Examination questions on microbiology for students of iimec «General medicine» on 2016-2017 academic years



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ФГБОУ ВО ВГМУ имени Н.Н. Бурденко Минздрава России

Кафедра микробиологии


Examination questions on microbiology

for students of IIMEC «General medicine»

on 2016-2017 academic years
General microbiology

1. Morphology and ultrastructure of a bacterial cell. Main differences ofprokaryotes and eukaryotes. Protoplasts, spheroplasts, L-forms of bacteria.

2. Capsules, spores. Flagellum. Research ofmicrobes mobility.

3. Chemical composition of a microbic cell.

4. Food at bacteria. Division of microbes as food type.

5. Breath at bacteria. Division of microbes as breath type.

6. Growth and reproduction of microbes. Speed and phases of reproduction.

7. Systematization and nomenclature of bacteria. Principles of classification: species, subspecies, hemovar, serovar, culture, strain, clone.

8. Morphology of spirochetes.Classification.Ways of identification.

9. Morphologyand ultrastructure of rickettsia, chlamydia, mycoplasmas.

10. Morphology and ultrastructure of viruses. Ivanovsky works.

11. Viruses reproduction.

12. Bacteriophages. Morphology. Classification. Administration.

13. Material bases of heredity. Genotype and phenotype. Types of variability.

14. Mutations and mutagens.

15. Plasmids and their main genetic functions. Genetic analysis and its principles.

16. Transformation (Griffits).

17. Transduction. Types and mechanism of a transduction.

18. Conjugation at bacteria.

19. Biotechnology. Genetic and cellular engineering.

20. Qualities of a pathogenic microbe: virulence, toxigenicity, aggression. Invasive enzymes.

21. Microbic toxins. Characteristic. Units of measure. Anatoxins. Receiving, practical administration.

22. The main methods of research in microbiology. Simple and difficult methods of staining.

23. Research of microbes biochemical activity.

24. Allocation of aerobes pure cultures.

25. Allocation of anaerobe bacteria pure cultures.

26. Methods of viruses cultivation.

27. Methods of viruses detection in chicken embryos and tissue cultures.

28. The factors influencing a condition of intestinal microflora. Dysbacteriosis. Classification. Treatment.

29. Influence of the ionizing radiation on an infection and immunity.

30. Specific prevention of infectious diseases. Types of vaccines.

31. Value of works of L. Pasteur in development of microbiology.

32. Value of works of R. Koch in development of microbiology.

33. A role of domestic scientists in development of microbiology.34. Characteristic of an infectious disease. Features of a course of an infection now.

35. Infection source. Ways and methods of distribution.

36. Interaction of a microbe with an organism. Forms of a course of an infection.

37. Immunity. Its types by origin and to quality.

38. Congenital immunity. Genetic interpretation of congenital immunity. Factors of natural resistance.

39. Phagocytic theory of immunity. I.I. Mechnikov's role in development of this theory. Mechnikov as the founder of the doctrine about immunity to infectious diseases. Modern concept about cellular protection. Mechanism of a phagocytosis.

40. Classification and types of antibodies.

41. Antigens and haptens. Types of antigens.

42. Immunocompetent organs, central and peripheral.

43. The functional characteristic stem, T - and B-cells.

44. Primary and secondary immune answer. Cells of immunological memory.

45. Antiviral immunity, its features. Interference. Interferon. Interferogenes.

46. Transplant immunity. Reaction "a transplant against the owner".

47. Theories of antibodies formation. Clone-selection Burnett's theory. Theory of a network Iyerne-Richter.

48. Methods of an assessment of the immune status of I and II levels.

49. Primary and secondary immunodeficiencies.

50.Gene-dependent diseases.

51. Immunocorrective preparations. Classification.

52. Principles of appointment of immunoproofreaders. Assessment of extent of immunological violations.

53. Indications to application of the combined immunocorrection.

54. Non-core effects of traditional medicines and biological products.

55. Autoimmune diseases.

56. Limphoproliferative diseases.

57. Immunological frustration and their correction at infectious diseases.

58. Immunological frustration and their correction at violations in hepatolienal system, the endocrinopathy, liver diseases.

59. Immunological frustration and their correction at diseases of lungs.

60. Immunological frustration and their correction at the malignantnew growths.

61. Non-drug immunocorrection. A plasma exchange, hemo - and immunosorption. Enterosorbtion.

62. Immunoprevention and immunotherapy. Types of vaccines.

63. Allergy. Modern classification of allergies.

64. Diagnosis of allergies.

65. Principles of allergies treatment.

66. Anaphylactic shock and its treatment.


Special microbiology
67. Staphylococcus, properties, classification. The diseases caused by staphylococci.Laboratory diagnostics. Treatment. Prophylaxis. Problem of intrahospital infections.

68. Main properties of streptococci. Classification. The diseases caused by them. Laboratory diagnostics.Treatment.

69. Meningococci. Classification, main properties. Pathogenesis of a meningococcal infection.Laboratory diagnosis. Immunity.Treatment, prophylaxis.

70. Gonococci and their properties.Laboratory diagnosis of gonorrhea and blenorea. Treatment. Prophylaxis.

71. Enteropathogenic escherichia and the diseases caused by them in children and adults. Laboratory diagnostics. Treatment, prophylaxis. Campilobacteriosis.

72. Salmonellas – causative agents of a typhoid and paratyphus. Pathogenesis of diseases. Laboratory diagnostics. Treatment, prophylaxis. Identification oftyphoid carriers.

73. Salmonellas - activators of sharp gastroenteriosis. Classification of salmonellas. Methods of laboratory diagnostics.

74. Characteristic and classification of shigellas. Pathogenesis of a disease. Laboratory diagnostics. Immunity. Treatment and prophylaxisof dysentery.Role of domestic scientists M. I. Shtutser and A.V. Grigoriev in studying of dysentery.

75. Opportunistic infections. Klebsiella, proteus and the diseases caused by them. Laboratory diagnostics. Prophylaxis, treatment.

76. Causative agent of plague. Epidemiology. Pathogenesis of a disease. Laboratory diagnostics. Express methods. Treatment, prophylaxis.Operating mode at research of objects on existence of plague causative agents. Scientific contribution of domestic scientists to studying of pathogenesis and plague prevention.D. K. Zabolotny, N. N. Zhukov-Verezhnikov.

77. Brucellas and the diseases caused by them.Laboratory diagnostics. Immunity. Treatment, prophylaxis.

78. Causative agents of cholera. Classification. Cholera pathogenesis.Laboratory diagnostics. Immunity.Treatment, prophylaxis.

79. Causative agents of whooping and parawhooping cough. Pathogenesis of a disease. Laboratory diagnostics. Specific prophylaxis.

80. The causative agents of anthrax. Epidemiology.Forms of a course of a disease. Laboratory diagnostics. Treatment, prophylaxis. L.S. Tsenkovsky's works.

81. Clostridium of tetanus.Pathogenesis of a disease. Diagnosis, treatment, prophylaxis.

82. Causative agents of gas gangrene.Pathogenesis of a disease. Laboratory diagnostics. Treatment, prophylaxis.

83. Causative agents of botulism.Characteristic of toxins. Pathogenesis of disease. Laboratory diagnostics. Specific therapy. Prophylaxis.

84. Corynebakteriumof diphtheria. Characteristic of the сausative agent. Pathogenesis of a disease. Laboratory diagnostics. Specific treatment. Prophylaxis.

85. Myсobakterium tuberculosis. Classification. Pathogenesis of a disease. Laboratory diagnostics. Treatment, prophylaxis.

86. Causative agents of syphilis. Epidemiology. Clinical forms. Laboratory diagnosis. Treatment, prophylaxis.

87. Leptospira. Classification, general characteristic. Methods of laboratory diagnostics. Treatment, prophylaxis. Works of the prof. M. V. Zemskov and the staff of department of microbiology of VSMU on studying of leptospirosis.

88. Rickettsia, classification. Activators of an epidemic and endemic (rat) typhus. Bril's illness. Pathogenesis of an endemic typhus. Laboratory diagnostics. Treatment, prophylaxis.

89. Causative agents of Q-fever. Laboratory diagnostics, treatment, prophylaxis.

90. A virus of the simple and surrounding herpes. Morphology, cultivation, antigen structure. Laboratory diagnosis. Treatment, prophylaxis.

91. Adenoviruses. Classification. Epidemiology, pathogenesis of a disease. Swing forms. Laboratory diagnostics. Treatment, prophylaxis.

92. Viruses of influenza, paraifluenza. Classification. Epidemiology. Variability.Laboratory diagnosis. Treatment, prophylaxis.

93. Measles virus. Pathogenesis of a disease. Laboratory diagnosis. Treatment, prevention.

94. Rage virus. Epidemiology. Pathogenesis of a disease. Laboratory diagnostics. Specific prophylaxis.

95. Picornaviruses. Virus of poliomyelitis of Coxacki. Echo. Epidemiology, pathogenesis of a disease. Laboratory diagnostics. Treatment, prophylaxis. M.P. Chumakov and A.A. Smorodintsev and their role in development of methods of poliomyelitis prophylaxis.

96. Human immunodeficiency virus. Morphology. Epidemiology. Pathogenesis of a disease. Laboratory diagnostics. Principles of use of medical and preventive preparations.

97. Malaria plasmodium. Pathogenesis of a disease. Laboratory diagnostics. Treatment, prophylaxis. E.N. Pavlovsky's role in elimination of malaria in Russia.

98. Viruses A, B, C. Morphology, antigen structure. Infection mechanism. Laboratory diagnostics. Specific prophylaxis of hepatitises A and B.

99. Legionella. Morphology, cultivation. Epidemiology. Forms of a course of a disease. Laboratory diagnostics. Treatment, prophylaxis.

100. Activator of a tularemia, disease form. Laboratory diagnostics, specific prophylaxis.



Practical skills to examination in microbiology
1. To prepare smear and to paint by water fuchsine.

2. To prepare smear and to paint by methylene blue. To microscopy.

3. To prepare smear and to paint the gentian violet. To microscopy.

4. To prepare smear and to paint across Gram.

5. To consider results of sensitivity determination to antibiotics by method of standard disks.

6. To put reaction of a precipitation. To estimate result.

7. To consider the developed RA.

8. To consider reaction of a complement binding.

9. To consider reaction of passive RA

10. To deliver to RPHA and to estimate result.

11. To deliver to RHA and to estimate result.

12. To prepare smear frommix of cultures and to paint across Gram.

13. To define morphological and tinktorial properties of microbes in a micropreparation.

14. To make crops of microorganisms on a slanting agar by a loop.

15. To make crops of microorganisms from a slanted agar on MPA in Petri's cup by a loop.

16. To make crops of microorganisms on MPB by a loop.

17. To deliver of RA on glass and to consider result.

18. To describe nature of growth by MPA in Petri's cup.

19. To estimate and explain nature of growth in Petri's cup with the differential and diagnostic environment.

20. To estimate and explain nature of growth on a nutrient medium for cultivation of anaerobe bacteria.

21. To estimate biochemical properties of microorganisms.
Smears
1. Staphylococci.

2. Streptococci.

3. Smears from a tubercular stick and staphylococci in coloring according to Ziehl-Neelsen.

4. Diphtheritic stick.

5. Colibacillus.

6. Spores in coloring on Ozheshko.

7. Mix of bacteria in coloring on Gram.
Scheme of a microbe description
1. Latin name of a microbe.

2. When and who is opened a microbe.

3. Morphology of a microbe: size, capsule, spores, mobility.

4. Tinktorial properties of a microbe, special methods of coloring. Coloring across Gram.

5. Cultural and biochemical properties of a microbe: nutrient mediums, relation to oxygen, growth temperature, environment pH range.

6. Resistance of a microbe to chemical and physical impacts.

7. Antigen structure of a microbe.

8. Toxins formation (exo-and endotoxins).

9. Susceptibility of animals.

10. Susceptibility of people and way of microbe to an organism introduction.

11. Incubatory period.

12. Clinical manifestations of illness.

13. Microbiological diagnosis.

14. Specific methods of prevention and treatment of this infection: vaccines, serums, phages, chemotherapeutic substances.



15. Duration of the natural and acquired immunity to this disease.

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