Sovun tarixi



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QADIM ZAMONLARDA SOVUN TARIXI
matematika darslarida innovatsion va akt dan fojdalanish, Fizika test


SOVUN TARIXI

Sovunning tarixi eramizdan avvalgi 2800 yildan boshlangan. Bobilda olib borilgan qazishmalar paytida yog'li va kulli sovun ishlab chiqarishni tasvirlaydigan retseptlar topilgan. Ushbu retsept bo'yicha ishlab chiqarilgan sovun, asosan, jarohatni davolashni jadallashtirish uchun tibbiy maqsadlarda ishlatilgan.




Qadimgi Misrda 6 000 yil muqaddam sovun ishlatilgan.Sovunning kelib chiqishining yana bir nazariyasi Rim afsonasiga tegishli bo'lib, unga ko'ra sovun (lat.sapo) ismini Sapo tog'i nomidan olingan bo’lib, ularda hayvonlar xudolarga qurbon qilingan. Yomg'ir yoqqanda, qurbonlik qilingan hayvonlarning kullari va yog'lari Tiber daryosiga tog ' etagiga kelib to’dalangan. Vaqt o'tishi bilan, daryoda kiyimlarni yuvib turuvchi ayollar, bu aralashmaning oddiy daryo suviga qaraganda kiyimni yuvish uchun ko'proq yordam berayotganini payqaganlar. Shunday qilib, sovunning tarkibi biz hozirdan foydalanayotganimizdan sezilarli darajada farq qiladi. Odatda sovun aralashmasi yog', kul va hayvon yog'laridan tashkil topgan.

10-asrda birinchi sovunlar Italiya, Frantsiya va Ispaniyada paydo bo'ldi. XVI asrda asosiy ishlab chiqarish markazi Marsel edi, u yerda zaytun moyi yuqori konsentratsiyasi bo'lgan suyuq, xushbo'y sovun ishlab chiqarilgan. 1688 yilda Lyudovik XIV ning farmoniga binoan, sovun ishlab chiqarishda hayvon yog'lari va bo'yoqlardan foydalanishni ta’qiqlagan. Sovunga bo'lgan talab juda katta edi, lekin bahosi juda balandligi tufayli faqat boylar undan foydalana olardi.

XIX asrda burjua jamiyatining g'alabasi bilan sog'lom turmush tarzi va pokligi axloqiy qadriyatlar darajasiga ko'tarildi. Shu bilan birga, sovun ishlab chiqarish sanoatining tez sur’atlar bilan rivojlanishi uni keng tarqatish imkonini berdi. Sovunni ommalashtirishning o'sishi, shubhasiz, ilmiy kashfiyotlarning ta'siri ostida bo'ldi. 1791 yilda fransiyalik Nikolya Leblan tuzdan gidroksid olish usulini ixtiro qildi.Bir necha yillar oldin, 1779 yilda shved olimi Karl Scheele yog'larni qo'rg'oshin oksidi bilan sovunlash usuli bilan glitserin oldi. 1823 yilda frantsiyalik kimyogar Mishel Chevrel bu kashfiyotga asoslanib, yog'larning tarkibini o'rganib chiqdi va ularning sovunlanishini izohladi. Bu sovun ishlab chiqarishda haqiqiy inqilobga olib keldi.

Mishel Egen Shevryol

Ingliz tili darslarida ushbu ma’lumotdan quyidagicha foydalanish mumkin:

In ancient Egypt, soap was used 6000 years ago


Another theory of the origin of soap is related to the Roman legend, according to which soap (lat.sapo) got its name from Mount Sapo, on which animals were sacrificed to the gods. When it rained, the ashes and fat of sacrificial animals were washed into the Tiber River, to the foot of the mountain.

Over time, women washing clothes in the river, noticed that mixing ash and fat, much better help to wash clothes than ordinary river water. Thus, the composition of the soap was significantly different from the one we are currently using. Usually the soap mixture consisted of oil, ash and animal fats.

From craft to industrial production

In the 10th century, the first soaps began to appear in Italy, France and Spain. In the 16th century, the main production center was Marseille, where a liquid, fragrant soap containing a high concentration of olive oil was produced. In 1688, Louis XIV issued a decree, the so-called edict of Colbert, in which he forbade the use of animal fats and dyes in the production of soap. Demand for soap was large, but the price was high, so the fragrant mixture could afford only the rich.

With the triumph of bourgeois society in the XIX century, a healthy lifestyle and purity are elevated to the rank of moral values. At the same time, the production of soap is gaining industrial momentum, which makes it widely available. The growth of the popularity of soap making has undoubtedly been influenced by scientific discoveries. In 1791 the Frenchman Nicolas Leblanc invented a method of obtaining alkali from salt.

Years earlier, in 1779, Swede Karl Scheele with saponification of fats with lead oxide, received glycerin. And in 1823 the French chemist Michel Chevrel, guided by this discovery, studied the structure of fats and explained their saponification. This caused a real revolution in soap making.

Buxoro Olimpiya zaxiralari kolleji o’qituvchilari:

Sharipova Amina Fayzullayevna,



Djalolova Malika Olimovna
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