READ pgs 66 - 71 “Marcos de Niza and Estavancio believed that they had found a city of great wealth called Cibola, Their reports convinced other explorers that very rich lands awaited them to the north.” Main Idea:
The Spanish searched for treasure in and around Texas, but failure to find riches reduced their interest in the land.
petroleum – oily liquid used for oil, gasoline, and other fuels.
** Later referred to as ‘blackgold’ or ‘Texas Tea’
Cibola & Quivira – two cities in the myth of the ‘Golden Seven Cities’.
Cibola, the fabled city, was to have been on the border of present-day New Mexico and Arizona.
Setting the Scene:
Stories of a land rich in gold were a part of Spanish legend. After all, Cortez had proved that wealthy cities existed in the Americas. Now the Spaniards have heard tales of a great empire called Quivira. The story, as told by a Native American they called ‘ El Turco’, intrigued the Spanish Conquistadors. Marcos de Niza and Estevancio’s Expedition
Marcos de Niza
Marcos de Niza – 1495ish to 1558, was a friar (priest) who led a group to find the legendary Seven Cities of Cíbola
The Viceroy of New Spain appointed Estavancio to be the group’s guide Estavancio was an enslaved Moor who traveled through Texas with de Vaca
de Vaca was denied a return trip to Texas
de Niza did report that he ‘SAW’ Cíbola, a glittering city of silver and gold, larger than Mexico City, from the top of a hill
Estavancio, also known as Estevan, Esteban, Estabancio, Black Stephen, and Stephen the Moor, was a native of Azamor, on the Atlantic shore of Morocco. In 1527, he became the personal slave of Andrés Dorantes de Carranza
Estavancio accompanied his master as a member of the Narváez expedition, which landed in mid-April 1528 near what is now called Tampa Bay. Narváez, after a futile attempt at marching along the Gulf Coast, elected to slaughter the horses and to build five makeshift barges. The boat containing Estavancio was placed under the joint command of Dorantes and Castillo. After a month at sea, the craft was wrecked on or near western Galveston Island
Estavancio was the first African-born slave to traverse Texas
They explored Texas with de Vaca and all four returned to Spain
Dorantes sold Estavancio to Viceroy Antonio de Mendoza. The viceroy assigned the slave to a friar, Marcos de Niza. On March 21, 1539, he and Estavancio arrived at the Río Mayo in what is now Sonora, in quest of the ‘Seven Cities of Cibola’
Estavancio was sent ahead, several days time, as an advance scout to find Cíbola
Estavancio sent back a report to de Niza, that he had ‘FOUND’ Cíbola
He announced his intentions to make peace and heal the sick. He told the villagers that he had been sent by white men who would soon arrive and instruct them in ‘divine’ matters. The village elders, suspicious of his claims that he came from a land of white men because he was dark, and resentful of his demands for turquoise and women, killed him when he attempted to enter the village
Coronado Heads North
Spain sent 25 year-old, explorer Francisco Vásquez de Coronado – (1510-1554), born in Salamanca, Spain, to conquer Cíbola and take its treasure. Coronado found no gold in Cíbola. He continued searching the area for something of value, with no luck.
de Coronado met El Turco, a slave to the Pueblos and a member of one of the Plain tribes, he claimed to know where Quivira was
D. the person who discovered them would get to name them 2. Where did Texas get its name ?
A. it was named after the first settler
B. it was named for an Aztec god
C. its name came from an Indian greeting
D. it was named after Coronado’s wife 3. What were the goals of the expedition of Marcos de Niza ?
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. What were the goals of the expedition of Francisco Vásquez de Coronado ?
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. What is Palo Duro Canyon ?
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. What is Llano Estacado ?
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. What Texas treasures did Moscoso miss ?