A household tale in korean folklore



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A HOUSEHOLD TALE IN KOREAN FOLKLORE

Madinabonu Abdumannob kizi Yusufjonova

trainee researcher of Namangan state university, Uzbekistan


Annotation: The literature of every nation is rooted in oral folk art and at all stages of its development, literature maintains a connection with folklore. Tales broadens the mind, awaken interest in the life and work of people.

Key words: fairy tales, tales, fables, once upon a time, labor, yanban, chongmin, hero, slave, magic,

The fairy tale attracted people because in it a person easily or not easily achieved the impossible. Therefore, fairy tales often express the age-old aspirations of people, their belief in the triumph of good and justice. The main thing in a fairy tale is fiction. To tune the listener to the fairy tale, its action is immediately transferred to other lands, at a different time. The heroes of the fairy tale live and act in a special fairytale time. Therefore, in Korean folk tales, such beginnings are often found: "It was in those distant times when ...", or "A long time ago ...", or "It happened a long time ago ...", "It happened in old times...".

And household fairy tales arose relatively late. The heroes of household fairy tales, as a rule, act in an ordinary, familiar environment, the heroes are more often representatives from the lower classes - peasants or artisans. Supernatural forces are in no hurry to help them, as in fairy tales. The hero of the fairy tale has to rely on himself, his ingenuity and ingenuity. The hero of the household tale is also helped by the stupidity and stupidity of his opponent. Greed, stinginess, deceit and laziness are the usual vices of a rich man in the mind of a storyteller.

As for household fairy tales, they are based on the events of household life. There are no miracles and fantastic images, real heroes are acting: husband, wife, merchant, master, priest. Their closeness to the people is precisely what makes them ordinary and simple, which makes them more popular for the ordinary reader. This attracted us to start working with this genre of fairy tales - household fairy tales.

Any person, whether he is an adult or a child, in his life more than once meets these magical stories full of bright colors, and if not magical, then necessarily instructive texts that convey the wisdom of the people from generation to generation. This is how you can define such an amazing genre of literary creativity - a fairy tale. Below is a more detailed definition of a fairy tale:

A fairy tale is a genre of literary creativity. The tale is divided into literary and folklore.

A literary tale is an epic genre: a fiction-oriented work closely related to a folk tale, but, unlike it, belonging to a specific author, which did not exist orally before publication and did not have options.

A folk tale is an epic genre of written and oral folk art: a prosaic oral story about fictional events in the folklore of different peoples. A type of narrative, mainly prose folklore, which includes works of different genres, the texts of which are based on fiction. A folklore tale meets three requirements of folklore being:

1. Orality;

2. Collectivity;

3. Anonymity.

A folk tale, which is based on a traditional plot, belongs to prosaic folklore.

A folk tale has its own specific poetics. The texts of this genre are built using clichés established by tradition:

1. Fairy formulas - rhythmic prose phrases:

• "Once upon a time ...", "In a certain kingdom, in a certain state ..." - fabulous initials, beginnings;

• “Soon the tale will tell itself, but not soon it will be done” - middle formulas;

• “And I was there, drinking honey-beer, flowing down my mustache, but it didn't get into my mouth”, “A fairy tale is a lie, but there is a hint in it, a lesson for good fellows”, - a fairy ending, finale;

2. "Common places" - whole episodes wandering from text to text of various fairy-tale plots:

• The arrival of Ivan Tsarevich to Baba Yaga, where prose is interspersed with rhythmic passages:

• The clipped description of the portrait - "Baba Yaga, bone leg";

• Cleared formula questions and answers - “where you are taking the road,” “face me, back to the forest,” etc .;

• Cleared description of the scene: “on the Kalinovy ​​bridge, on the currant river”;

• Cleared description of actions: moving the hero on the "flying carpet";

• Common folk epithets: "red girl", "good fellow".

The tale of animals is a collection of works of fairy tale folklore of different genres, in which the main characters are animals, birds, fish, as well as objects, plants and natural phenomena.

A fairy tale is based on a complex composition, which has an exposition, an outset, a plot development, a climax and a denouement. The plot of a fairy tale is based on the story of overcoming loss or shortage, with the help of miraculous means, or magic helpers.

An household fairy tale has the same composition as a fairy tale, but qualitatively different from it. The tale of this genre is firmly connected with reality, there is only one world, the earthly world, and the features of household life are realistically conveyed, and the main character is an ordinary person from the folk environment, fighting for justice with those in power and achieving his goal with the help of ingenuity, dexterity and cunning.

The anecdotal tale differs from the anecdote in that the tale is a detailed narration of the anecdote.

Fables are fairy tales built on nonsense. They are small in volume and often look like rhythmic prose. Fables are a special genre of folklore, which is found among all peoples as an independent work or as part of a fairy tale, buffoonery, bylichka, epics.

One group of fairy tales traditionally distinguished in research classifications is household ones. These fairy tales reflect not miracles and reincarnations, but real reality, household folk life. In their structure, they are close to the anecdote and are usually permeated with an acute social orientation. Usually the storyteller presents a peasant, worker or soldier in a setting that is well known to him. For the Russian fairy tale repertoire, the most characteristic are satirical tales that ridicule the household behavior of a master or priest. The hero of an household fairy tale always comes out victorious in an irreconcilable struggle with his enemies.

In the history of the study of household fairy tales, researchers have focused primarily on the ideological, class orientation of these works. So, Yu.M. Sokolov [8, p.335], calling household tales realistic, wrote that the internal themes, the main ideological problems of these tales are the issues of social inequality. This point of view is shared by V.E. Gusev, who noted the following: “A feature of a realistic satirical tale is its critical pathos. Its artistic strength lies in the exposure of evil, in the typification of the negative character ”[1, p. 255]. Collector and researcher of household fairy tales D.M. Moldavsky characterized the tale as follows: "The problem of the social essence of the Russian satirical tale is undoubtedly a central problem, closely related to both genesis and the environment where it existed" [3, p.185].

Yu.I. Yudin [13, p.2] with regard to this approach to the household fairy tale notes that the initial basis of such ideas about the household fairy tale is the view of the household fairy tale as a reflection of exclusively modern social relations and household life. N.I. Savushkina [5, p.39] believes that the household satirical tale is based on the phenomena of reality, the storyteller draws material for the artistic understanding of life and social structure in the most ordinary, sometimes "base" spheres of human existence.

V. Ya. Propp defined the time of the appearance of the household fairy tale as follows: “The household fairy tale appears when agriculture leaves the primitive stage, and the tribal system is replaced by the slave state” [4, p. 251]. E.F. Tarasenkova [9, p.66] notes that the positive hero of a satirical tale in comparison with the positive hero of a fairy tale is a new stage in the development of the artistic thinking of the people.

The second point of view: both household and fairy tales arose during the disintegration of the tribal system as independent fairy tale genres and developed independently and in parallel.

The richest idea about life and aspirations, about the joys and sorrows of the Korean people, about their way of life and traditions are given by household tales.

The heroes of household fairy tales are, as a rule, ordinary people. They achieve success not with the help of sages or heavenly fairies, but thanks to hard work, intelligence, ingenuity, dexterity. Most often they are peasants or laborers - mosymkun or commoners - chongmin. The tales of this cycle sparkle with humor, they ridicule such human vices as stupidity, greed and envy. The plot is usually built on a disagreement between the hero and his ill-wishers. The poor man who is downtrodden and oppressed in life is completely transformed in a fairy tale and comes out victorious in a kind of duel. [26]

The hero of many household tales is the Yangban nobleman. But it is necessary to emphasize the originality of the Korean yangban. If in European fairy tales the "poorest" landowner had land, an estate, a servant, then the yangban in old Korea was often naked like a falcon. [27] Many representatives of the Yanban estate vegetated in poverty and even begged. The Yangbans often fed off their wealthy relatives living in their home. The strict laws of kinship were not allowed to drive out the yangban. In Korea, such impoverished yangbans were called mungeks, or hangers-on. In a number of tales, the arrogance and arrogance of the Mungek-Yanban are caustically ridiculed.

In old Korea, scholarship inaccessible to the common people was highly revered. A person who learned a thousand or two hieroglyphs and read several Confucian books was considered an educated scientist. The Confucian scholar in Korean fairy tales is a peculiar figure. Confucian teaching, which came from China, in Korea was elevated to the rank of state ethical and religious norm. Knowledge of Confucian dogmas was necessary for passing exams and entering an official position. [28] All the education of such "scientists" was reduced to the canonical books memorized in ancient Chinese. Usually these "scientists" were poorly versed in the simplest life questions. It is not for nothing that the people said about them: "A Confucian scientist, but he cannot draw up a receipt for the payment of tax on a bull." Koreans have put together many tales about such would-be scientists, where their ignorance and complete ignorance of real life is ridiculed ("The cunning farm laborer Tolsve").

A curious feature of Korean tales is that about groom the hero wants to marry not a young girl, but a young widow. Confucian morality preached the wife's reckless loyalty to the memory of her deceased husband. Even the bride was not supposed to marry another if the groom chosen by her parents died. And so the fairytale hero, in spite of the Confucian prohibitions, takes care of the widow. This probably expressed a kind of protest against the disenfranchised position of women in old Korea.


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