Documenting sources



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THE WRITING CENTER SIUE—Peck 1419, Ext. 2045

MLA Style Documentation from MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, 6th ed.


DOCUMENTING SOURCES

In MLA, parenthetical citations such as (Townsend 10)

and (10)
Medieval Europe was a place both of “raids,

pillages, slavery and extortion” and of “traveling

merchants, monetary exchange, towns if not cities,

and active markets in grain” (Townsend 10).


According to Townsend, “raids, pillages, slavery

and extortion” were common in medieval Europe (10).


acknowledge the source of words or information, indicate

the page(s) where they appear, and direct reader to a Works Cited

entry for publication information as in
Townsend, Robert M. The Medieval Village Economy.

Princeton UP, 1993.



WORKS CITED: BOOKS


      1. Single Author

Renoir Lithographs. New York: Dover, 1994.

Wilson, Frank R. The Hand: How Its Use Shapes



the Brain, Language, and Human Culture. New York:

Pantheon, 1998.




      1. Two or More Authors

Eggins, Suzanne, and Diana Slade. Analyzing Casual

Conversation. London: Cassell, 1997.

Quirk, Randolph, et al. A Comprehensive Grammar of



the English Language. London: Longman, 1985.

(For more than 3 authors you can use et al.)




      1. Book by Corporate Author

American Medical Association. The American Medical


Association Encyclopedia of Medicine. Ed.
Charles B. Clayman. New York: Random, 1989.

(Omit initial articles such as The)




      1. Work in Anthology

Allende, Isabel. “Toad’s Mouth.” Trans. Margaret

Sayers Peden. A Hammock beneath the Mangoes:



Stories from Latin America. Ed. Thomas Colchie.

New York: Plume. 23-33.

“A Witchcraft Story.” The Hopi Way: Tales from a

Vanishing Culture. Comp. Mando Sevillano.

Flagstaff: Northland, 1986. 33-42.




      1. Article in Reference Book

Allen, Anita L. “Privacy in Health Care.”

Encyclopedia of Bioethics. Ed. Warren T.

Reich. Rev. ed. 5 vols. New York: Macmillan-

Simon, 1995. (For less familiar references use

full publication information)

“Ginsburg, Ruth Bader.” Who’s Who in America. 56th

ed. 2002.

”Noon.” The Oxford English Dictionary. 2nd ed.

1989.


”Noon.” Def. 4b. The Oxford English Dictionary.

2nd ed. 1989. (For specific definition)




      1. Edition: citing editor in introduction, etc.

Bowers, Fredson, ed. The Red Badge of Courage: An

Episode of the American Civil War. By Stephen

Crane. 1895. Charlottesville: UP of Virginia,

1975.


      1. Government Publication

New York State. Commission on the Adirondacks in

The Twenty-First Century. The Adirondack Park



in the Twenty-First Century. Albany: State of

New York, 1990.

United Nations. Consequences of Rapid Population

Growth in Developing Countries. New York:

Taylor, 1991.


WORKS CITED: ARTICLES, ETC., IN PERIODICALS

      1. Article in journal w/ continuous Pagination

White, Sabina, and Andrew Winzelberg. ”Laughter and

Stress.” Humor 5 (1992): 343-55.


      1. Article in journal paging each issue separately

Barthelme, Frederick. “Architecture.” Kansas

Quarterly 13.3-4 (1981): 77-80.


      1. Article in Newspaper

“Curriculum Battles from Left and Right.” USA

Today 2 Mar. 1994: 5D. (Without author)

Jeromack, Paul. “This Once, a David of the Art

World Does Goliath a Favor.” New York Times

13 July 2002, late ed.: B7+. (Note late/geographic

editions, indicate articles continue on other page)
5.7.6. Article in Magazine

Mehta, Pratap Bhanu. “Exploding Myths.” New Republic 6

June 1998: 17-19.


      1. Anonymous Article

“Dubious Venture.” Time 3 Jan. 1994: 64-65.


      1. Editorial

“Death of a Writer.” Editorial. New York Times 20 Apr.

1994, late ed.: A18.

Gergan, David. “A Question of Values.” Editorial. US

News and World Report 11 Feb. 2002: 72.


      1. Article in a Microform Collection

Chapman, Dan. “Panel Could Help Protect Children.”

Winston-Salem Journal 14 Jan. 1990: 14. Newsbank:

Welfare and Social Problems 12 (1900): fiche 1,

grids A8-11.



CITING MISCELLANEOUS PRINT/NONPRINT SOURCES


      1. Television or Radio Program

Frankenstein: The Making of the Monster.” Great Books.

Narr. Donald Sutherland. Writ. Eugenie Vink. Dir.

Jonathan Ward. Learning Channel. 8 Sept. 1993.

Springsteen, Bruce. “Dancing in the Dark.” ­Born in the



USA. Columbia, 1984. Music Video. Dir. Brian De

Palma. VH1. 10 May 2002.




      1. Sound Recording

Ellington, Duke, cond. First Carnegie Hall Concert.

Duke Ellington Orch. Rec. 23 Jan. 1943. LP.

Prestige, 1977.

Norrington, Roger, cond. Symphony no. 1 in C, op. 21,

and Symphony no. 6 in F, op. 68. By Ludwig van

Beethoven. London Classical Players. EMI, 1988.

Holiday, Billie. “God Bless the Child.” Rec. 9 May


  1. The Essence of Billie Holiday. Columbia,

1991.

Wilgus, D. K. Southern Folk Tales. Rec. 23-25 Mar.



  1. Audiotape. U of California, Los Angeles,

Archives of Folklore. B.76.82.
5.8.3. Film or Video Recording

It’s a Wonderful Life. Dir. Frank Capra. Perf.

James Stewart, Donna Reed, Lionel Barrymore,

and Thomas Mitchell. RKO, 1946.


      1. Performance

Gianni Schichi. By Giacomo Puccini. Libretto by

Giovacchino Forzano. Dir. Roberto De Simone.

Perf. Carlo Guelfi and Daniela Dessì. Cond.

Gianluigi Gelmetti. Teatro dell’Opera, Rome.

22 Jan. 2002.



Hamlet. By William Shakespeare. Dir. John Gielgud.

Perf. Richard Burton. Schubert Theatre,

Boston. 4 Mar. 1964.
5.8.5. Musical Composition

Beethoven, Ludwig van. Symphony no. 7 in A, op. 92.

Berlioz, Hector. Symphonie fantastique, op. 14.

Beethoven, Ludwig van. Symphony No. 7 in A, Op. 92.

New York: Dover, 1998.(Re a published score)


      1. Interview

Pei, I. M. Personal interview. 22 July 1993.


      1. Advertisement

The Fitness Fragrance by Ralph Lauren.

Advertisement. GQ Apr. 1997: 11-12.


5.8.11. Lecture, Speech, Address, Reading

Atwood, Margaret. “Silencing the Scream.”

Boundaries of the Imagination Forum. MLA

Convention. Royal York Hotel, Toronto. 29

Dec. 1993.


      1. Letter or Memo

Woolf, Virginia. “To T. S. Elliot.” 28 July 1920.

Letter 1138 of The Letters of Virginia Woolf.

Ed. Nigel Nicolson and Joanne Trautmann. Vol.

2. New York: Harcourt, 1976. 437-38.

Morrison, Toni. Letter to the author. 17 May 2001.

(Letter you, the writer, received)



Cahill, Daniel J. Memo to English dept. fac.,

Brooklyn High School, New York. 1 June 2000
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