Chirchik state pedagogical institute of tashkent region the faculty of history and languages the department of foreign languages


Dialects of English in different countries



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2.1. Dialects of English in different countries

Features of traditional dialects

Any dialect will yield numerous examples. These are a few:

Grammar


Use of noun plurals formed with -n: shoon "shoes", een "eyes", kine "cows"

Use of a T/V pronoun system: thee, thou/tha and thy, as well as you, your andyours.

Use of object pronoun form her in subject case contexts.

Use of reflexive me for “myself”: I washed me; I laid me down.

Use of redundant auxiliary do: she do go there every day.

Variant forms of the verb to be: I is (Northwest), I are (Midlands and East Yorkshire), I be (Southwest), I am (North and East)

The local dialects in Britain are sharply declining in importance at the present time; they are being obliterated by the literary language. This process is two-fold. On the one hand, lexical units of the literary language enter local dialects, ousting some of their words and expressions. On the other hand, dialectal words penetrate into the national literary language. Many frequent words of common use are dialectal in origin, such as girl, one, raid, glamour, etc. Some words from dialects are used as technical terms or professionalisms in the literary language, e.g. the Scotch cuddy—'ass' is used in the meaning of jack-screw and lug—'ear' in the meaning of handle.

Dialect peculiarities (phonetic, grammatical, but mainly lexical) modify in varying degrees the language spoken in different parts of Britain. These speech-forms are called regional variants of the national language and they are gradually replacing the old local dialects. It should be noted that the word dialect is used in two meanings nowadays: to denote the old dialects which are now dying away, and to denote the regional variants, i.e. a literary standard with some features from local dialects.

The most marked difference between dialects and regional variants in the field of phonetics lies in the fact that dialects possess phonemic distinctions, while regional variants are characterized by phonetic distinctions. In matters of vocabulary and grammar the difference is in the greater number and greater diversity of local peculiarities in the dialects as compared with the regional variants.

Local Dialects in the British lsles

In the British Isles there exist many speech varieties confined to particular areas. These local dialects traceable to Old English dialects may be classified into six distinct divisions: 1) Lowland (Scottish p£ Scotch, North of the river Tweed), 2) Northern (between tne rivers Tweed and Humber), 3) Western, 4) Midland and 5) Eastern (between the river Humber and the Thames), 6) Southern (South of tne Thames). Their sphere of application is confined to the oral speech of the rural population in a locality and only the Scottish dialect can be said to have a literature of its own with Robert Burns as its greatest representative.

Offspring’s of the English national literary language, the British local dialects are marked off from the former and from each other by some phonetic, grammatical and lexical peculiarities.

Careful consideration of the national and the dialect vocabularies discloses that the most marked difference between them lies in the limited character of the dialect vocabularies. The literary language contains many words not to be found in dialects, among them technical and scientific terms.

1. Local lexical peculiarities, as yet the least studied, are most noticeable in specifically dialectal words pertaining to local customs, social life and natural conditions: laird—'landed proprietor in Scotland', burgh—'Scottish chartered town', kirk—'church1, loch—'Scottish lake or landlocked arm of the sea', etc. There are many names of objects and processes connected with farming, such as the names of agricultural processes, tools, domestic animals and the like, e.g. galloway—'horse of small strong breed from Galloway, Scotland', kyloe—'one of small breed of long-horned Scotch cattle', shelty—'Shetland pony'. There is also a considerable number of emotionally coloured dialectal words, e.g. §cot. bonny—'beautiful, healthy-looking', braw—'fine, excellent', daffy—'crazy, silly', cuddy—'fool, ass', loon—'clumsy, stupid person'.

In addition, words may have different meanings in the national language and in the local dialects, e.g. in the Scottish dialect the word to call is used in the meaning of 'to drive', to set—'to suit', short—'rude', silly—'weak', etc.

Dialectal lexical differences also embrace word-building patterns. For instance, some Irish words contain the dimmutіve suffixes -an -een, -can, as in bohaun—'cabin' (from Irish both—'cabin'); bohereen— 'narrow road' (from Irish bothar—'road'); mearacaun—'thimble' (from Irish mear—'finger'); etc. Some of these suffixes may even be added to English bases, as in girleen, dogeen, squireen (squirrel), etc. Some specifically dialectal derivatives are formed from standard English stems with the help of standard English affixes, e.g. Scot, flesher—'butcher', Sudden ty—'suddenness’.

A great number of words specifically dialectal appeared as a result of intense borrowing from other languages, others are words that have disappeared from the national literary language or become archaic, poetical, such as gang—'go', OE sangan; bairn—.'child', OE beam, etc. Thus, the lexical differences between the English national language and its dialects are due to the difference in the spheres of application, different tempos of development, different contacts with other peoples, and deliberate elaboration of literary norms.

The Relationship Between the English National Language and British Local Dialects

The local dialects in Britain are sharply declining in importance at the present time; they are being obliterated by the literary language. This process is two-fold. On the one hand, lexical units of the literary language enter local dialects, ousting some of their words and expressions. On the other hand, dialectal words penetrate into the national literary language. Many frequent words of common use are dialectal in origin, such as girl, one, raid, glamour, etc. Some words from dialects are used as technical terms or professionalisms in the literary language, e.g. the Scotch cuddy—'ass' is used in the meaning of jack-screw and lug—'ear' in the meaning of handle.

Dialect peculiarities (phonetic, grammatical, but mainly lexical) modify in varying degrees the language spoken in different parts of Britain. These speech-forms are called regional variants of the national language and they are gradually replacing the old local dialects. It should be noted that the word dialect is used in two meanings nowadays: to denote the old dialects which are now dying away, and to denote the regional variants, i.e. a literary standard with some features from local dialects.

The most marked difference between dialects and regional variants in the field of phonetics lies in the fact that dialects possess phonemic distinctions, while regional variants are characterized by phonetic distinctions. In matters of vocabulary and grammar the difference is in the greater number and greater diversity of local peculiarities in the dialects as compared with the regional variants.

Dialects of English differ from each other first of all in sound system. Every dialect is a local dialect: it is rooted in a particular region of the Eng-speaking world. British accents include Received Pronunciation, Cockney, Estuary, Midlands English, West Country, Northern England, Welsh, Scottish, Irish, and many others. Originally the dialect of the working class of East End London. initial h is dropped, so house becomes /aus/ (or even /a:s/). /Ѳ/ and /ð/ become /f/ and /v/ respectively: think > /fingk/, brother > /brœv'/. t between vowels becomes a glottal stop: water > /wo?'/. diphthongs change, sometimes dramatically: time > /toim/, brave > /braiv/, etc.

Grammatical features:

Use of me instead of my, for example, "At's me book you got 'ere". Cannot be used when "my" is emphasised; e.g., "At's my book you got 'ere" (and not "his").

Use of ain't

Use of double negatives, for example "I ditn't see nuffink."




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