A biome is a large group of ecosystems that share similar climates, rain fall, soil types, and organisms

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A biome is a large group of ecosystems that share similar climates, rain fall, soil types, and organisms. oceans-biomes-and-currents-2




arctic: cold and dry

temperature deciduous and temperate grassland

temperate means

there are seasons

seasons – hot and cold


savannah and rainforest

tropics: hot and rainy

seasons – hot and cold

arctic: cold and dry

sunlight amount (latitude) + earth’s tilt = seasons/climate

climate = temperature and precipitation

climate + vegetation = world biomes


There are seven major land biomes and

two major water biomes in the biosphere.

salt water

marine biome m_biomes

freshwater biome

tundra biome - alpine and arctic

coniferous forest biome – Taiga/Boreal

temperate grassland biome

temperate deciduous forest biome biome_graph

desert biome

savanna grassland biome

tropical rainforest biome

8? Chaparral Biome: Mediterranean –

shrubby coastal area; hot dry summer,

mild wet winter; California, Chile, Italy

Biomes - 2world_biomes_map





Deciduous Forest

















biome triangle


Biomes - 3

tundra biome:tundra_location_map001

High latitudes – Siberia, Yukon

Below 67° latitude;

right below the arctic circle

flat sloped land plateaus

There are two types of tundra.

Glaciers - flat
Arctic tundra is near the poles.

mountain – steep sloped
Alpine tundra is above the tree line of tall mountains. http://www.windows2universe.org/earth/life/images/tundra_usgs_sm.jpg


12-20 inches of rainfall each year. globe-arctic

54°F in the summer and - 14°F in the winter perpetually cold and windy.globe-arctic

Biomes - 4http://www.nps.gov/grsa/naturescience/images/grsa-marble_mt_avens_primro.jpg

The tundra biome:

soil is poor and allows only for shallow rooted plants to grow such as mosses, grasses, and small shrubs – no trees. http://www.aitc.sk.ca/saskschools/arctic/plants/tundra_blooms.jpgglobe-arctic
Permafrost is the soil below the surface. It stays frozen year round. http://www.infoescola.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/08/permafrost.jpgglobe-arctic

The ground is frozen 2-3 inches below the surface year round, so it cannot support deep rooted plants.

Soggy/marshy – when it rains, there is nowhere for the water to go.

Animals include polar bears, caribou, fox, owls.http://www.canada-photos.com/images/500/bear-fight_67-65.jpghttp://www.educationalimages.com/it040017.jpgglobe-arctic



Biomes – 5

evergreen trees –

higher latitudes

There are three types of forest biomes: globe-arctic

trees that lose their leaves because of the seasons – middle latitudes
Coniferous – also called Taiga or Boreal

Temperate deciduous

tropical latitudes - hot and wet
Tropical rain

just below the tundra

45° – 60° latitude

Taiga biome:

mountains –

northern temperate areas



The coniferous forest biome:

also called the Taiga or Boreal.globe-arctic

14-30 inches of rainfall each year.globe-arctic

average temperatures are 57°F in the summer globe-arctic

and 14°F in the winter; long cold winters and

short growing season
short cool summers

Biomes – 6http://www.wildernessclassroom.com/www/schoolhouse/boreal_library/animals/photos/wolf_pack.jpg

The Taiga:

areas consist mainly of thick forests of cone bearing evergreen trees.globe-arctic

animals include squirrels, bears, wolves, mountain globe-arctic

lions, and moose.http://huntdrop.com/uploads/gamecams/monster-moose2.jpg


temperate deciduous forest biome:http://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/images/deciduous_location_map001.gif

middle latitudes

30° – 50° seasonal


Angiosperms – flowers, fruits,

leaves fall off each year - litter

Biomes – 7oceans-biomes-and-currents-2http://0.static.wix.com/media/d6d1b9_b902d2b48a4d8fa15ae0867bd1acabb2.jpg_512

Temperate deciduous forest biome:globe-arctic

30-49 inches of rainfall each year.http://cf067b.medialib.glogster.com/media/68/68b687627799d7d51f41f48bc6cc127f312d2d54996def5c4e62baa75bdb85fe/white-tail.jpg

average temperatures are 83°F in the summer and 43°F in the winter. globe-arctic

forests lose their leaves every Fall globe-arctic

season which contributes to good soil.

variety of animal life.globe-arctic

thick soil for trees

Eastern Ohio

tropical rain forest biome:http://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/images/rainforest_location_map001.gif



0° – 25° latitude


Biomes – 8http://www.wildernessclassroom.com/www/schoolhouse/rainforest_library/animal_images/macaw.jpg

The tropical rain forest biome:oceans-biomes-and-currents-2

contains more species than any other biome on the planet.globe-arctic

up to 160 inches of rainfall each year. globe-arctic

4-5 times the rain amount in Ohio
no seasons here. globe-arctic

average temperatures are 93°F in the day and globe-arctic

68°F at night.

top soil is very thin and poor for growing and farming because the rain washes the nutrients away – leaching; once trees are cut down, they do not grow back.globe-arctic

most species live up in the tree tops or canopyhttp://3.bp.blogspot.com/-1uwm32kprpy/tjk4m5lxzpi/aaaaaaaaaaw/f2m5kku0e4o/s1600/rainforest_layers.jpgglobe-arctic

270 feet tall

Is the rainforest the lungs

of the world?

Oxygen? Plankton?


130 feet tall


65 feet tall


Biomes – 9

desert biome:http://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/images/desert_location_map001.gif



subtropical high pressure - 30° Horse latitude

25° - 35° latitude

all the world’s desert are found at this latitude

The desert biome:oceans-biomes-and-currents-2

less than 10 inches of rainfall each year. globe-arctic

100°F in the summer and 45°F in the night. globe-arctic

cold at night nocturnal or diurnal
soil is very poor. globe-arctic

plants include cacti and wild-flowers.globe-arctic

most animals are nocturnal and include snakes, globe-arctic

lizards, small rodents, bats, and foxes.


Biomes – 10

Grassland biomes:oceans-biomes-and-currents-2

found between forests and deserts

generally flat - plains

two types - temperate and savannah
temperate grassland biome:http://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/images/grassland_location_map.gif

Bread basket of the world:

The majority of the world’s food/grain is grown here!


western Ohio – 38 inches of rain each year

The temperate grassland biome:oceans-biomes-and-currents-2

20-35 inches of rainfall each year average. temperatures 86°F in the summer and globe-arcticglobe-arctic

middle latitudes – 30° to 50°
32°F in the winter.

soil is rich and good for many plants animals globe-arctic

farmland - corn belt:

North America has the best soil for growing crops in the world! Why? Climate and seasons – cycles of life and death that build the soil, plus lots of water and sunlight

include prairie dogs, mice, and large grazing animals such as bison. http://i.ehow.co.uk/images/a07/1d/8e/animals-eat-plants-temperate-grasslands-1.1-800x800.jpg http://www.climatechangeconnection.org/impacts/images/gopher.jpg

Biomes – 11

savanna grassland biome:http://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/images/savanna_location_map.gif


tropics to subtropics

0° to 30°


The savanna grassland biome:oceans-biomes-and-currents-2

60 inches of rainfall each year.globe-arctic

average temperatures are 93°F in the summer globe-arctic

no seasons
and 61°F in the winter.

tropical grassland with scattered clumps of globe-arctic

small trees – shallow dirt

savannas of Africa are inhabited by some of the most diverse groups of large herbivores in the world such as zebras, giraffes, and elephants. http://www.giraffeworlds.com/images/giraffe_in_savanna_biome_600.jpgglobe-arctic

Lots of rain (leaching/erosion) washes away the nutrients in the dirt and causes it to be bad for growing.

Biomes – 12http://www.clker.com/cliparts/5/4/0/d/1194985474293452798dolphin_enrique_meza_c_02.svg.hi.png

The largest biome in the world is the marine biome. It based on salt water and contains all oceans and seas. Marine biomes can be divided into three zones depending on the biotic factors.

top - surface
planktic - floaters or drifters

nektic - swimmers

benthic - bottom dwellers

Water absorbs light, so sunlight can penetrate only about 200 m below the ocean’s surface. Because photosynthesis requires light, most marine producers are found near the surface. http://www.oceanclassrooms.com/resources/images/moodlecourses/ms101/unit5/3-14.jpg

Phytoplankton are the base of the marine food web. They are one of the most important life forms on planet earth!!!
Biomes – 13 http://www.clker.com/cliparts/5/4/0/d/1194985474293452798dolphin_enrique_meza_c_02.svg.hi.png

Marine organisms that float or drift with the currents are called plankton. They are the most abundant form of life in the marine biome. Plankton range from microscopic algae to animals and organisms as large as jellyfish. Microscopic producers called phytoplankton produce the majority of oxygen in the atmosphere. Microscopic consumers are called zooplankton.http://www.whoi.edu/cms/images/mediarelations/cmarz_550_121461.jpghttp://www.co-creatinghealth.com/images/foodchain.jpg

Most zooplankton are immature or larval forms of much larger animals.


Animals that actively swim, rather than drift with the currents are called nekton. Nekton include all swimming forms of fish, whales, and squid. All nektons are predators.


Biomes – 14

Plants and animals living in or on the sea floor are called benthic. These include kelp (tall algae plants) crabs, snails, sea urchins, star fish, and flounders. Benthic organisms may either be:http://www.clker.com/cliparts/5/4/0/d/1194985474293452798dolphin_enrique_meza_c_02.svg.hi.png

motile - move around on the bottom like snails, worms, and crabs

sessile - stationary their whole life like corals and clams


infauna - live in the sediments like clams and worms

epifauna - lives on the sediments at the bottom like crabs and corals


deposit feeders - moves to decaying organic stuff on the bottom

suspension feeders - food comes to it, eats food that falls to the bottom, often generates currents so the food moves to it


detritus feeders


Biomes - 15http://www.clker.com/cliparts/5/4/0/d/1194985474293452798dolphin_enrique_meza_c_02.svg.hi.png

Marine biomes can be also be divided into various

zones depending on the abiotic factors.

manatees, seals, sea lions

intertidal zone - where the ocean meets the land;

may be above water part of the day when the tide

Brackish water – salt water mixing with fresh water
is out; includes rocky shores, mud flats, and sandy


650 ft

barrier reefs
neritic - water gradually deeper up to 200 m deep on the continental shelf; lots of sunlight with diverse and colorful life

pelagic zone – open water

oceanic zone - past the continental shelf to the

middle of the ocean – no current, no life,

like a desert

deep water of the open ocean; includes gyres and the Sargasso Sea


benthic - sea floor;

from the upper edge of the intertidal zone to the bottom of the deepest ocean waters

phototrophic zone –

light, photosynthesis

abyssal zone - dark

Freshwater zones: (biotic and abiotic areas)

Littoral Zone – shallow bank area

Limnetic Zone – open water

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