Faculty of foreign philology department of comparative linguistics

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Country Study (Ўлкашунослик)

Исмоилова Мафтуна

Give full answers to the following questions:

  1. Political structure of Canada. Senate, government structure of Canada.

  2. Write about historical and geographical outline of Canada

  3. Educational structure of Canada. School education, secondary education, higher education of Canada.


1. Countries have governments for many different reasons. The government takes care of the needs of the general population. Governments control things like hospitals, roads, mail, laws, national defense, and international relations. But most of all a government tries to bring order to the lives of its citizens. Canada's government can be very difficult to understand. Because I have had some difficulties in analyse it. It is a complex system that can be described in four ways. The government can be called a Constitutional Monarchy, a Federal System, a Party System, and a Representative Democracy.

The term constitutional monarchy means that the country is associated with some sort of Monarch (royal figure), while the actual governing of the country is done by an elected body.Queen of the UK is also considered as a queen of Canada.

Canada has a federal structure because of its vast size. This system of government was created to ensure that the needs of the country as a whole were not jeopardized by the needs of its distinct regions.

People elected to positions in the government are members of a political party. A political party is a group of people that have common goals and beliefs about how the government should run the country, province, or town. The major political parties in Canada are the Liberals, the Progressive Conservatives, the New Democratic Party, the Reform party, and the Bloc Quebecois.

A democracy is country that is untimately run by its people. Canada falls into this category because people elect representatives to do the governing for them. This makes Canada a representative democracy.

The federal parliament has power over many areas of the country. Some of these areas are international trade, taxation, national defence, shipping, currency, banking, citizenship, and criminal law.There are three main branches to the federal government, and each one of these branches has special components.

Executive: Legislative: Judiciary:

- Queen - House of Commons - Supreme Court of

- Prime Minister - Senate Canada

- Cabinet

Executive power is the power to run the country and carry out the laws.

Legislative power is the power to make laws.

Judicial power deals with deciding who has broken the law, and what penalties they should receive.

Canada has three levels of government. This structure can be thought of as a pyramid. At the top of the pyramid is the Federal government, which looks out for the needs of the country. In the middle of the pyramid is the Provincial level of government. Each province and territory has a government to look out for its own special needs. Finally, at the bottom of the pyramid is the Municipal level. This level consists of different cities and towns having their own type of government to look after their special needs. The Senate, or upper House, is composed of 105 Senators appointed by the Governor General on the advice of the Prime Minister—subsequent to a recommendation by the Independent Advisory Board for Senate Appointments—to represent Canada’s regions, provinces and territories. Once appointed, Senators may continue to serve until mandatory retirement at the age of 75. The Speaker of the Senate is appointed by the Governor General on the advice of the Prime Minister.

2.Canada, second largest country in the world in area (after Russia) and situated in North America.

Despite Canada’s great size, it is one of the world’s most sparsely populated countries.Although Canadians are comparatively few in number, however, they have crafted what many observers consider to be a model multicultural society, welcoming immigrant populations from every other continent. In addition, Canada harbours and exports a wealth of natural resources and intellectual capital equaled by few other countries.

Canada is officially bilingual in English and French, reflecting the country’s history as ground once contested by two of Europe’s great powers. The word Canada is derived from the Huron-Iroquois kanata, meaning a village or settlement. In the 16th century, French explorer Jacques Cartier used the name Canada to refer to the area around the settlement that is now Quebec city. Later, Canada was used as a synonym for New France, which, from 1534 to 1763.After the British conquest of New France, the name Quebec was sometimes used instead of Canada.

Canada became entirely self-governing within the British Empire in 1931, though full legislative independence was not achieved until 1982, when Canada obtained the right to amend its own constitution

Canada borders the United States - the longest border in the world, not controlled by the military and an international border state with a population of about 300 km.

The national capital is Ottawa, Canada’s fourth largest city.Montreal and Toronto are respectively Canada’s first and second cities in terms of population and economic, cultural, and educational importance. The third largest city is Vancouver, a centre for trade with the Pacific Rim countries and the principal western gateway to Canada’s developing interior. Other major metropolitan areas include Calgary and Edmonton, Alberta; Quebec city, Quebec; and Winnipeg, Manitoba.

Canada can be divided into six physiographic regions: the Canadian Shield, the interior plains, the Great Lakes–St. Lawrence lowlands, the Appalachian region, the Western Cordillera, and the Arctic Archipelago.

3. Canadian education is divided into three levels, elementary, middle and high schools, with different grades:

Pre-school (preschool). Non-mandatory stage providing education for students from Kindergarten and Grade 1, from 2 to 5 years of age.

Elementary School (Primary school). First stage of compulsory education. Children must start school on 1st September following their fifth birthday. Elementary school is usually mixed and is usually attended until age 11 (grades 1 to 6, 10 years old), when students go on to a junior high school. In some districts, students attend elementary school until age 13 (up to grade 8, 12 years old) before attending a senior high school. These early years provide an important foundation for lifelong learning. The contents are basic subjects: English, mathematics, social sciences, sciences, health, physical education, music and crafts. They also have electives: Aboriginal studies, IT, technology and economics.

Secondary School. Secondary education in Canada is for children aged from 12 to 18 (grades 7 to 12). It generally takes place in a high school, that may be divided into junior and senior high schools (held in separate buildings or even at separate locations). Junior high is for those aged 12 to 14 (grades 7 to 9) and senior high for ages 15 to 17 (grades 10 to 12).

High education. This stage is offered in universities or colleges that offer degrees of 2/3 years of duration with a more practical character. The university education follows similar models to other countries (degree, master and doctorate).

The following grading system is used in high schools throughout Canada:

A: Excellent – 90 to 100

B: Good – 80 to 89

C: Average/fair – 70 to 79

D: Poor – 60 to 69

F: Fail – Below 60

Uniform: in Canada usually only in some private schools the use of uniform is required.

High schools divide their curriculum into ‘advanced’, which prepares students to go to university, or ‘general’, which prepares students to go to a community college or trade school.

High school students take the General Educational Development (GED) Diploma before completing high school, which is the recognised entrance qualification for admission to a Canadian university
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