Yaponiyada o‘z umr yo‘ldoshiga ega bo‘lmagan yoshlar soni rekord darajaga yetgan. Mamlakat hukumati o‘tkazgan ijtimoiy tadqiqod ana shunday natijani ko‘rsatgan



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Yaponiyada o‘z umr yo‘ldoshiga ega bo‘lmagan yoshlar soni rekord darajaga yetgan. Mamlakat hukumati o‘tkazgan ijtimoiy tadqiqod ana shunday natijani ko‘rsatgan.Mamlakatda 18 dan 34 yoshgacha bo‘lgan bo‘ydoq erkaklarning 61% hech kim bilan romantik aloqada emas ekan.Ayni yoshdagi ayollarning yarimi"yolg‘iz" hisoblanar ekan.Yolg‘izlar soni 2005 yilda o‘tkazilgan o‘xshash tadqoqod natijasidan ham ko‘proq ekani ma‘lum bo‘lgan.Shuningdek, Yaponiyada o‘xshash so‘rovlar o‘tkazila boshlagan davrdan buyon mazkur ko‘rsatkich hech qachon qayd etilmagani aniqlangan.Yaponiya dunyoda tug‘ilish darajasi eng past bo‘lgan davlatlar qatoriga kiradi. Hisob-kitoblarga ko‘ra, XXI asr o‘rtalariga borib, mamlakat aholisi teng yarimga kamayishi mumkin.Shu sababli hukumat har besh yilda aholi orasida jinsiy aloqa va oila qurishga bo‘lgan munosabatni o‘rganib turadi.Oxirgi so‘rov natijalariga ko‘ra, erkaklarning choragidan ko‘prog‘i va ayollarning 23% o‘ziga umr yo‘ldoshi topishga harakat ham qilmasligi aniqlangan.Bu holatni ba‘zilar moddiy qiyinchiliklar bilan, ba‘zilar esa 25 yoshdan keyin loyiq insonni topish imkonsizligi bilan izohlashgan.Bundan tashqari, ba‘zi ayollar turmushga chiqishdan ko‘ra yolg‘iz yashash ularga qulayroq ekanini ta‘kidlashgan.Tadqiqod natijalariga ko‘ra, uylanmagan erkaklarning choragidan ko‘prog‘i va 35 dan 39 yoshgacha bo‘lgan ayollar hech qachon jinsiy aloqada bo‘lmaganliklarini aytganlar.Japan’s millennials are apathetic about romance, and everyone knows it.But according to Hirokazu Nakamura,chief product officerand chief marketing officer of Tokyo-based startup Eureka Inc., young people are not losing interest in love itself.“It’s more about the whole process of falling in love with someone. It is just too much hassle for young people,” Nakamura said at a business briefing this month organized by Eureka, the developer of Japan’s popular dating app Pairs. “They have been placed in a situationwhere finding love istoo difficult. They just have too many things that they want to prioritize.”While the surge in people remaining single may seem unstoppable, online dating apps have become increasinglypopular among young Japanese, who are more inclined to pursue betterkosupa(cost-performance) in finding love.Eureka’s Pairs is justone of many dating apps aimed at making the process of finding a soulmate as easy astapping and swipingon a smartphone screen.When you open Pairs, a list of photos and profiles of other registered members appears on the screen. A user who finds someone attractive can send that person a “like.” If it is accepted, the pair become a “match” and start an online conversation. Registration is free, but male participants must pay a monthly fee of¥3,480 if they want to exchange unlimited messages.Between its launch in 2012 and this month, the app has been used by more than 7 million registered people, and some 4,000 every month enter a relationship, according to the company. About 80 percent of the users are in their 20s or 30s.Taishi and Ayumi Kobayashi, both 29, are one such couple.They married after becoming a match through Pairs in July 2015.Although skeptical about online dating at first, Taishi, who works in the financial sector, saidthat meeting someone via software turned out to be easy and effective because it increases the chance of finding someone “attractive.”“Even if you want to have a relationship with people around you, like in the sameschool or in the same circle, it’s always difficult to find someone who shares the same values,” he said. With the app, “I could meet someone who I had absolutely no chance of meeting before.”Ayumi also said matchmaking apps fit well with young people’s lifestyles, as it makes finding love “efficient.”“I often used the appduring my free time. It was not like going to akonkatsu(matchmaking) party, where you have to actually be there and have stricttime limits to talk with one person,” she said. “To start a relationship from scratch takes a lot of time. … But the service makes the process very efficient.”The rise in such apps can trace its roots to changing attitudes regarding romance by young people, who want to avoid wasting limited time and money on things they feel are not worthwhile, said Yasumasa Kosaka, an associate professor at Wako University who studies youth psychology.Dating apps are convenient in that they allow people to skip the conventional time-consuming efforts needed to establish a relationship — like going out numeroustimes to find out if the other person is really an ideal match— because such information is in the member profiles, he said.Finding a partner outside one’s community is another advantage such apps provide today’s young people, who tend to worry about how their decisions affect their community if they enter a relationship with someone in their social circle, Kosaka said.“Young people today are, to an extent, more conscious about how their actions affect others,” he said. “They tend to be afraid of disturbing the community atmosphere. If there is a risk, they choose the status quo and enjoy the friendships they have” instead of pursuing a relationship.But there is still a negative image in Japan about meeting someone online, as some shadydeai-keionline dating services have been hotbeds for child prostitution and other crimes.But young people seem to be less hesitant in pursuing a relationship onlineas more well-known companies are entering the dating app market, Kosaka said.MatchingAgent Inc., a subsidiary of internet services media CyberAgent Inc., has offered the matchmaking service Tapple Tanjo since 2014, used by more than 3million members as of January. Most arein their early 20s, according to the company.E-commerce giant Rakuten Inc. meanwhile operates Rakuten O-net, a service designed forpeople who are serious about finding a marriage partner.Foreign services including Tinder, a U.S.-based dating app giant that boasts users in more than 190 countries, have also been accessed in Japan, though a Tinder spokesman declined to detail how extensively it is used in Japan as thecompany doesn’t have a branch here.The dating app market in Japan is expected to more than double to ¥57.7billion by 2022 from ¥20.8 billion in 2017,according to MatchingAgent.At Eureka’s business briefing, Chief Executive Officer Junya Ishibashi emphasized that thePairs app is different from dubious deai-kei services used mostly by people seeking one-night stands. The company belongs toMatch Group, a U.S.-based world-leading dating service giant that also runs Tinder.Pairs requires users to link their profile with a Facebook account or mobile phone number to avoid improper use, such as fake accounts by marriedpeople or minors, hesaid.Improper messages,including obscene photos and indications of compensated dating, are scrutinized by staff 24 hours a day.“People often have to give up seeking a relationship if they live in a remote area,or if their life is all about going back and forth between work and home, or they are simply too busy for a single’s party,” Ishibashi said.“We believe people should have the right to make the right choice when they come to a crossroads without making compromises. With Pairs, we want people to enjoy romance when they want.”But Kosaka of WakoUniversity warns that providing too many options may actually hinder the search for the right partner.“When given too many options, people start to think that maybe they canfind someone better than the person theyare communicating with now, and end up failing to decide on someone they really like,” he said, “Finding the right partner can be even more difficult when you have more options to choose from.”According to the National Institute of Population and Social Security Research in 2015, 70percent of unmarried men and 60 percent of unmarried women between the ages of 18 and 34 were not in a relationship. The percentage grew from a decade earlier by about 17 percentage points for men and 14 percentage points for woman.

ia of JapanThecommunications media of Japaninclude numeroustelevisionandradionetworks as well asnewspapersandmagazinesinJapan. For the most part, television networks were established based on capital investments by existing radio networks. For the most part,variety shows,serial dramas, and news constitute a large percentage of Japanese evening shows.Western movies are also shown, many with asubchannelfor English. There areall-English television channels on cable and satellite (with Japanese subtitles).TV networksMain article:Television in JapanThere are 6 nationwide television networks, as follows:1.NHKis apublic service broadcaster. The company is financed through"viewer fees," similar to thelicence feesystem used in theUKto fund theBBC. NHK deliberately maintains neutral reporting as a public broadcast station, even refusing to mention commodity brand names.[1]NHK has 2 terrestrial TV channels, unlike the other TV networks (in the Tokyo region—channel 1 (NHK General TV) and channel 3 (NHK Educational TV).2.Nippon Television Network System(NNS)/Nippon News Network(NNN) headed byNippon Television(NTV). In the Tokyo region, channel 4. Affiliated with theYomiuri Shimbunnewspaper.3.TheTokyo Broadcasting Systemholding company owns theTokyo Broadcasting System(TBS) station (which is broadcast nationally) and theJapan News Network(JNN) whichsupplies news programming to TBS and other affiliates. In the Tokyo region, channel 6. Affiliated with[how?]theMainichi Shimbunnewspaper.4.Fuji Network System(FNS) and theFuji News Network(FNN) share the flagship stationFuji Television. In the Tokyo region, channel 8. Part of theFujisankei Communications Group, akeiretsu, which also has theSankei Shimbunnewspaper.5.TV Asahi Network/All-Nippon News Network(ANN) headed byTV Asahi. Affiliated with[how?]theAsahi Shimbunnewspaper. In the Tokyo region, channel 10.6.TV Tokyo Network(TXN) headed byTV Tokyo. Has ties with[how?]theNihon Keizai Shimbunnewspaper. In the Tokyo region, channel 12.Radio networksMain article:List of radio stations in JapanAM radio1.NHKRadio 1, NHK Radio 22.Japan Radio Network(JRN)—FlagshipStation:TBS radio(TBSラジオ)3.National Radio Network(NRN)—Flagship Stations:Nippon Cultural Broadcasting(文化放送) andNippon Broadcasting System(ニッポン放送)4.Radio Nikkeiis an independent shortwave station broadcasts nationwide in two content channels.FM radio1.NHK-FM2.Japan FM Network(JFN)—Tokyo FMBroadcasting Co.,ltd.3.Japan FM League—J-WaveInc.4.MegaNet—FM Interwave (InterFM)See also*.Lists of radio stations in AsiaMagazinesWeekly magazinesMain article:Shūkanshi1.Aera(アエラ)2.Friday(フライデー) – photo magazine3.Josei Jishin(女性自身) – for women4.Nikkei Business(日経ビジネス) – economic5.Shūkan Asahi (週刊朝日). Liberal.6.Shūkan Economist (週刊エコノミスト). Economic7.Shūkan Kinyoubi (週刊金曜日). Strongliberal.8.Shūkan Bunshun (週刊文春). Conservative9.Shūkan Diamond (週刊ダイヤモンド). Economic10.Shūkan Gendai(週刊現代)11.Shūkan Josei (週刊女性). For women12.Shūkan Post (週刊ポスト). Conservative13.Shūkan Shinchou (週刊新潮). Conservative14.Shūkan Toyo Keizai (週刊東洋経済). Economic15.Spa! (スパ!).16.Sunday Mainichi (サンデー毎日). LiberalMonthly magazines1.Bungei Shunjuu(文藝春秋). Conservative.2.Chuuou Kouron(中央公論). Affiliated with theYomiuri Shimbun. Conservative.3.Seiron(正論). Published by theSankeiShimbunCompany. Conservative.4.Sekai(世界). Progressive.See also*.List of manga magazines#JapanesemagazinesNewspapersMain article:Japanese newspapersSee also:List of newspapers in JapanNational papers1.Yomiuri Shimbun(読売新聞). Conservative. First ranked in daily circulation at around 10 million per day. The Yomiuri exchanged a specialcontract withThe Times. Affiliated withNippon Television.2.Asahi Shimbun(朝日新聞). Progressive. Second ranked in daily circulation at around 7 million copies per day. Known for anti-American and pro-Chinese news paper. Affiliated withTV Asahi.3.Mainichi Shimbun(毎日新聞). Progressive. Third ranked in daily circulation—around 4 million per day. Affiliated withTokyo Broadcasting System.4.Nikkei Shimbun(日本経済新聞). Economic paper in the style ofThe Wall Street Journal, Conservative withmore centre-right. Fourth ranked in daily circulation at around 3 million copies per day. Affiliated withTV Tokyo.5.Sankei Shimbun(産経新聞). Reactionary, pro-American and anti-Chinese newspaper. Sixth ranked in daily circulation at around 2 million copies per day. Affiliated withFuji Television.Regional papersTheTokyo Shimbun(東京新聞) inKantoandChunichi Shimbun(中日新聞) inChūbuare both owned by the Chunichi company and have a cumulative circulation that places them fourth nationally. Other nationally known regional papers includeNishinippon Shimbun(西日本新聞) inKyushu,Hokkaido Shimbun(北海道新聞) inHokkaido, Kahoku Shimpo (河北新報) inTohoku.Specialty papersAmong niche newspapers are publications like the widely circulatedNikkan Kogyo Shimbun(The Business and Technology Daily News), the Buddhist organizationSōka Gakkai's dailySeikyo Shimbun(聖教新聞), andShimbun Akahata, the daily organ of theJapanese Communist Party. Other niches include papers devoted entirely to predicting the results of horse races. One of the best-known papers in the genre is Keiba Book (競馬ブック). Shūkan Go (週刊碁) is a weekly newspaper that covers the results of professionalGotournaments and contains hints on Go strategy.As in other countries, surveys tend to show that the number of newspaper subscribers is declining, a trend which is expected to continue.Bias in Japanese newspapersClaims of media bias in Japanese newspapers and the mainstream media in general are often seen on blogs and right-leaning Internet forums, where the"mass media" (masu-komiin Japanese) are often referred to as "mass garbage" (masu-gomi). Signs with this epithet were carried by demonstrators in Tokyoon 24 October 2010, at what was reportedly the first demonstration in Japan to be organized on Twitter.[2]Among the general public, the credibilityof the press suffered after theFukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plantcrisis, when reporters failed to press government and industry sources for more information, and official reports turned out to be inaccurate or simply wrong.[3]Kazuo Hizumi, a journalist turned lawyer, details structural problems in his book, "Masukomi wa naze masugomi to yobareru no ka?" (Why is mass media called mass garbage?), which argues that a complexnetwork of institutions, such as elite bureaucrats, judiciary, education system, law enforcement, and large corporations, all of whom stand to gain from maintaining the status quo, shapes the mass media and communication in a way that controls Japanese politics and discourages critical thinking.[4]Key stations: television and radioIn Japan, there are fivebroadcasting stationswhich take the lead in the network ofcommercial broadcasting. The five stations areNippon Television,Tokyo Broadcasting System,Fuji Television,TV Asahi, andTV Tokyo. Their head offices are inTokyo, and they are calledzaikyō kī kyoku(在京キー局, Key stations in Tokyo) orkī kyoku(キー局, Key stations).The key stations makenews showsandentertainment programs, and wholesalethem to local broadcasting stations through the networks. Although local broadcasting stations also manufactureprograms, the usage of the key stations is very large, and 55.7% of the TV program total sales in the 2002 fiscal year (April 2002 to March 2003) were sold by the key stations. Furthermore, the networks are strongly connected with newspaper publishing companies, and they influence the media very strongly. For this reason, they are often criticized.[5]In addition, there isCS broadcastingandInternetdistribution by the subsidiaries of the key stations. The definition of key station has changed a little in recent years.OutlineIn Japan, every broadcasting company (exceptNHKandRadio Nikkei) which performsterrestrial televisionbroadcasts has an appointed broadcastregion. In Article 2 of the Japanese Broadcasting Law (放送法), theMinistry of Internal Affairs and Communicationsdefines the fixed zone where the broadcast of the same program for every classification of broadcast is simultaneously receivable. So, the broadcasting company constructs a network with other regions, and with this network establishes the exchange ofnewsor programs. The broadcasting companies which send out many programs to these networks are called key stations.Presently the broadcasting stations located in Tokyo send out the programsfor the whole country. However, althoughTokyo MXis in the Tokyo region, it is only aTokyoregionUHF independent station.Broadcasting stations inNagoyaand other areas are older than those in Tokyo. However, in order to meet the large costs of making programs key stations were established in Tokyo to sell programs nationwide. Some local stations have a higher profit ratio since they can merely buy programs from the networks.Sub-key stationsSince the broadcasting stations which assign the head offices inKansai region(especially inOsaka) have a program supply frame atprime timeetc. and sentout many programs subsequently to kī kyoku, they are calledjun kī kyoku(準キー局,sub-key stations).

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