Copper metallurgical slags: mineralogy, bio/weathering processes and metal bioleaching


CHAPTER 2: COPPER METALLURGICAL SLAGS - CURRENT KNOWLEDGE



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CHAPTER 2: COPPER METALLURGICAL SLAGS - CURRENT KNOWLEDGE 
AND FATE: A REVIEW ............................................................................................. 10
 
2.1
 
INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................................... 12
 
2.2
 
MINING AND SMELTING OF COPPER .................................................................... 14
 
2.3
 
Cu-METALLURGICAL SLAGS ................................................................................... 15
 
2.3.1
 
Chemical and phase composition of copper slags ................................................. 17
 
2.3.1.1
 
Primary phases ................................................................................................ 23
 
2.3.1.2
 
Secondary phases ............................................................................................ 24
 
2.3.2
 
Environmental impact ............................................................................................ 25
 
2.3.3
 
Slags weathering .................................................................................................... 26
 
2.3.3.1
 
Primary phases: susceptibility to alteration .................................................... 27
 
2.3.3.2
 
Secondary phases: formation, metal sequestration and solubility .................. 28
 
2.3.3.3
 
Weathering factors .......................................................................................... 30
 
2.3.3.3.1
 
Physico-chemical factors ............................................................................ 30
 
2.3.3.3.1.1
 
Slag porosity and structure .................................................................... 30
 
2.3.3.3.1.2
 
pH conditions ........................................................................................ 30
 
2.3.3.3.1.3
 
Redox potential ..................................................................................... 31
 
2.3.3.3.1.4
 
Organic components ............................................................................. 31
 
2.3.3.3.2
 
Biological factors ........................................................................................ 32
 
2.3.3.3.2.1
 
Microbial actions .................................................................................. 32
 
2.3.3.3.2.2
 
Biofilm formation ................................................................................. 33
 



 
2.3.3.3.2.3
 
Extracellular polymeric substances ....................................................... 33
 
2.3.3.3.2.4
 
Siderophores production ....................................................................... 34
 
2.3.3.3.2.5
 
Intracellular metal immobilization ........................................................ 35
 
2.3.4
 
Environmental risk assessment .............................................................................. 36
 
2.4
 
FATE OF COPPER SLAGS ........................................................................................... 39
 
2.4.1
 
Metal leaching ........................................................................................................ 40
 
2.4.1.1
 
Influence of extractant .................................................................................... 50
 
2.4.1.2
 
Influence of agitation ...................................................................................... 53
 
2.4.1.3
 
Influence of temperature ................................................................................. 53
 
2.4.1.4
 
Influence of liquid to solid ratio and particle size .......................................... 55
 
2.4.1.5
 
Influence of leaching time .............................................................................. 55
 
2.4.1.6
 
Slag structure .................................................................................................. 55
 
2.4.1.7
 
Optimal parameters ......................................................................................... 56
 
2.4.2
 
Copper recovery ..................................................................................................... 57
 
2.4.3
 
Metal bioleaching and biorecovery ........................................................................ 58
 
2.5
 
CONCLUDING REMARKS .......................................................................................... 66
 

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