Geography and Development

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Alluvial fans are deposit landforms that their development is controlled by a number of factors such as tectonic, climate, lithology, base level change and morphometric properties of catchments. Among mentioned factors, tectonic has a major role in the fan development in tectonically active mountain ranges. The velocity of tectonic uplifting in mountain fronts can affect the rate of river entrenchment and the location of deposition in alluvial fans. When the rate of uplift exceeds the rate of stream-channel down cutting at the mountain front, deposition will tend to be focused near the fan apex. Climatic changes is also an important variable affecting the alluvial fans aggradations and degradation. In the wetter glacial periods, sediment production in the catchments of fans were increased and hence fans surfaces experienced aggradation while during drier present-day climate regime (interglacial period), fans surfaces experience degradation and incision. Although several works have been carried out on tectonic effects on alluvial fan development, little works have been done about tectonic effect on the rate of alluvial fan entrenchment in Iran. The study area is located in the south of Sarpole-Zahab town, Kermanshah province, in western part of Iran. 103 alluvial fans have been formed around uplifting Danehkhoshk anticline. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the uplifting effect of Danehkhosh anticline on the entrenchment of alluvial fans.
Research Methodology

To evaluate the relationship between entrenchment rate of alluvial fans and active tectonics of Danehkhosh anticline, boundaries of 103 alluvial fans were delineated based on Quick bird satellite imagery as well as field works. After digitizing 20-meter contour lines from topographic maps of Iranian National Geography Organization, at a scale of 1:50 000, Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of study area were prepared in ILWIS (Integrated Land and Water Information System) software. The catchment's borders were identified by topographic maps and Quick bird satellite imagery. The borders of fans and their basins were converted to polygons and thereby basin and fan areas were obtained. To determine fan entrenchment, deepest channel on every fan surface was identified by field works. Subsequently, the difference in elevation between the channel bed (C) and the old surfaces of fan, in right (B) and left (A) sides of channel was obtained by a theodolite. Geological data such as lithology, faults and cross sections were derived from 1:250 000 and 1/1000000 scale geological maps. The strata dips of anticline limbs were measured at mountain front by a clinometer.

Discussion and Results

Studied alluvial fans are located around Danehkhoshk anticline that is tectonically active. The lateral growing of anticline towards southeastern and northwestern ends and the presence of a deep canyon (Golin canyon) in the southeastern end reveals that Danehkhoshk anticline is tectonically active and growing laterally toward southeast and northwest. Field works revealed that most fans are composed of inactive or degradational surfaces with large boulders and clasts. The presence of large boulders and clasts, pitting of calcareous boulders, varnished clasts and some soil development on most fans reveal that most of fans surfaces are now inactive. Data show that the areas of fans range from 0.21 to 30.5 hectares. The Largest basin (upstream of fan 74) has an area of 736.8 hectares whereas smallest basin (upstream of fan 41) has an area of 3.77 hectares. The rates of fan entrenchment vary from 0.45 to 14 meters. Evaluating the rates of fan surface entrenchment and structural dips of anticline limb reveals that rate of entrenchment of fans increases with increasing strata dips. Result of this study shows that maximum depth of fan surface entrenchment has taken place over fan surfaces located on steepest limbs of anticline. Data analysis represents that there is positive relation (with a correlation coefficient of 65%) between the fan surface entrenchment and the strata dips at the upstream side of fan. Results reveal that the correlation coefficient between the fan surface entrenchment and the strata dips is higher (86%) among fans with larger catchments (50 to 736.85 hectares). This means that fans with larger catchments are more sensitive to tectonic uplift (or strata dips) than fans with smaller catchments. Results also represent that there is no positive relation between catchment areas and entrenchment of fan surfaces so that correlation coefficient between two parameters is 9%.


Danehkhoshk anticline is part of Simply Folded Belt of Zagros, growing laterally towards southeast and northwest. Studied anticline is composed of same lithology (Asmari unit; limestone and dolomite). The difference in the rate of tectonic uplifting has resulted in the variation in the strata dips of anticline limbs. Hence, this research was focused on the tectonic effects on fans entrenchment rate. Results show that fans entrenchment rate is controlled by tectonic or strata dips of anticline limbs so that fans entrenchment increases as strata dip increases. Data show that there is no meaningful correlation between catchments area and fans entrenchment rate. It seems that this is due to the differences in the tectonic and uplifting rates in different parts of anticline. Studied anticline was subdivided into three tectonic zones. The rate of fan entrenchment is higher along steep slope mountain fronts (zone 1) than gentler mountain fronts (zones 2 and 3). Overall, this research shows fan surface entrenchment is perfectly affected by tectonic situation of strata dips of anticline limbs.

Keywords: Tectonic, Alluvial fan, entrenchment, structural dip, Danehkhoshk.

Evaluating the Effect of Tectonic on the Entrenchment of ...

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Geography and Development

10nd Year - No. 28 - Autumn 2012

Received : 22/7/2011 Accepted : 18/7/2012

PP : 9 - 12
Sustainable Local Development and Attracting Maximum Participation of People

Case Study: The Experiences of International Project of Carbon Sequestration in South Khorasan

Dr. Rostam Saberifar

Assistant Professor of Geography

University of Payam Noor

Dr. Mahmood Fal Soleyman

Assistant Professor of Geography

University of Birjand

Sedigheh Gheisari

M.Sc University of Payam Noor


Although, villagers are the societies with simple social, cultural and economical relations, but in most of the areas, the existence of cultural, ethnic, and religious conflicts issues and more important, the intensive contrast of social classes has caused societies with its specific complications. For this reason, developing proper approaches for entering in to such societies is the main concern of programmers and policy-makers. The experiences of several decades of activities about rural development shows that failure of programs and unsuccess in accompanying people and their maximum cooperation in the plans and constructional, social, and cultural projects has a close relation with the attraction of villagers’ confidence. Therefore, it seems that if we be able to increase the villagers’ confidence toward programmers and policy-makers, a large part of these problems will be solved. The experiences of some successful plans show that the best solution for this problem is to involve practically villagers into planning, implementation and evaluation processes. The condition that is noticed in some projects, including the Carbon Sequestration Project (CSP), which is implemented in Hossein Abad of Sarbisheh region. The managers of this project who, through maintaining and reviving natural resources of the region, have intended to increase the current Carbon Sequestration realized that they cannot reach the targets without participation and accompaniment of people. This group, after studing the social and cultural condition of the region and observing weak results of previous plans reached to this end that they should concentrate their most attempts on attracting the participation of people. They found that they should make plans together with people, instead of for people. Also this research is implemented to introduce this project.

Research Methodology

This survey is implemented by descriptive and analytic method. Therefore, a sample size with 354 people is selected by random method. 188 people of this sample are the villagers who are inhabited in the area of CSP and the inhabits of the adjacent villages who have not enjoyed from facilities of this project. Moreover, to study the conformity of the considered priorities of the project authorities and people, the priorities considered by senior authorities of the project area were considered and asked. For more accurate and precise study of the condition, the required information were obtained through questionnaire. Formal and local statistists were used in addition of field statistics and information. A pretest is performed to determine the validity of the questionnaire in the under the study area; and then 0.94 Cronbach's alpha coefficient was obtained by using SPSS software which indicates that the questions of the questionnaire have a great validity.

Discussion and Results

CSP has directly involved people into planning, implementation, and supervision fields to set demands and proprieties of them. So that, it is sound that CSP has come to provide villagers demands and needs, rather than to maintain and/or increase vegetation of the region. In fact, when the intended priorities of the people and authorities were compared, this survey showed that the average of scores that the people and the authorities have assigned, are too close together and nearly the same. Therefore, participation in CSP has got near to 80 percent. In contrary to most of the plans, this participation has been involved various groups of people. Maximum participation of people and following-up the project implementation conditions through correct and democratic methods, have brought specific consequences and blessings. For example, the current surveys showed that the income condition of households that exploit from the facilities of the project are too better than the households who are not located in the project. According to the obtained results and sequences from implementation of CSP, it is identified that the people have highly got confidence to the project and even they are hopeful to its future. so that, the results of the survey about forecasting a willing future for this project and other similar projects show that 66 percent of the people are hopeful to the future of these activities. On this basis, through realization of maximum participation of people ,the sense of possession and participation in the results and consequences of constructional plans will be provided and people play not only the role of its protector and supporter powers but also as the permanent preserver and keeper.


Since, most of constructional projects in rural areas don’t face with the participation and willingness of villagers, therefore they do not have distinguished results, and the main target of the current research is to identify how this basic problem can be removed. For this reason, the obtained experiences from the International Carbon Sequestration Project have been discussed. Initial surveys showed that significant revolution occurred in economical and social condition of Hossein-Abad-e Ghinab area, through implementation of CSP. Within the process of designing and implementation of the Project, firstly authorities of the project tried to lead the people. In second step, after presenting necessary training and information, they limit their performance range to guidance and cooperation. In third and final step, authorities sufficed to present necessary and demanded consulting by villagers. By this way, villagers, themselves, take the initiative and really get involved into practice.

Sustainable Local Development and Attracting Maximum ...

Continuing this procedure caused that the people not only contrast against the CSP but also they be considered as designer and executer of that, by presenting their little savings. This action has brought good and effective results, including maximum people participation in the plan, increase of villagers’ income, decrease of immigration, sense of possession to the established installation and equipments and consequently protecting and maintaining them, etc.

Mainly, the obtained results and sequences from this project showed that if people practically got involved into constructional plans and projects and their views be used in this issue, not only the budgets and the spent cost will not be wasted, but will have results and consequences more that what forecasted. For this reason, it is advised that the experiences of CSP to be considered preciously take an attention and practically applied in other plans and projects about rural development and even in urban and regional plans.

Keywords: Local development, Directed interventions, Rural society, Participation, Carbon sequestration project.

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Geography and Development

10nd Year - No. 28 - Autumn 2012

Received : 8/6/2011 Accepted : 18/7/2012

PP : 13 - 15
Temporal and Spatial Analysis of Hail in Iran

Dr. Manuchehr Farajzadeh

Associated Professor of Remote Sensing

University of Tarbiat Modares

Taher Mostafapoor

M. Sc of Climatology

University of Tarbiat Modares


Hail is one of the most important climatic hazards in the world and Iran. Hail is a phenomena related to thunderstorm which occurrs in unstable atmosphere with high level of moisture. Hail damages human and agricultural products. The damage of hail is serious in comparing with tornadoes and storms. Most of these damages occurrs in agriculture sector and on the crops, so that sometimes all the annual crops are destroyed in a few minutes. Iran has a mountainous condition in Alborz and Zageos area that in association with climatic system creates a suitable area for hail occurrence. In order to prevent the damages of hail, it is necessary to study the frequency and other climatic features. In this study, the temporal and spatial distributions of hail have been investigated in Iran.

Data and Method

The present study has concentrated on the observation data from 67 synoptic stations of a 20-years period (1986-2005), and the spatial distribution has been demonstrated on the country map. In this research, the analyses have been performed by statistical method. At first, the data collected through statistical tests, were examined and then the related data base has been created.the next process was the extract of frequencies for each station, which is performed by SPSS software. After that the calculated frequencies has been entered in to GIS software (ArcGIS) frequency mapshas been prepared and analyzed.

Discussion and Results

The prepared geographical distribution maps indicate the frequency concentration in Iran. Maximum amount of frequency is 4.7 which has been recorded on northern, western and eastern stations of Ilam and other stations are Abali with the average of 4.3 and Maragheh station with an annual mean of 3.2. Regarding the hail seasonal distribution, the highest amount is recorded in spring in which the highest frequency of 1.7 has been recorded for Abali weather station. After spring, the second one is winter which is recorded for Ilam of about 2.5. Autumn and summer have the low frequency so that in most stations, the hail precipitation in summer is zero and in autumn it reaches to 0.1. The monthly distribution of hail precipitation belongs to March, April and May months.

The highest frequencies of hail occurred in March with 22 cases and April and December with 21 cases which recorded for Ilam and Abali weather stations. Regarding the hourly distribution of hail, the highest amount of hail is recorded between 6 am to 15 pm on Greenwich Time (9:30 am to 18:30 pm for local time). The analysis indicated that distribution of hail occurrence in Iran as a common phenomenon has not been the same for all the regions but it mainly occurres in special regions. It is entirely due to the climatic changes and topography conditions, because the condition for unstable atmospheric systems is suitable for the occurrence of hail. The temporal conditions for occurrence of this phenomenon are on late March and early April. In that time of year, the whole country is influenced by Mediterranean systems moving from west. During this time the temperature difference in plains and mountain regions covered with snow and the topographical condition of main regions which hail is occurred, an increase in temperature can be obsereved. Moreover, the hail occurrence especially at early hours in the afternoon, in which the temperatures difference between the mountain and plain regions is significant is probably one of the reasons of hail occurrence in this time of a day.

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