by a number of electrons which revolve about the nucleus.

2. In a stable atom, the total positive charge of the nucleus is equal to the total negative charge of the electrons which surround the nucleus.

VI. Fill in the missing words.

1. Physics is one of the most ancient _____ about nature.

2. The development of other sciences _____ in many respects on the knowledge of physical phenomena.

3. Physics divides itself very naturally into two great branches:

experimental physics and _____ physics.

4. Experimental physics gives us _____ knowledge of the actual _____ of natural phenomena.

5. On the basis of experimental facts theoretical physics formulates _____.

6. Physics deals with phenomena that can be accurately described in terms of _____ and _____.

7. It is important to determine accurately the _____ of both matter and energy, the _____ that _____ their transformations.

8. Every substance can be divided into _____ known as molecules.

9. Modern physical methods of _____ have shown that the atom consists of a centrally situated _____ surrounded by a number of _____.

10. In a stable atom, the total positive charge of the nucleus _____ to the total negative charge of the electrons.

11. Matter can _____ in four states: solid, gas, liquid and plasma.

VII. Fill in the prepositions if necessary.

1. Physics is one ___ the most ancient sciences ___ nature.

2. The development of other sciences depends ___ many respects ___ the knowledge ___ physical phenomena.

3. Physics divides itself very naturally ___ two great branches, experimental physics and theoretical physics.

4. ___ the basis ___ experimental facts theoretical physics formulates laws.

5. In all cases physics deals ___ phenomena that can be accurately described ___ terms of matter and energy.

6. The atom consists ___ a centrally situated nucleus ___ a total positive charge surrounded ___ a number ___ electrons.

7. Electrons revolve ___ the nucleus.

8. In a stable atom the total positive charge of the nucleus is equal ___ the total negative charge ___ the electrons.

VIII. Define whether the sentences are true or false.

1. Physics is a modern science about nature.

2. The word «physics» takes its origin from the Latin word meaning nature.

3. Physics studies various phenomena in nature.

4. Physics divides itself very naturally into three great branches.

5. Theoretical physics is the science of making observations and devising experiments.

6. On the basis of experimental facts theoretical physics makes observations.

7. Physics deals with phenomena that can be described in terms of matter and energy.

8. The atom consists of a centrally situated electron surrounded by a number of protons.

IX. Practice with someone asking and answering.

1. What is physics?

2. Where does the word «physics» take its origin?

3. What phenomena does physics study?

4. What knowledge does the development of other sciences depend on?

5. What branches does physics divide itself into?

6. What is experimental physics?

7. What does theoretical physics formulate on the basis of experimental facts?

8. What fields is physics divided into?

9. What phenomena does physics deal with?

10. Every substance can be divided into particles known as molecules, can’t it?

11. What does the atom consist of?

12. What is the total electrical charge of an atom?

XI. Put the question to the following statements.

1. Physics is one of the most ancient sciences about nature.

2. Physics studies various phenomena in nature.

3. Every substance can be divided into particles.

XII. Dictate the following statements in English to your fellowstudents.

1. Physics studies various phenomena in nature: mechanical motion, heat, sound, electricity, magnetism and light.

2. On the basis of experimental facts theoretical physics formulates laws and predicts the behaviour of natural phenomena.

3. In all cases physics deals with phenomena that can be accurately described in terms of matter and energy.

4. The atom consists of a centrally situated nucleus with a total positive charge surrounded by a number of electrons.



UNIT 2

I. Find out the words in the dictionary. Write them down and learn.

observation, measurement, to put in order, to obtain, length,

area, volume, velocity, density, to indicate, to divide, quantity, there-

fore, to derive from, unit, to convert, a shift, decimal, to define, to

reproduce

II. Read the text. Use the dictionary, if necessary.

TEXT: «UNITS OF MEASUREMENT»

Real science has various recognised steps. It always begins with observation followed by classification and measurement. Classification has become the first step towards understanding of a new phenomenon. Phenomena have to be put in some order before anything can be done with them. Measurement is one further step in the process of putting them in order. It is only by measurement that new knowledge enters science. Much of physics deals with measurements of physical quantitiesm such as length, time, velocity, area, volume, mass, density, temperature and energy. Many of these quantities are interrelated. For example, density is mass divided by volume. Most of the physical quantities are related to length, time and mass. Therefore all the systems of physical units are derived from these three fundamental units. Practically there are three main systems of measurement in use today: the British system of units, the metric system of units and the (International) System of Units (SI). With a few exceptions nearly all the nations of the world use the metric system. The value of the MKS (metre-kilogram-second) system is that its various units possess simple and logical relationships among themselves, while the British system (the f. p. s. – foot-pound-second) is a very complicated one. For example, in the British system 1 mile is equal to 1,760 yards; 1 yard is equal to 3 feet, and 1 foot is equal to 12 inches. In the English system converting one unit into another is a hard and monotonous job, while in the MKS system conversions of one unit to another can be carried out by shifts of a decimal point (comma in Uzbek writing). The standard metre of the world was originally defined in terms of the distance from the north pole to the equator. This distance is close to 10,000 kilometres or 10 7 metres. In fact, the SI Units is an internationally agreed coherent system of units derived from the MKS system. The seven basic units in it are: the metre (m), kilogram (kg), second (s), ampere (a), Kelvin (K), mole mol), and candle (свеча) (cd).

Note. 107 metres – ten to the seventh power metres

III. Define the parts of speech of the following words and translate them.

a) real – reality, scientific – science, various – variety, observable –

observation, measurable – measurement, possible – possibility, physi-

cal – physics, quantitative – quantity, derivable – derivation, valuable –

value, coherent – coherence;

b) precise – precisely, fundamental – fundamentally, practical –

practically, main – mainly, near – nearly, simple – simply, logical – log-

ically, equal – equally, monotonous – monotonously, original – origi-

nally, international – internationally, basic – basically.

IV. Find Uzbek equivalents to the following expressions in the text.

1. observation followed by classification and measurement _______

2. the first step towards understanding _______________________

3. have to be put in some order _____________________________

4. new knowledge enters science ___________________________

5. much of physics deals with ______________________________

6. are related to length, time and mass ________________________

7. are in use today _______________________________________

8. the value of MKS system _______________________________

9. possess simple and logical relationships ____________________

10. was originally defined _________________________________

V. Find the sentences that can’t be found in the text.

1. Unit is a quantity adopted as a standard of measurement.

2. By measurement it is possible to indicate precisely what has to

be done to reproduce given conditions and obtain a desired result.

3. The second is a unit for measuring time in all the systems.

4. Most of the physical quantities are related to length, time and

mass, therefore all the system of physical units are derived from these

three fundamental units.

5. Practically there are three main system of measurement in use today.

6. In the English system converting one unit into another is a hard

and monotonous job, while in the MKS system conversions of one unit

to another can be carried out by shifts of a decimal points.

7. Inch is less than foot is.

8. 11.500 cubic feet is the measure of volume.



VII. Fill in the missing words.

1. Real science always begins with observation ________ by clas-

sification and _________.

2. Much of physics deals with measurement of physical _____ such as

length, time, velocity, area, volume, mass, density, temperature and energy.

3. Many of these quantities are _______.

4. ______ is mass divided by volume.

5. ______, ______, _______ are three fundamental units.

6. With a few exceptions nearly all the nations of the world

use ______ ______.

7. Various units of the MKS system _____ simple and logical ______

among themselves.



VIII. Fill in the preposition if necessary.

1. Real science always begins ____ observation followed ____ clas-

sification and measurement.

2. Classification has become the first step towards understanding ____

a new phenomenon.

3. Phenomena have to be put ____ some order before anything can

be done ____ them.

4. Measurement is one further step in the process ___ putting them

in order.

5. It is only ___ measurement that new knowledge enters ___ science.

6. Much of physics deals ___ measurements ___ physical quantities.

7. Most of the physical quantities are related ___ length, time and

mass. Therefore all the system of physical units are derived ___ these

three fundamental units.

8. There are three main system of measurement ___ use today.

9. The standard metre of the world was originally defined in terms

of the distance ___ the north pole ___ the equator.

10. This distance is close ___ 10 000 kilometres or 10 7 metres.



IX. Define whether the sentences are true or false.

1. Real science begins with measurement followed by observation.

2. Velocity is mass divided by volume.

3. Most of physical quantities are related to length, time and mass.

4. Foot is a unit of area in the British system of measurement.

5. The standard metre of the world was defined in terms of the

distance from the north pole to the south pole.

X. Practice with someone asking and answering.

1. What are the recognised steps in real science?

2. Why are classification and measurement so important in real

science?


3. What is unit?

4. What are the three fundamental units?

5. What systems of measurement are widely in use all over the

world?


6. Why is the metre system widely in use all over the world?

7. What are the units of length in the MKS/British system?

8. How was the metre originally defined?

9. What standard unit is used for measuring area/volume/mass/time?

XI. Put questions to the following sentences.

1. Real science has various recognised steps. (Special)

2. It always begins with observation. (Alternative)

3. Phenomena have to be put in some order. (General)

4. There are three main system of measurement in use today. (Dis-

junctive, Special)

5. Nearly all the nations of the world use the metric system. (Alter-

native)


XII. Dictate the following sentences in English to your fellow-stu-

dents. Check them together.

1. Real science always begins with observation followed by classi-

fication and measurement.

2. Various phenomena have to be put in some order before any-

thing can be done with them.

3. Most of the physical quantities are related to length, time and mass.

4. Practically there are three main systems of measurement in use

today: the British system of units; the metric of units and the Interna-

tional System of Units (SI).

5. Density is mass divided by volume.

6. Various units in MKS system possess simple and logical rela-

tionships among themselves.

UNIT 3

I. Find out the words in the dictionary. Write them down and learn.

physics, physicist, to concern, property, matter, various, sub-

stance, evidence, to compose, tiny, a particle, a molecule, to exert, a

force, nucleus (nuclei), to interact, to be neglected, to be provided,

charge

II. Read the text. Use a dictionary, if necessary.

TEXT: «THE NATURE OF MATTER.

THE BASIC CONSTITUENTS OF MATTER»

Physics is concerned with studying the properties of matter, forces, and energy and their various interactions. In trying to understand the behaviour of solids, liquids, and gases physicists regard substances in terms of their basic constituents. Experimental evidence supports the idea that matter in all three possible phases is composed of tiny particles, called molecules, which are continuously in motion. For any given single substance, the molecules are identical in mass, structure, and other properties. All molecules in a substance exert a force on each other. Molecules consist of groups of atoms, which themselves consist of electrons and nuclei. In solids and liquids, the molecules move relatively slowly and they therefore interact fairly strongly. But in the study of gases, the molecular force can often be neglected because the molecules are, on average, widely separated and interact relatively briefly. Despite the minuteness of molecules, evidence of their existence is provided by various phenomena, such as Brownian motion. Just as substances can be broken down into molecules, molecules can be broken down into atoms. An atom is the smallest particle that can represent a particular chemical element. There are three types of particles that can be considered as making up a typical atom. Central nucleus is comprised of neutrons and protons. The neutron is a particle with no electrical charge, whereas the proton has a single positive charge. Both have roughly the same mass. Circulating about this central region, held in orbit under the influence of the proton’s positive charge, are the electrons. These are subatomic particles, each with a single negative charge and an extremely small mass. Electrons play a major role in determining the properties of the various elements.



III. Distribute the words into four columns and translate them.

Model:What? What kind of? What to do? How?

use useful to use usefully

relatively, evidence, various, fairly, particle, exert, neglect, roughly, motion, possible, minuteness, subatomic, interact, widely, phenomenon, misunderstand, substance, briefly, average, provide, compose, property, continuously, molecular, behavior, identical, nuclei, particular, influence, move, extremely



IV. Practice the following speech patterns.

Pattern 1. Physics is concerned with studying the properties of matter.

1. the properties of forces

2. the properties of energy

3. the behaviour of solids

4. the behaviour of liquids

5. the behaviour of gases

6. the properties of plasma

7. physical phenomena

8. the molecular nature of matter

Pattern 2. Matter is composed of tiny particles.

1. matter – molecules 5. a substance – molecules

2. a molecule – atoms 6. a chemical element –

molecules

3. physics – two branches 7. an atom – particles

4. an atom – electrons and nucleus 8. the nucleus – neutrons

and protons

Pattern 3. In trying to understand the behaviour of solids physicists

make experiments.

1. the behaviour of liquids

2. the behaviour of gases 3. the behaviour of natural phenomena

4. the nature of matter

5. atomic structure

6. the nature of the electron

7. the behaviour of particles

8. the properties of matter

V. Find the sentences that can’t be found in the text.

1. Physics is concerned with studying various phenomena in nature.

2. Matter in all three possible phases is composed of tiny particles called molecules.

3. Evidence of the existence of molecules is provided by various phenomena, such as Brownian motion.

4. Every substance or material can be divided into particles known as molecules.

5. Just as substances can be broken down into molecules, molecules can be broken down into atoms.

6. An atom is the smallest particle that can represent a particular chemical element.

7. In a stable atom, the total positive charge of the nucleus is equal to the total negative charge of the electrons.

8. The neutron is a particle with no electrical charge, whereas the proton has a single positive charge.

VI. Translate the following word combinations into Uzbek.

1. evidence of the existence ________________________________

2. three types of particles __________________________________

3. the influence of the positive charge ________________________

4. the properties of the element ____________________________

5. a model of the atom___________________________________

VIII. Find Uzbek equivalents to the following expressions in the text:

1. the properties of matter, forces and energy _________________

2. experimental evidence supports the idea ____________________

3. molecules exert a force ________________________________

4. molecules are forced together ____________________________

5. interact fairly strongly _________________________________

6. the force can be neglected ______________________________

7. despite the minuteness of molecules _______________________

8. substances can be broken down into molecules _______________

9. a particular chemical element ___________________________

10. a particle with no electrical charge _______________________

11. a single positive charge ________________________________

12. a major role in determining the properties __________________

IX. Fill in the missing words.

1. Physics is concerned with studying the ___ of matter, forces and

energy.

2. Experimental ___ supports the idea that matter in all three phas-



es is composed of ___, called molecules.

3. For any given single ___, the molecules are identical.

4. All molecules in a substance ___ a force on each other.

5. In solids and liquids, the molecules move ___ slowly and there-

fore they ___ fairly strongly.

6. Molecules can be broken down into ___.

7. The ___ is a particle with no electrical charge.


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