Сomporative typology



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СOMPORATIVE TYPOLOGY

СOMPORATIVE TYPOLOGY

3. According to Jamol Buranov’s concept “Comparative Typology is a part of General Typology. It deals with studying systems of two and more languages , certain categories of languages in a deductive way ( from external to internal) .

The task of Comparative Typology is to create General typological rules and conceptions by comparing linguistic phenomena of various languages.

Another important aim is to establish general structural types of languages . The main task is to perform a scientific classification of existing languages of the world

COMPARATIVE Typology includes :

a) Characterology studies characteristic properties of comparing languages , it is considered to be both theoretical and practical subject.

b)Universal Grammar deals with comparison of language systems. It compares not only grammatical units but also morphologic units too..

I. The Tasks of Typology 1) to classify existing languages of the world ; 2) to establish linguistic universals , i.e.linguistic phenomena existing in all languages of the world ; 3) to establish dominants , i.e. linguistic phenomena which exist in most of languages of the world ; 4) to set up frequent units - which exist in some languages of the world;

  • I. The Tasks of Typology 1) to classify existing languages of the world ; 2) to establish linguistic universals , i.e.linguistic phenomena existing in all languages of the world ; 3) to establish dominants , i.e. linguistic phenomena which exist in most of languages of the world ; 4) to set up frequent units - which exist in some languages of the world;
  • 5) to set up uniques -- linguistic phenomena existing only in one or two languages of the world. 6) to work out etalons for the comparison of languages.

Language universals

2 .Language universals are language rules and linguistic phenomena which are common to all languages.

  • Universal linguistics dealing with language universals is a purely theoretical direction, according to its levels there are phonetic(vowels,consonants…), grammatical (nouns,verbs…) and semantic types.This term can be called as Universalizm too. It means generalization of language rules and concepts.
  • Language universals are closely connected with Universal Grammar which is a part of Comparative Typology,because Universal Grammar is used for making up Language Universals.

Areal linguistics

Areal linguistics is also a theoretical direction and its main task is to determine the territorial division of languages and to study isoglosses. The area of language or dialect is a central notion of Areal linguistics, that is, it deals with the boundary of dissemination of languages, dialects and certain linguistic phenomena.

Another object of Areal linguistics is isogloss (“iso” – identical, equal, “gloss” – language, speech).

a) Related isoglosses

Isoglosses

b) Convergent isoglosses

a)Related isoglosses develop in languages with a common genetic background. Example : ду–two; modar-mother; три-three-ce , airport - аэропорт

a)Related isoglosses develop in languages with a common genetic background. Example : ду–two; modar-mother; три-three-ce , airport - аэропорт

 

b)Convergent isoglosses appear in the result of close relationship over a long period . Самолет, аэропорт, аэроплан.

Contact linguistics

Contact linguistics studies language relations of various countries, their influence on each other and language phenomena occuring in these regional languages under the influence of changes in the political and economic life of different countries.

Contrastive and Confrontative Linguistics

Some linguists in their research stated that the terms "contrastive linguistics" and "confrontative linguistics" are synonymous terms. L.L. Zabroki pointed out that these terms are used in the same sense.

But linguist L. Grigorieva declared that the confrontative linguistics is theoretical, while the contrastive linguistics is practical.

Z. Gergieva put forward the idea that "Confrontative linguistics is a field of science that studies the similarities and differences of languages, and contrastive linguistics deals only with the differences in languages."

Z. Gergieva put forward the idea that "Confrontative linguistics is a field of science that studies the similarities and differences of languages, and contrastive linguistics deals only with the differences in languages."

However, G. Helbig commented that this view was inadequate: “It is not enough to study language using only contrast approach for fixing a second language teaching methodology. Failures in learning a second language are caused not only by contrast features (apparent contradictions) but also by the common features of the languages. ”

Contrastive linguistics

Contrastive linguistics has a special place among other branches of linguistics. Because it studies languages in a synchronic aspect. It is important to note that Contrastive linguistics is primarily of practical nature, that is, this discipline has practical purposes, and most importantly linguadidactic. This is the main difference between contrastive linguistics and other linguistic disciplines involved in comparative study of languages.

The purpose of contrastive linguistics

The purpose of contrastive linguistics is to identify the similarities and differences in the subsystems of different languages. Usually crossing subsystems of the language (for example, verbs of action in English and Uzbek) are studied separately, and then the results of the research are summarized.

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Comparative-historical linguistics

Comparative-historical linguistics is the first linguistic field which put comparison under a scientific basis.

The object of comparative-historical linguistics is to identify the convergence of cognate languages and to describe the evolution of these languages in time and space. The purpose of this field is to restore original forms for cognate languages.

The study at least two languages is a research object of contrastive linguistics. In this case, the native language (Uzbek) is taken as the basis and target language (English) is used as the language of "contrast":

The study at least two languages is a research object of contrastive linguistics. In this case, the native language (Uzbek) is taken as the basis and target language (English) is used as the language of "contrast":

Native language Uzbek language

Contrasted language English language

A third language materials can also be included in the list of contrasted languages. Both genetically related (cognate) and non-related(non-cognate) languages can be contrasted. However, this is not the case in practice and it is very complex. The object of contrastive linguistics is to identify the similarities and differences of contrasted languages, the most distinctive feature from other related fields is that it firstly pays attention to linguadidactic purposes.

 

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