111. Text Interpretation and Linguapragmatics. 112. Methods and ways of Interpretation of the text

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111. Text Interpretation and Linguapragmatics.

112. Methods and ways of Interpretation of the text.

Interpretation or interpreting is oral translation of speech or sign from a language into another. Translation studies is the systematic study of the theory, description and application of interpretation and translation. An interpreter is a person who converts a thought or expression in a source language into an expression with a comparable meaning in a target language either simultaneously in "real time" or consecutively when the speaker pauses after completing one or two sentences. The interpreter's objective is to convey every semantic element as well as tone and register and every intention and feeling of the message that the source-language speaker is directing to target-language recipients (except in summary interpretation, used sometimes in conferences) [1. С. 58]. For written speeches and lectures, sometimes the reading of pre-translated texts is used. In the history of interpretation the rise of the historical-critical method opened a new era. With it, new possibilities for understanding the biblical word in its originality opened up. Just as with all human endeavors, though, so also this method contained hidden dangers along with its positive possibilities. The search for the original can lead to putting the word back into the past completely so that it is no longer taken in its actuality. It can result that only the human dimension of the word appears as real, while the genuine author, God, is removed from the reach of a method which was established for understanding human reality. The application of a "profane" method to the Bible necessarily led to discussion. Everything that helps us better to understand the truth and to appropriate its representations is helpful and worthwhile for theology. It is in this sense that we must seek how to use this method in theological research. Everything that shrinks our horizon and hinders us from seeing and hearing beyond that which is merely human must be opened up. Thus the emergence of the historical-critical method set in motion at the same time a struggle over its scope and its proper configuration which is by no means finished as yet. Interpretation of a belles-lettres work comprises the following three stages; 1. Preparatory stage 2. Main stage. 3. Conclusive stage 96 The preparatory stage requires the readers’ acquaintance with the author’s literary career and the cultural context. The knowledge of the historical situation and the concrete circumstance of the creation of the literary text will help the reader to see the author’s pragmatic task, i.e. The purpose of his book. The author’s biography, an outline of his previous works, the information about his world outlook, his social sympathies, his aesthetic credo etc. will prepare the reader for understanding ambiguous and obscure places in the text and for comprehending the book’s message. The main stage deals with the belles-lettres text itself and comprises two steps: Step A and Step B. Step A presupposes reading the imaginative production for the sake of its contentfactual information, i.e. the plot of the novel or story and the roles of its main personages. Simultaneously the reader acquaints himself with the vertical context, i.e.the commentary to the text, explaining quotations from world classics, allusions and elucidating different proper and geographic names and historic facts. If the book is not supplied with a commentary, the reader can consult an encyclopaedia or other reference-books. Since this step deals with the text taken in its wholeness it is also convenient now to analyse its structure (with two kinds of segmentation; context- variantive and volume- pragmatic traditional arrangement of text components), its composition ( with all elements of the plot), its completeness and to a certain extent its integration. Step B deals with the linguoustylistic analysis of the text, comprising the folloving aspects; a) systematization of key- words and thematic words with subsequent inferences from their usage;b) decoding all lexicall, syntactic and phonetic stylistic devices and other cases of foregrounding; c) selection of poetic details and commenting on their language capacity. The conclusive stage is supposed to provide a final formulation of the content – Conceptual Infarmation based on the analyses of the modality of the text, its impliciteness, the role of the title and its pragmatics. It will be revealed in the process of discussion among the recipients of the book (the students guided by their teacher). [2. С,.59]. The scheme of interpretation given bellow can help to organize the process of interpretation at the seminarsa with students. It is recommended that all students should be thoroughly acquainted with the scheme. For this purpose it is advisable to read and translate all items of the scheme in the auditorium at the introductory lesson under the teacher’s guidance. For discussion at the lesson the teacher can use those items from the scheme which are more significant for the chosen literary text.

113. Scheme of Interpretation.

114. The types of informatively

115. Methods and ways of Interpretation of the text.

116. The kinds of title.

117. The principles of Linguapragmatics.

118. Characteristics of Poetic detail.
The “characteristics” of poetry are what separate it as a medium of writing from other forms. Specifically, what does poetry use as part of its forms and functions that different types of writing and expression do not? Poetry tends to have three main characteristics that set it apart from other forms of writing.

The first characteristic of poetry that is not found in many other types of writing is the use of rhyme. Rhyme is one of the most recognizable parts of poetry. When something rhymes, it typically has two words that have similar end sounds. Poetry uses rhyme in many different ways, usually called forms, because it brings closure to lines that are satisfying to the ear and can make it so different ideas are closely related.

The second characteristic of poetry is the use of stanza. Stanzas are particular to poetry as a means of separating different ideas or sections within a poem. A stanza lets the reader know that a specific set of images or lines are connected and that those lines or images should be read together to make meaning from the text.

The third characteristic of poetry is the use of different forms or patterns. Poems have a distinct flavor through the use of various forms like Sonnet, Villanelle, Limerick, or Sestina. Every form of poetry offers different patterns of rhyme and meter, the use of repetition of different lines or words, and a distinct conglomeration of images and ideas to help the listener or reader make sense of them.

119. The kinds of Poetic details.

120. Foregrounding of the text.

Foregrounding is a means of the text organization that draw a reader’s attention to certain parts of the text and that set up semantically relevant relations between elements of one or different levels. General functions of foregrounding are: 1) set up the hierarchy of meanings and elements within the text, that is they bring forward the most relevant parts of the text. 2) provide the integrity of the text and at the same time they split it into several parts and set up bounds between the parts and between the text and its components. 3) make the process of decoding easier by organizing the information in such an order that the reader will be able to decode even the elements that he didn’t know before. 4) create an esthetic context and perform lots of relevant functions, one of which is expressiveness. Expressiveness is such a feature of the text or its part that transfers the message with high intensity and as a result produces emotional and logical intensity. The main types of foregrounding are: 1) Convergence is a concentration of SDs at one place that perform the same stylistic function. When SDs interact they make one other more prominent and the signal they transfer cannot remain unnoticed. Convergence components may be different (parallel constructions, repetitions, neologisms, metaphors, etc.) Abundance helps to prevent the reader from misunderstanding the essence of the text in case of convergence. Due to abundance the reader can predict the next component due to its connection with the previous components. 2) Coupling is the appearance of similar elements in similar positions that makes the text integral. The notion helps to reveal the character and essence of the unity of form and content in a fiction text. Similarity of the elements may be phonetic, structural or semantic. Similarity of the positions may have syntactic character and be based upon the position of the element in a speech chain or the structure of a poem. Structural similarity is expressed by morphological constructions and syntactic parallelism, semantic similarity – by the use of synonyms, antonyms, and hyponyms. 3)Unjustified expectation (deceived expectation) ?? is a type of foregrounding that presupposes that due to the speech continuity the reader can predict the next component and when a component of low probability appears it ruins the continuity and influences the reader much.
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