Establishment



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Bible History and Archaeology—Heater--Page



13. ISRAELESTABLISHMENTJUDGES
A. There was a period of dormancy in Egypt during the 13th century. Rameses III was restoring it to power, but the invasions from the west (Lybia) and the sea people called Tjeker, revealed in the story of Wen Amon (ANE, p. 16), damaged Egypt. The Hittite empire in the north was also under pressure.
B. The sea people were repulsed by the Egyptians and settled along the coastUgarit, Sidon, Tyre. The Pelast seized territory from Joppa to Gaza (Gaza, Ashkelon, Ashdod, Ekron and Gath). Many Canaanites moved and established their capital at Tyre and are called Phoenicians from that time on (Cf. the last lecture).
C. Excavations suggest a time of anarchy. Bethel had four destructions by fire in two centuries. Megiddo had repeated troubles between its rebuilding and Solomon.
D. The surrounding nations were well organized, but Israel had no central government. Noth had developed the idea of an amphictyonic organization on the order of some of the Greek states where a central sanctuary formed the focal point of the whole group (Old Testament World, and Das System der Zwolf Stamme Israels [1930]).
E. The tabernacle was set up at Shiloh. Joshua 18:1; 1 Sam. 1:3; 3:12; 4:3, Judges 18:31 (cf. 1 Sam. 6:1 on the ark). The Tabernacle was also at Nob, 1 Sam. 21; at Gibeon, 1 Chron. 16:39 (see Jer. 7:12ff, 26:6ff for the destruction of Shiloh).
F. During the 12th century eastern Syria was inundated by Aramaens. The capital was later at Damascus (Cf. Unger, Israel and the Aramaens of Damascus).
G. The iron industry was controlled by the Philistines--1 Sam. 13:19-22. The Hittites held the secret of Iron and may have been brought to Palestine by the sea people. Hence, the Philistines controlled it. The Iron Age begins at this time. Iron, as indicated, is of Anatolian origin (Heb.: Berzel=Pherrus).
H. The first oppression is from Chushan-rishathaim of Syria (Heb.: Aram). Chushan is a place name in the second millennium. It appears on a list of Rameses III (13-12 centuries B.C.)
I. The period of the Judges is not a very high point in the Israelite history. The two appendixes in particular show Israel at the nadir of her existence. The bright spots are the various places where individual faith breaks forth. The book of Ruth, in particular, is a bright ray in an otherwise dark corner.


J. The Judges.
Oppression under Chushan-Rishathaim 3:8 8 years

Othniel, rest 3:11 40

Oppression under Eglon of Moab 3:14 18

Deliverance, Ehud, rest 3:30 80

Oppression, Jabin of Hazor 4:3 20

Deborah, rest 5:31 40

Oppression, Midian 6:1 7

Deliverance, Gideon, rest 8:28 40

Reign of Abimelech 9:22 3

Judgeship of Tola 10:2 23

Oppression of Gilead by Ammon 10:8 18

Judgeship of Jair 10:3 22

Judges 11:26 Israel had land 300 years: 319

Judgeship of Jephthah 12:7 6

Judgeship of Ibzan 12:9 7

Judgeship of Elon 12:11 10

Judgeship of Abdon 12:14 8

Oppression of Philistines 13:1 40

Judgeship of Samson 15:20, 16:31 20

Judgeship of Eli 1 Sam. 4:18 40

450 years

Judgeship os Samuel ?

Saul (mentioned only in Acts 13) 40

David 40


Solomon 1 Kgs. 11:42 40
K. The Chronology of the Book of Judges

This section presents one of the most difficult aspects of Old Testament Chronology. The first point of contact must be the 480 years between the Exodus and the fourth year of Solomon (1 Kgs. 6:1). The problem comes with the 450 year total of the data in Judges from the first oppression to Eli. If these years be taken consecutively, there are too many. Josephus, whose handling of biblical chronology leaves much to be desired, takes them consecutively and comes up with 592 years for the same period covered by 1 Kgs. 6:1. The 450 years in Acts 13:19-20 is placed during the judges by some MSS and during the Egyptian period by others. Some people drop the periods of servitude to reduce the years in Judges, but the best solution is probably to assume that the years are not intended to be sequential, i.e., the various judgeships overlap since none of them is intended to indicate control over the entire 12 tribes (cf. Thiele, “Chronology,” Zondervan’s Pictoral Bible Dictionary).



14. ISRAELTHE GOLDEN ERA126
A. Period of Time
Israel’s greatest height was reached around the beginning of the first millennium B.C. Under David and Solomon, Israel became a prominent power in the Middle East. This was the heroic age in Greece (Homer). Rome was founded about 700 B.C.
B. The Rule of Saul
Saul’s greatest service was in thrusting out the Canaanites. Iron comes of age in Israel (cf. 1 Chron. 22:3. David prepared iron nails), and since the Philistines controlled the industry, they had a great advantage over Israel. Gibea was Saul’s home. Excavation shows that it was destroyed, probably with the internecine warfare with Ben­jamin. Saul built his “palace” on these ruins. It was about 169 feet by 114 feet. It was rural, simple, and two-story.
C. David
David had a personal army which was a foreign con­tingent. These were Pele­thites and Cherethites (Philistines and Cretans?) and 600 warriors from Gath under Ittai (2 Sam. 15:18).
He conquered Beth-Shan (an old Egyptian outpost), Jerusalem, and then the Philis­tines, Moabites, Ammonites, Edomites, and finally the Syrians (since the Syrians were beginning to make incursions into Assyria, David may have pre­vented the fall of the latter). This left Israel the strongest state between the Euphrates and Egypt.
State Organization
DeVaux has shown that this was probably patterned after the Egyptian system.
1. Chief of Military StaffJoab2 Sam. 8:16-18; 20:23-25.

2. Commander of His Personal ArmyBenaiah.

3. PriestsZadok and Abiathar.

4. Recorderhe may have been an Egyptian himself. The title is Egyptian. In Egypt, he was a public relations manager.



5. ScribeDavid’s scribe was named Shausha or Shisha which Wright says is a good Egyp­tian name. David, therefore, may have sent to Egypt for a scribe to fill this office.

6. “The Thirty”The legion of honor, 2 Sam. 23:13, 24.


City of David
Not a single discovery has been made in Jerusalem from the time of David and Solomon. Apparently, the city was dug off as in Hasmonian times and thrown over the hill. Recent excavation by Miss Kenyon has uncovered part of the Jebusite wall. After the 1967 war, the Israelis were able to excavate in the Jewish Quarter with marvelous results.127
D. Solomon
Solomon’s reign provided glamour to the kingdom.128 He carried on extensive commer­cial activity. First Kings 10:8-9 records that he bought horses and chariots from Cilicia and sold them to the Aram­eans. He controlled the Arabian trade by Ezion Geber, 1 Kings 9:26; 20:22. He was a copper and iron baron. The bath (bronze sea) must have weighed 25 to 30 tons.
Northern Israel was divided into administrative districts (1 Kgs. 4:7ffstore cities). David may already have or­ganized the south. Megiddo had stables for 400 horses129 and Hazor was fortified for northern protection.
Ezion Geber
Glueck has repudiated his identification of this site as the great smelting plant (The Other Side of the Jordan; repudia­ted in Archaeology and Old Testa­ment Study).
The Temple
There would have been some influence on the temple by the artificers of Tyre and Sidon. Conse­quently, modern models of the temple differ radically from the older ones.
Solomon’s Downfall


Prosperity brought decadence. Through political alliances, Solomon acquired a large harem with all the attendant prob­lems, not the least of which was the introduction and sanc­tioning of other religions.
For a summary of cities excavated during this time, see
D. W. Thomas, Archaeology and Old Testament Study

Biblical Archaeologist Readers, #1 and #2

G. E. Wright, Biblical Archaeology

K. Kenyon, Royal Cities of the Old Testament




15. ISRAEL AND HER NEIGHBORSARAM
The Arameans are an ancient people. Aram appears in the table of nations as a son of Shem, and the same name is given to a grandson of Nahor, Abraham’s brother. Bethuel, the father of Laban, is called “the Aramean.” Deut. 26:5 seems to be a liturgical formula: “Arami obed abi,” My father was a wander­ing Aramean. Balaam gives Aram as his home (Num. 23:7). Abraham was principally, therefore, identified with the Ara­mean people from Haran. (He was not, of course, a descen­dant of Aram).130
The Aramaic language is likewise ancient. The Arameans adop­ted the Phoenician script and adapted it to the square letters now used by the Hebrews. Written Aramaic is found from the 10th century B.C. in the Phoenician script.131 Aramaic became so wide­spread it was used as a trade language by the major empires until Greek predominated. Ara­maic was spoken by the common people of Palestine at the time of Christ. The language branched into east and west dialects. From New Testament times on, it had a Christian heritage and is called Syriac. A prolific literature extends to the 13th century A.D. It is still used as a liturgical language in the Mar Toma Church of India and by the Jacobite Churches of Syria and Iraq.
Semitic speaking people probably occupied the area called Syria as early as 3000 B.C.132 The Ara­means, how­ever, began to penetrate the settled countries of the fertile cres­cent en masse in the 11th century. The major powers were in decline (Egypt, Hit­tites, Assyria and Baby­lon). Israel, the Arameans and the Phoenicians were on the rise at the beginning of the first millennium B.C.
A federated kingdom called Aram-zobah is encountered early. Hadadezer ben Rehob is the king (2 Sam. 8:3; 10:16; 1 Chron. 19:10). The expansionist ideas of this king were frustrated by David. David put governors in Aram-Damascus (2 Sam. 8:6).
Hittite Hamath was an adversary of Aram-zobah and formed an alliance with David (2 Sam. 8:9-11; 2 Chron. 18:9-11).


As Solomon’s government became weak, and Egypt began to assert herself, Aram-Damas­cus rebelled and becomes the most important Aramean state. The unified Arameans under the Ben Hadad’s (Hadadezer?) become a constant threat to the northern kingdom for 150 years until their defeat by Assyria.133
References to Syria in W. D. Crockett, A Harmony of Samuel, Kings and Chronicles.
1. David and Syria (p. 118). See also Olmstead, His­tory of Palestine and Syria for a descrip­tion of Damascus.
2. Solomon and Syria (p. 193).
3. Asa-Baasha and Syria (p. 215).
4. Beth-Omri. League with Sidon (p. 218, see also the Moabite stone).
5. AhabBen Hadad (p. 231ff). In league with Jehosha­phat (pp. 238, 240).
6. Elisha and Syria (Ben Hadad, p. 258). Naaman the Leper (p. 260). Besieging Samaria (p. 263). Death of Ben-Hadad (p. 268).
7. Ahaziah and Jehoram (p. 268).
8. Jehu, submitted to Assyria in 841 B.C. (Black Obe­lisk, p. 281).
9. Jehoahaz (p. 282, 285) and in south (p. 285, #12).
10. Elisha’s final word about Syria (p. 286, cf. p. 289).
11. Jeroboam II (p. 292, cf. p. 295).
The Arameans and the Monuments.
1. Yehimilk (YHMLK).
This monument comes from the middle of the 10th century B.C. It was found in 1929. Its measure­ments are 35 by 70 by 45 cm. Now it is located in the Beirut national muse­um. It contains further the remains of an inscription in “Byblian hieroglyphics” (Donner and Rol­lig, ANET, p. 653).
2. Azitawadda.


This inscription is Phoenician-Hittite, bilingual. It comes from about 720 B.C., and was found in 1946 in Keratepe. Uriku, according to DR was a king of Que, and hence Azita­wadda was a vassal king. (ANET, p. 653.)
3. Kilamuwa (KLMW).
This inscription comes from about 825 B.C. It was found in 1902 in Zinjirli. It contains an interest­ing description of a small state hiring Assyria (cheaply) to protect itself. These people are apparently MSHKBM as opposed to the Danu­nites of B above. (ANET, p. 654.)
4. Barrakab of Y’dy-Sam’al.
This monu­ment is from 733/2-727. It was found in 1891 in Zinjirli. This king was established on his throne at the behest of Tiglath-Pileser. (See ANEP, #281; ANET, p. 655; Donner and Rollig, p. 215, 216, 217.)
5. Ben Hadad.
This inscription, dated about 860 B.C., was found in 1939. It confirms his mention in Kings (ANEP, # 499; ANET, p. 655).
6. Kilamuwa.
This inscription contains a reference to something gold. (ANET, p. 655.)
7. Zakir.
This Sefire inscription is very important (#202 in DR). It was found in 1903 about 30 miles SW of Aleppo. It comes from the early 8th century B.C. and contains a good ex­ample of a coalition of kings against a small king. (ANET, p. 655-56.)
8. Yehimilk of Byblos.
This inscription is not pertinent to the Aramean states (4-5th centuries B.C.). The Zakir inscrip­tion shows a lasting independence and an outlook limited to local problems. This holds true of the entire Syrian area. Only the petty states of Phoen­icia broaden their horizons and this is through overseas expansion (Moscati, The Face of the Ancient Orient, p. 215). With the begin­ning of the eighth century, the Syrian politi­cal scene changes. Assyrian pressure intensi­fied and finally takes the form of permanent annexation (see Bar Rakib). The petty Syri­an states begin to succumb during the second half of the eighth century (see the follow­ing map). (ANET, p. 656.)


16. ISRAEL/JUDAH AND ASSYRIA


  1. Early Period—2000-1800.

The homeland of Assyria was in the northeast corner of the fertile crescent where the Tigris River flows southward across the plains, and the mountains of Kurdis­tan loom up in the background (Finegan). The city which gave its name to the country and empire, even as it took its own name from the national god, was Ashur. It was located strategi­cally on a low bluff on the right bank of the Tigris at a place now called Qalat Sharqat (Fine­gan, cf. Gen. 10, Nim­rod).


Assyria first appeared historically after the time of the Kingdom of Accad to whose sphere of influence it had be­longed (2300-2100 B.C., but this early period is vague). The Assyrians had colonies in Asia Minor where they carried on extensive trade (see the Cap­padocian Tablets and the unit on the Hittites). These were inter­rupted by the rise of the Hittite state. There is a governor from the neo-Sumer­ian period ruling in Assyria (2000-1900 B.C.).
B. The Old Kingdom1800-1700.
The Old Kingdom centers on the person of Shamshi-Adad I (1813-1781 B.C.). He had inherited a territory near Mari with which he came into conflict. He may have moved against Babylon. At any rate, he captured a town on the Tigris River which opened up Assyria to him. Assyria had just regained her indepen­dence from the south. From his Assyrian throne, he moved west and eventually conquered Mari. The whole of upper Mesopotamia was now in his control and the Cap­pad­ocian colon­ies began to show renewed activity. His son, Ishme-Dagon, was able to retain only Assyria. Mari fell back to the original Amo­rite dynasty through Zimrilim.
Hammurabi conquered Mari and perhaps Assyria and began the Old Babylon­ian Empire.
C. The Period of Decline1700-1300 B.C.
During this period, Assyria was dominated by others. Mitan­ni seems to have con­trolled Assyria at this time (see Unit VI for Mitanni). Mitanni was defeated by the Hittites (1380-1340 B.C.), and thus the Assyrians were free to resume their expansion.
D. The Middle Kingdom1300-1100 B.C.


The Middle Assyrian Kingdom arose in the 14th and 13th cen­turies. It was reconsti­tuted about 1100 B.C. Names appear here which are better known in the New Assyrian Kingdom: Ashur-uballit (I), Adad-nirari (I), Shalmaneser (I), Tiglath-Pileser (I). There was a decline from 1100 to 900 B.C.
E. The New Kingdom900-600 B.C.
Assyria rose to the height of its power at the time of the New Kingdom. The Assyrians subjected all of Mesopotamia, including Babylonia, and the border regions. They also extended their rule over a part of Asia Minor, all Syria, and, for a while, even over Egypt.
The rise of the New Assyrian Kingdom began in the 9th cen­tury under the kings Ashur­nasirpal II (884-859 B.C.) and Shalmaneser III (859-824 B.C.) who energeti­cally advanced as far as middle Syria without being able to establish lasting control there.
Then the succession of the great Assyrian conquerors began with Tiglath-Pileser III (745-727 B.C.). They conquered Syria and Palestine, as well as other lands, and undertook frequent cam­paigns there. They include Shalmaneser V (727-722 B.C.), Sargon II (722-705 B.C.), Sennacherib (705-681 B.C.), and Esarhaddon (681-669 B.C.) who undertook several cam­paigns against Egypt and occupied the Delta and the old royal city of Mem­phis.
The last goal of Assyrian expansion, the overthrow of Egypt, was brought very close. Esarhaddon’s son and successor, Ashurbanipal (669-631 B.C.), could indeed still garrison the upper Egyptian royal city of Thebes, but, under him, the Egyptian adventure soon came to an end, and the decline of the Assyrian might began.
This decline came about swiftly under his succes­sors. In 612 B.C., the Assyrian capital city of Nineveh fell to a combined attack of the Medes and Neo-Babylon­ians. In Meso­potamia, and in Syro-Pales­tine, the Neo-Babylonian empire then succeeded the Assyrian Kingdom.
F. Major Assyrian Kings in the New Kingdom.
Ninth Century
Ashur-nasir-pal II (884-859 B.C.).
He established a ferocious reputation. His capital was at Calneh (Nimrud).134 Layard excavated simultane­ously at Calneh and Nine­veh. Most of his work was done at the acropolis. The outstanding discovery was the palace of Ashur-nasir-pal II. It contained huge winged bulls and human figures. The black obelisk of Shalmaneser III was discovered here in December, 1846. (It was almost lost at sea in a storm.)



Shalmaneser III (859-825 B.C.).
Sixth year (853 B.C.). “In the year of (the eponym) Daian-Ashur, in the month Aiaru, the 14th day, I departed from Nineveh. I crossed the Tigris and approached the towns of Giammu on the river Balih. . . . I departed from Aleppo and approached the two towns of Irhuleni from Hamath. I departed from Argana and approached the city of Karkara. I destroyed, tore down and burned down Karkara, his royal residence. He brought along to help him 1,200 chariots, 1,200 cavalrymen, 20,000 foot soldiers of Hadad-ezer of Damascus, 700 chariots, 700 cavalrymen, 10,000 foot soldiers of Irhulei from Hamath, 2,000 chariots, 10,000 foot soldiers of Ahab, the Israelite, 500 soldiers from Que, 1,000 soldiers from Musri, 1000 chariots, 10,000 soldiers from Irqanata, 200 soldiers of Matinu-ba’lu from Arvad, 200 soldiers from Usanata, 30 chariots, 10,000 soldiers of Adunu-ba’lu from Shian, 1,000 camel-(rider)s of Gindibu’, from Arabia [. . .],000 soldiers of Ba’sa, son of Ruhub, from Ammon -(all together) these were twelve kings. They rose against me [for a] decisive battle. I fought with them with (the support of) the mighty forces of Ashur, which Ashur, my lord, has given to me, and the strong weapons which Nergal, my leader, has presented to me, (and) I did inflict a defeat upon them between the towns Karkara and Gilzau. I slew 14,000 of their soldiers with the sword, descending upon them like Adad when he makes a rainstorm pour down. I spread their corpses (everywhere), filling the entire plain with their widely scattered (fleeing) soldiers. During the battle I made their blood flow down the hur-pa-lu of the district.”135
This battle is not mentioned in the Bible. These twelve kings decided that they needed to put a stop to the westward expansion of the Assyrians. Ahab of Israel and Hadad-ezer of Damascus, normally bitter enemies, joined the coalition as allies. Shalman­eser claimed complete victory, but it was several years before he returned.136 Kitchen believes the “Musri”are Egyp­tians.137 This would be a token force in support of Byblos, an ally of Egypt. Since Ahab’s two sons ruled 12 years (parts of years combined), and Jehu paid tribute in 841 B.C. to Shalman­eser, Ahab must have died in 853.138 His death occurred when he resumed hostili­ties with Damascus over Ramoth-gilead (1 Kings 22).


On Shalmaneser’s black obelisk is a depiction of Jehu bowing down to Shal­maneser to pay his tribute. “The tribute of Jehu, son of Omri; I received from him silver, gold, a golden saplu-bowl, a golden vase with pointed bottom, golden tumblers, golden buckets, tin, a staff for a king, (and) wooden puruhtu”139 Since Jehu’s payment of tribute can be dated by Assyrian chronology to 841 B.C., these two dates become the last year of Ahab and the first of Jehu.
Adad Nirari III (810-783 B.C.)
Jehoahaz was ruling in the north and Joash in the south. “In the fifth year (of my official rule) I sat down solemnly on my royal throne and called up the country (for war). I ordered the numerous army of Assyria to march against Palestine. I crossed the Euphrates at its flood. As to the numerous hostile kings who had rebelled in the time of my father Shamshi-Adad (V) and had wi[th held] their regular (tributes). . . . I received all the tributes [. . .] which they brought to Assyria. I (then) ordered [to march] against the country Damascus. I invested Mari’ in Damascus [and he surrendered]. One hundred talents of gold (corres­ponding to) one thousand talents of [silver], 60 talents . . . [I received as his tribute].”140
This battle, likewise, is not recorded in the Bible, but it has far-reaching effects on the future of both Judah and Israel. We read in 2 Kings 13:7, during Jehu’s son Jehoahaz’ rule, ‘For he left to Jehoahaz of the army not more than fifty horsemen and ten chariots and 10,000 footmen, for the king of Aram had destroyed them and made them like the dust at threshing.”
The crushing of Damascus by Adad Nirari removed the dreaded Aramean oppression and allowed a renascence of Israel and Judah. Under Jeroboam II in the North and Uzziah (Azariah) in the south (both with long reigns) there was great prosperity.141 During this period of prosperity, Hosea and Amos preached against the violations of the covenant and promised that God’s punish­ment would be the captivity.
Eighth Century
Tiglath-pileser III (745-727 B.C.)


This monarch brought Assyria to new life. Isaiah, in chapter 1, uses language to describe the state of Judah that sounds as though they have undergone a siege. “Your land is desolate, your cities are burned with fire, your fields -stran­gers are devouring them in your presence; it is desola­tion as overthrown by strangers” (Isaiah 1:7). Isaiah began his ministry in the last days of Uzziah (Isaiah 6 may be inaugural; in which case, the call would have come in the same year Uz­­­­ziah/Azariah died. 2 Chron. 26:22 says that Isaiah wrote “Acts of Uzziah.” This could have been done after Uzziah’s death, but more likely would have come during some of the life of Uzziah. Thus, I would say “in the last days of Uzziah.”). The question is of what devastation does this speak? Tadmor argues that the reference in Tiglath-pileser’s annals to a certain Azirau from Juda can only refer to our Azariah/Uzz­iah.142 Some scholars reject the equation, but Tadmor’s arguments are cogent. How could there be two Judah’s and two Azariah’s from the very same period?

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