Done by: Narzullayeva Sarvinoz Republic of Venice



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INDEPENDENT WORK

Theme: Republic of Venice



Done by: Narzullayeva Sarvinoz

Republic of Venice

T he Most Serene Republic of Venice, was an Italian state originating from the city of Venice (today in Northeastern Italy. It existed for over a millennium, from the late seventh century until the late eighteenth century (1797). At times, its jurisdiction extended into Dalmatia further into Italy and across many Mediterranean and Aegean islands including Cyprus and Crete. In addition, it had far-flung trading outposts. It fought many battles against the Ottoman Empire and earlier Muslim polities although it also engaged in extensive trade within the Muslim world. Many Muslim cities, including Istanbul had Venetian quarters. The Venetian navy even helped Muslim rules in Egypt to police their shore-line, preventing piracy. One of the republics most famous sons was the merchant and explorer, Marco Polo who traveled the Silk Road to China. It is often referred to as La Serenissima, in reference to its title in VenetianThe Most Serene Republic. It is also referred to as the Republic of Venice or the Venetian Republic. It was never a republic in the sense that all citizens voted, or could take part in governance. However, for centuries when most states were run more or less by one person with almost unlimited power, Venice had a system of governance with checks and balances in which certain citizens exercised much more authority than in most other polities at the time. It has the longest history of any republican system yet devised.



The republic thrived on trade and, rather like the Carthaginian Empire only became involved in war to protect its commercial routes and interests. Because of its independence, Venice was an important cultural and intellectual center during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Venice was a major conduit for cultural exchange between Europe, Africa and as far East as China. The city was not subjected as strictly to the control of the Catholic Church as other centers of Europe, allowing more freedom for scholars and artists. From the fifteenth century, many works of Islamic learning were also printed in Venice. Like other Italian city states, the city of Venice maintained schools and universities, for which it sought the most prestigious professors. Wealthy families competed with each other in building magnificent palaces. Ultimately, the larger imperial entity to the North, the Holy Roman Empire of Austria which had long coveted access to the sea, took control of the City-state and ended its existence as an independent entity. After a brief period under Napoleon Bonaparte, Austrian Venice fell to the forces of the Italian unification movement in 1866. Trade enabled the republic to respect the cultural and religious other, with whom it would rather trade than fight. The republic engaged in war to protect its interests but its not insignificant power derived from trade, not from military might.

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