Education of university



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EDUCATION OF UNIVERSITY

university (Latin: universitas, 'a whole') is an institution of higher (or tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in various academic disciplines. Universities typically offer both undergraduate and postgraduate programs. In the United States, universities must offer graduate degrees; institutions offering only undergraduate degrees are colleges.

The word university is derived from the Latin universitas magistrorum et scholarium, which roughly means "community of teachers and scholars".[1]

The first universities were created in Europe by Christian monks. The University of Bologna (Università di Bologna), founded in 1088, is the first university in the sense of:


-high degree-awarding institute;
-independence from the ecclesiastic schools, although conducted by both clergy and non-clergy;
-the word universitas was coined at its foundation;
-secular and non-secular degrees: grammar, rhetoric, logic, theology, canon law, notarial law

Definition[edit]

The original Latin word universitas refers in general to "a number of persons associated into one body, a society, company, community, guild, corporation, etc".[8] At the time of the emergence of urban town life and medieval guilds, specialized "associations of students and teachers with collective legal rights usually guaranteed by charters issued by princes, prelates, or the towns in which they were located" came to be denominated by this general term. Like other guilds, they were self-regulating and determined the qualifications of their members.[9]

In modern usage the word has come to mean "An institution of higher education offering tuition in mainly non-vocational subjects and typically having the power to confer degrees,"[10] with the earlier emphasis on its corporate organization considered as applying historically to Medieval universities.[11]

The original Latin word referred to degree-awarding institutions of learning in Western and Central Europe, where this form of legal organisation was prevalent and from where the institution spread around the world.




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