Guidance for the inventory, identification and substitution of Hexabromocyclododecane (hbcd)



Download 0.66 Mb.
bet1/21
Sana27.03.2017
Hajmi0.66 Mb.
  1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   ...   21




Guidance for the inventory, identification and substitution of Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD)

Draft


April, 2015


Disclaimer

The designations employed and the presentations in this guidance document are possible options, based on expert judgment, for the purpose of providing assistance to parties in undertaking inventories of hexabromocyclododecane, in its identification and substitution, in order to develop, revise and update national implementation plans under the Stockholm Convention. The Stockholm Convention Secretariat, UNEP or contributory organizations or individuals cannot be liable for misuse of the information contained in it.





Table of contents


1.Introduction 6

1.1.Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) in the Convention 6

1.2.Purpose of the guidance 6

1.3.Objectives of the inventory 7

1.4.Structure of the guidance 8

2.Background information on HBCD 10

2.1. Description of Characteristics of HBCD 10

2.2. Production of HBCD 11

2.3. Uses of HBCD 11

2.4. HBCD stockpiles, recycling and waste flow 13

2.5. Potentially HBCD contaminated sites and hot spots 16

3.How to conduct a HBCD inventory 18

3.1. Step 1: Planning the inventory 19

3.1.1. Establish a national inventory team 20

3.1.2. Identify key stakeholders 20

3.1.3. Define the scope of the inventory 22

3.1.4. Develop the work plan 23

3.2. Step 2: Choosing data collection methodologies 23

3.2.1. Tiered approach 23

Tier I: Initial assessment 24

Tier II: (Preliminary) Inventory 25

Tier III: In-depth inventory 25

3.2.2. Indicative, qualitative and quantitative methodologies 25

3.3. Step 3: Collecting and compiling data from key sectors 27

3.4. Step 4: Managing and evaluating the data 28

3.4.1. Data management 28

3.4.2. Mechanism for evaluation of the inventory 28

3.5. Step 5: Preparing the inventory report 29

4.Production and import/export of HBCD 31

4.1.Production of HBCD 31

4.2.Import and Export of HBCD 31

5.Inventory of HBCD in XPS and EPS 33

5.1.Use of EPS and XPS and related HBCD uses 33

5.1.1.EPS and XPS in the construction sector 33

5.1.2.EPS and XPS in packaging 35

5.1.3.XPS and EPS in furniture and nursing pillows 35

5.1.4.EPS in disposable drinking cups and plates 35

5.1.5. Recycled PS plastic from EPS/XPS recycling 35

5.2. Step 1: Planning the inventory of HBCD in EPS/XPS and identifying stakeholders 36

5.3. Step 2 and 3: Choosing data collection methodologies and collecting data 37

5.3.1. Tier I: Initial assessment of HCBD in EPS and XPS 37

5.3.2. Tier II: (Preliminary) Inventory of HBCD in EPS and XPS 38

5.3.3. Tier III: In-depth inventory of HBCD in XPS and EPS 43

5.4. Step 4: Managing and evaluating data 45

5.5. Step 5: Preparing the inventory report 45

6.Inventory of HBCD in textiles 47

6.1.1.HBCD use in textiles in transport seating and other textile/synthetics use in transport sector 48

6.1.2.HBCD use in textile applications used indoor 49

6.1.3.HBCD use in textile clothing 49

6.2.Step 1: Planning the inventory of HBCD in EPS/XPS and identifying stakeholders 50

6.3. Step 2 and 3: Choosing data collection methodologies and collecting data 51

6.3.1. Tier I: Initial assessment of HCBD in the textile sector 51

6.3.2. Tier II: (Preliminary) Inventory of HBCD in textile applications 51

6.3.3. Tier III: In-depth inventory of HBCD in textile sector 59

6.4. Step 4: Managing and evaluating data 61

6.5.Step 5: Preparing the inventory report 61

7.Inventory of HBCD in minor uses 63

7.1. HBCD use in electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) and related wastes 63

7.2. HBCD use in paints, coatings, glues and latex binders 64

8. Inventory of contaminated sites containing HBCD 65

8.1. Scope and background information 65

8.2. Step 1: Planning the inventory 66

8.3. Step 2 and 3: Choosing data collection methodologies and collecting data 67

8.3.1. Tier I: Initial assessment of potentially HCBD contaminated sites 67

8.3.2. Tier II: (Preliminary) Inventory of potentially HCBD contaminated sites 68

8.3.3. Tier III: In depth inventory of potentially HBCD contaminated sites 70

8.4. Step 4: Managing/evaluating data 71

8.5. Step 5: Reporting of potential HBCD-contaminated sites 75

9. Alternatives for HBCD 78

9.1 Potential alternatives 78

9.1.1. Flame Retardant Substitution 78

9.1.2. Resin/Material Substitution 80

9.1.3. Specialty and Emerging Alternative Materials 82

9.2 Criteria for flame retardant alternatives 82

9.2.1. Hazard Considerations criteria 83

9.2.2. Social Considerations 85

9.2.3. Performance, Availability, Accessibility and Cost Considerations 86

9.2.4. Examples assessed by the criteria 86

9.3 Examples of alternatives for HBCD 88

9.3.1. Alternatives for HBCD in HIPS 88

9.3.2. Butadiene styrene brominated copolymer 88

REFERENCES 89

ANNEXES 96

ANNEX A. Sampling HBCD presence and concentration tests 96

A2.1. Sampling 96

A2.2. Screening of Bromine as indication for HBCD 97

A2.3. Laboratory Analysis 98

ANNEX B. QUESTIONNAIRE 102

ANNEX B.1 QUESTIONNAIRE for compiling information on the presence of hexabromocyclododecane HBCD in Extended Polystyrene (EPS) and Extruded Polystyrene (XPS) in insulation in construction, packaging and other uses and related recycling and waste 102

ANNEX B.2 QUESTIONNAIRE for compiling information on the presence of HBCD in textile application and related recycling and waste 111



List of Tables:

List of Figures:

Abbreviations and acronyms
ABS acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene

ASR automotive shredder residue

BAT/BEP best available technologies/best environmental practices

BFR brominated flame retardant

c-PentaBDE commercial pentabromodiphenylether (tetraBDE and pentaBDE)

c-OctaBDE commercial octabromodiphenyl ether (hexaBDE and heptaBDE)

COP Conference of Parties

CRT cathode ray tube

DecaBDE decabromodiphenyl ether

DSI detailed site investigation

EEE electrical and electronic equipment

ELV end-of-life vehicle

EPS expanded polystyrene

ESM environmentally sound management

EU European Union

GC/MS gas chromatography/mass spectrometry

HBB hexabromobiphenyl

HBCD hexabromocyclododecane

HIPS high impact polystyrene

HS Harmonized Commodity Description and Coding Systems

LCD liquid crystal display

LOI limiting oxygen index

MCV maximum concentration value

MFA material flow analysis

NGOs non-governmental organization

NIP national implementation plan

IT information technology

PBB polybrominated biphenyl

PBDD polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins

PBDE polybrominated diphenyl ether

PBDF polybrominated dibenzofurans

PC personal computer

PCB polychlorinated biphenyl

PCP pentachlorophenol

POPs persistent organic pollutants

POP-PBDEs persistent organic pollutants-polybrominated diphenyl ethers

PSI preliminary site investigation

PWB printed wiring/circuit board

SC Stockholm Convention

SCCP short chain chlorinated paraffins

SFA substance flow analysis

TV television

WEEE waste electrical and electronic equipment

XRF X-ray fluorescence

XPS extruded polystyrene



  1. Do'stlaringiz bilan baham:
  1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   ...   21


Ma'lumotlar bazasi mualliflik huquqi bilan himoyalangan ©hozir.org 2017
ma'muriyatiga murojaat qiling

    Bosh sahifa