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Referati mavzu Badiiy gimnastika mashg‘ulotlarini tashkil qilis, onun ustuvorligi fuarolik zhamiyatin, 4-mavzu, 02. GLOSSARIY, 01 MARUZA MATNI 763c0d098935187e80a0a1cf77c41178, [Muhin YU.N., Gabushin V.N., Unegova T.A.] Geometr(BookFi), Аттестация Баённома феврал 2022 йил, YUPITER SAYYORASI, TARIX ALISHER NAMOZOV, Xalqaro tijorat arbitraji, Xalqaro tijorat arbitraji, Xalqaro tijorat arbitraji, 3032100793, akmaljon
Fusional languages.
Morphemes in fusional languages are not readily distinguishable from the 
root or among themselves. Several grammatical bits of meaning may be fused into 
one affix. Morphemes may also be expressed by internal phonological changes in 
the root (i.e. morphophonology), such as consonant gradation and vowel gradation, 
or by suprasegmental features such as stress or tone, which are of course 
inseparable from the root. 
Most Indo-European languages are fusional to a varying degree. A 
remarkably high degree of fusionality is also found in certain Sami languages such 
as Skolt Sami. 
Polysynthetic languages.
In 1836, Wilhelm von Humboldt proposed a third category for classifying 
languages, a category that he labeled "polysynthetic". (The term "polysynthesis" 
was first used in linguistics by Peter Stephen DuPonceau who borrowed it from 
chemistry.) These languages have a high morpheme-to-word ratio, a highly regular 
morphology, and a tendency for verb forms to include morphemes that refer to 
several arguments besides the subject ("polypersonalism"). Another feature of 
polysynthetic languages is commonly expressed as "the ability to form words that 
are equivalent to whole sentences in other languages". Of course, this is rather 
useless as a defining feature, since it is tautological ("other languages" can only be 
defined by opposition to polysynthetic ones and vice versa). 


41 
Many Amerindian languages are polysynthetic. Inuktitut is one example, for 
instance, the word-phrase: "tavvakiqutiqarpiit" roughly translates to "Do you have 
any tobacco for sale?". 
Note that no clear division exists between synthetic languages and 
polysynthetic languages; the place of one language largely depends on its relation 
to other languages displaying similar characteristics on the same scale. 
Morphological typology in reality 
Each of the types above is idealizations; they do not exist in a pure state in 
reality. Although they generally fit best into one category, "all" languages are 
mixed types. English is synthetic, but it is more analytic than Spanish and much 
more analytic than Latin. Chinese is the usual model of analytic languages, but it 
does have some bound morphemes. Japanese is highly synthetic (agglutinative) in 
its verbs, but clearly analytic in its nouns. For these reasons, the scale above is 
continuous and relative, not absolute. It is difficult to classify a language as 
absolutely analytic or synthetic, as a language could be described as more synthetic 
than Chinese, but less synthetic than Korean. 
Morphology is the identification, analysis, and description of the structure of 
words (words as units in the lexicon are the subject matter of lexicology). While 
words are generally accepted as being (with clitics) the smallest units of syntax, it 
is clear that in most (if not all) languages, words can be related to other words by 
rules. For example, English speakers recognize that the words dog, dogs, and 
dogcatcher are closely related. English speakers recognize these relations from 
their tacit knowledge of the rules of word formation in English. They infer 
intuitively that dog is to dogs as cat is to cats; similarly, thedog is to dogcatcher as 
thedish is to thedishwasher. The rules understood by the speaker reflect specific 
patterns (or regularities) in the way words are formed from smaller units and how 
those smaller units interact in speech. In this way, morphology is the branch of 
linguistics that studies patterns of word formation within and across languages and 
attempts to formulate rules that model the knowledge of the speakers of those 
languages. 


42 
In linguistics, a morpheme is the smallest grammatical unit in a language. In 
other words, it is the smallest meaningful unit of a language. A morpheme is not 
identical to a word, and the principal difference between the two is that a 
morpheme may or may not stand alone, whereas a word, by definition, is 
freestanding. When it stands by itself, it is considered a root because it has a 
meaning of its own (e.g. the morpheme cat) and when it depends on another 
morpheme to express an idea, it is an affix because it has a grammatical function 
(e.g. the –s in cats to indicate that it is plural). Every word comprises one or more 
morphemes. 
General classification of the morpheme according to the role in the word is 
similar in compared languages. They can be classified as free and bound 
morphemes. While in Uzbek and Russian, they are called root and affixed 
morphemes.
Free morphemes can function independently as words (e.g. town, dog) and 
can appear with other lexemes (e.g. town hall, doghouse). 
Bound morphemes appear only as parts of words, always in conjunction 
with a root and sometimes with other bound morphemes. For example, un- appears 
only accompanied by other morphemes to form a word. Most bound morphemes in 
English are affixes, particularly prefixes and suffixes. Examples of suffixes are -
tion, -ation, -ible, -ing, etc. Bound morphemes that are not affixes are called 
cranberry morphemes. 
Bound morphemes in the compared languages can be compared as follows: 
Bound morpheme 
English 
Russian 
Uzbek 
Derived 
Inflection 
Lexical 
Inflectional
Prefix
Affixed
Suffix 
Affixoid
Postfix 
Interfix
According to the function of morphemes, they are subdivided into lexeme 
forming and form forming morphemes in Russian and Uzbek. The main function 
of lexeme forming morpheme is to form new lexeme from existing one (
бодр
-
ость, бодр
-
о;
ishchi-, ishla-, ishchan). 
Form forming morphemes serve for 
forming forms of the same word without changing its lexical meaning (
бодр
-
ый –
 
бодр
-
ая –
 
бодр
-
ое; ishchilar, ishchini).

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