Exam 1 review sheet w/ answers what does bipotentiality of sex differentiation mean?



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EXAM 1 REVIEW SHEET W/ ANSWERS


  1. What does bipotentiality of sex differentiation mean?

    1. Outcomes of earlier stages do not necessarily determine the direction of development at subsequent stages

    2. Raw materials to develop in either direction are available at each stage

  2. How many chromosomes go humans have? How many of those are sex chromosomes?

    1. 46, 2

  3. What determines chromosomal sex?

    1. Whether the sperm fertilizing the ovum has an X or Y chromosome

  4. What is the sex chromosome complement of an individual with Turner syndrome?

    1. XO

  5. Do individuals with Turner syndrome have functional gonads?

    1. No, they are infertile

  6. When do gonads begin to sex differentiate?

    1. 6 weeks after conception

  7. What are the two structures that make up the undifferentiated gonad?

    1. The medulla and the cortex

  8. Where are primordial germ cells produced and where do they typically migrate to?

    1. PGCs are produced in the yolk sac and they migrate to the undifferentiated gonad

  9. What must occur for the undifferentiated gonads to develop into testes?

    1. Must have a functional Y chromosome with an SRY gene which stimulates an autosome to produce H-Y antigen (which stimulates the medulla to develop into testes and the cortex to fade away)

  10. What must occur for the undifferentiated gonads to develop into ovaries?

    1. Must have migration of the primordial germ cells to the undifferentiated gonad and

    2. the absence of a functional Y chromosome and

    3. the presence of at least 2 functional X chromosomes- (the medulla fades away and the cortex develops into ovaries)

  11. What happens if the primordial germ cells do not migrate?

    1. In the XX individual, the gonads will remain in the undifferentiated state, or become gonadal streaks.

    2. In the XY individual, testes will develop (assuming the other conditions are all met).

  12. What three things must be present for male internal genitalia to develop?

    1. Androgens, Mullerian Inhibiting Factor and Inductor Substance

    2. Wolffian ducts develop into the epididymus, vas deferens, and seminal vesicle, and the Mullerian ducts recede

  13. What must be present for the female internal genitalia to develop?

    1. Absence of androgens,

    2. Absence of Mullerian Inhibiting Factor and

    3. Absence of Inductor Substance

    4. Mullerian ducts develop into oviducts, uterus, and vagina, and Wolffian ducts recede

  14. What structures make up the internal genitalia (internal reproductive plumbing) of males?

    1. Epididymis, vas deferens, seminal vesicles, ejaculatory ducts and tubes

  15. What structures make up the internal genitalia (internal reproductive plumbing) of females?

    1. Uterus,

    2. oviducts, and

    3. vagina

  16. What factor(s) must be met for male external genitalia to develop?

    1. Presence of androgens and the ability to respond to androgens

  17. What factor(s) must be met for female external genitalia to develop?

    1. Absence of androgens or the lack of ability to respond to androgens

  18. Name the three undifferentiated structures of external genitalia and what they form with differentiation in MALES:

    1. Uro-genital fold urethra

    2. Genital tubercle penis

    3. Labio-scrotal swelling scrotum (scrotal sac)

  19. Name the three undifferentiated structures of external genitalia and what they form with differentiation in FEMALES:

    1. Uro-genital fold labia minora

    2. Genital tubercle clitoris

    3. Labio-scrotal swelling labia majora

  20. What are the three terms for the first half of the menstrual cycle?

    1. Proliferative phase (watch out this is not accurate)

    2. preovulatory phase and

    3. follicular phase

  21. When does the proliferative phase start? End??

    1. It starts at the END OF MENSES and ends at ovulation

  22. What are the two functions of the ovary?

    1. Houses all immature ova that a woman will ever possess

    2. Houses two sequentially present hormone producing sites

  23. Where does implantation of the fertilized ovum usually take place?

    1. The upper 2/3 of the uterus, the fundus

  24. Is the preovulatory phase variable or relatively fixed?

    1. Variable, day 1 to ovulation

  25. What is the hormone producing site in the ovary prior to ovulation?

    1. The Graafian or ovarian follicle

  26. What three hormones does the ovarian follicle produce prior to ovulation?

    1. Estrogen,

    2. androgens,

    3. inhibin

  27. When does ovulation occur?

    1. 14 +/- 2 days BEFORE the first day of menses

  28. Name the four things that are released at ovulation:

    1. Follicular fluid,

    2. corona radiate,

    3. sticky cumulus and

    4. the ovum

  29. What occurs if the sticky cumulus is not produced?

    1. The cilia of the fimbria will have a hard time getting the ovum into the lumen of the oviducts

  30. What does the corona radiata do?

    1. Provides nutrients for ovum from ovulation until the ovum is inside the oviduct

  31. What is the name of the phenomenon in which organs of the peritoneal cavity are irritated by blood released at ovulation which may result in intense pain?

    1. Mittelschmerz

  32. What are the three names for the second half of the menstrual cycle?

    1. Secretory phase,

    2. postovulatory phase,

    3. luteal phase

  33. Is the length of the postovulatory phase variable or fixed? How long is it?

    1. Fixed, 14 +/-2 days

  34. After ovulation, what develops from the remains of the Graafian follicle? This is the hormone producing site of the postovulatory phase

    1. The corpus luteum

  35. What hormones does the corpus luteum produce?

    1. Progesterone,

    2. estrogen,

    3. androgens and

    4. inhibin

  36. What color is the corpus luteum?

    1. Yellow

  37. What occurs in the proliferative phase in terms of the uterus?

    1. Cells of the endometrium increase in size and number after menses to ovulation

  38. What occurs during menses in terms of the uterus?

    1. Endometrium sloughs off and is eliminated in menstruation

  39. Does menstrual bleeding occur in the follicular of the luteal phase?

    1. The follicular phase

  40. What does menstrual fluid consist of?

    1. Approximately 2-4 tablespoons of blood,

    2. cell fragments from the cells of the endometrium,

    3. glandular secretions from endometrial cells and

    4. the unfertilized ovum

  41. What occurs in the secretory phase in terms of the uterus?

    1. Endometrial cells fill with fats and glycogens

  42. What are prostaglandins and what effect do they have on the uterus?

    1. these are paracrines, meaning they act on tissues very close to their site of production. Women with dysmenorrhea (cramps) have very high levels of prostaglandin in their uteri. The prostaglandins are actually stimulating small contractions in their uterine muscles.

  43. Can any drugs inhibit prostaglandins? If so, which ones? When should they be taken?

    1. Over the counter drugs like ibuprofen, aspirin and acetaminophen can be taken to inhibit prostaglandin production by the endometrium but must be taken 2-3 days before cramps start in order to stop the release of the hormones.

  44. What role do prostaglandins play in labor?

    1. Prostaglandin levels are high during labor and can be used to stimulate labor along with oxytocin

  45. When does a female have the most ova in her ovary

    1. Before she is born, 20 weeks after conception (about 7 million)

  46. Around the time of ovulation, the cells lining the cervix produce what kind of mucus?

    1. Clear, slippery like raw egg whites and relatively easy for sperm to penetrate

  47. What is the major hormone produced by the ovarian follicle and by the corpus luteum, respectively?

    1. Ovarian follicle= estrogen,

    2. corpus luteum= progesterone

  48. What are the hair-like cells on the fimbria that help transport the ovum into the lumen of the fallopian tube?

    1. Cilia

  49. Which has the narrower lumen, the ampulla or the isthmus of the oviduct?

    1. The isthmus

  50. Where does fertilization usually occur?

    1. The ampulla-isthmus junction of the oviduct

  51. How long does it take for the ovum to move from the wall of the ovary to the ampulla-isthmus junction of the oviduct?

    1. Just minutes

  52. How long does the ovum stay at the ampulla-isthmus junction?

    1. 2-2.5 days

  53. How long is the ovum most capable of being fertilized?

    1. 24 hours after ovulation

  54. How long can sperm survive after ejaculation?

    1. 2-3 days

  55. When are vaginal fluids the most acidic?

    1. After menarche and before menopause

  56. What are the corpora cavernosa?

    1. Specialized erectile tissue located in the clitoris which engorge with blood during sexual stimulation

  57. Is the penis or the clitoris more sensitive to touch? Why?

    1. The clitoris due to the same amount of nerve endings as the penis being densely packed into a smaller area

  58. What is the perineum?

    1. The very sensitive area of tissue between the vaginal opening and the anus

  59. Are men or women more likely to get bladder infections? Why?

    1. Women because their urethra is shorter

  60. Are the labia majora or the labia minora covered in sweat and sebaceous glands?

    1. Both the labia minora and the inside of the labia majora

  61. Do the labia minora increase in size during sexual excitement?

    1. Yes, up to three times their original size

  62. What is the mucus like that the cervix produces when estrogen levels are lower?

    1. Thick and pasty like partially dry Elmer’s glue

  63. What structures of the vagina serve as pooling places for sperm and semen and also serve as shock absorbers during sexual intercourse?

    1. The fornices

  64. What structure forms when the labia minora meet at the front?

    1. The prepuce of the clitoris

  65. During childbirth, what procedure cuts the perineum?

    1. An episiotomy

  66. What is an ectopic pregnancy?

    1. A pregnancy in which the embryo develops anywhere except the upper portion of the uterus

  67. How do the ligaments holding the ovaries in place respond to changing estrogen levels?

    1. the higher the estrogen level, the more they contract and relax to jiggle the ovaries

  68. What is endometriosis?

    1. An illness that occurs when endometrial tissue grows somewhere outside of the uterus

  69. Is the vagina sensitive to pain?

    1. Relatively no, that is why surgery on the vagina usually does not require anesthesia

  70. What is the Grafenburg spot?

    1. Otherwise known as the G spot, this is a small highly sensitive region of the vaginal wall of some women. It has a spongy and striated texture. Stimulation can result in ejaculation of fluids through the urethral opening

  71. Where does vagina lubrication during sexual excitement come from?

    1. Comes from interstitial fluid forced from between cells of the vaginal lining when blood vessels in the region enlarge by engorging with blood during sexual excitement

  72. What is the mons pubis?

    1. A mound of fat and connective tissue on the pubic bone, covered with hair after puberty. Marks the front of the vulva

  73. What are the Bulbs of the Vestibule?

    1. Specialized erectile tissue located in the labia majora that engorge with blood in sexual excitement

  74. Can the thickness and vascularization of the hymen vary from woman to woman?

    1. Yes

  75. What is totally sealed hymen without an opening called?

    1. An imperforate hymen

  76. What do the Glands of Bartholin do?

    1. Thought to play some role in vaginal lubrication

  77. What are differences in breast size between women usually due to?

    1. Amount of adipose tissue or connective fat

  78. What are the structures within the breast in which milk is stored momentarily before letdown?

    1. The sinuses

  79. What are the Montgomery glands and what do they do?

    1. The Montgomery glands are glands on the areola of the breast that secrete antibacterial substances during breast feeding that both lubricate the nipple and reduce the risk of breast infections.

  80. What happens to the color of the areola during and after pregnancy?

    1. The areola darkens with pregnancy and stays dark afterwards

  81. What do endocrine glands produce?

    1. Hormones

  82. What are the reproductive actions of estrogen?

    1. Proliferation of the endometrium during the follicular phase of the monthly cycle

    2. Build up of mammary tissue in the breast during the luteal phase and during pregnancy

    3. Addition of muscle cells to the uterus during pregnancy

  83. What are the non-reproductive system actions of estrogen?

    1. Decreases fat storage

    2. Increases general activity level

    3. Decreases food intake

    4. Softens skin and maintains skin resilience

    5. Increases bone development and retains calcium in bones

    6. Maintains stability of blood pressure

  84. What are the target tissues of estrogen and progesterone?

    1. Every cell of the body

  85. What are the reproductive actions of progesterone?

    1. Increases fats and glycogens in endometrial cells

    2. Increase mammary gland development

    3. Inhibits coordinated contractions of the uterus




  1. What are the non-reproductive actions of progesterone?

    1. reverses estrogens suppression of fat storage

    2. Increases food intake and appetite

    3. Decreases coordinated contractions of smooth muscle throughout the body

    4. Maintains stability of blood pressure

    5. Increases sleepiness

  2. How are hormones transported to the posterior pituitary?

    1. Axons carry hormones produced by cell bodies located in the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei of the hypothalamus to the posterior pituitary

  3. What is the major difference between an endocrine gland and an exocrine gland?

    1. While an exocrine gland is ducted, an endocrine gland is a ductless gland that discharges hormones directly into the bloodstream and the released hormones are transported long distances through the blood to their target tissue where they act.

  4. What are the two simultaneously present endocrine glands of the pituitary gland?

    1. The posterior pituitary

    2. The anterior pituitary

  5. Do the anterior and posterior pituitary glands directly communicate with each other?

    1. No

  6. What is the structure that connects the hypothalamus to the pituitary?

    1. The infindibulum

  7. Does the posterior pituitary produce hormones?

    1. No! It only RELEASES hormones that are produced in the hypothalamus

  8. What are the two hypothalamic nuclei that produce hormones released by the posterior pituitary?

    1. Paraventricular nucleus

    2. Supraoptic nucleus

  9. What hormone does the paraventricular nucleus produce?

    1. Oxytocin

  10. What hormone does the supraoptic nucleus produce?

    1. Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH) or Vasopressin

  11. What are the two things that oxytocin does?

    1. Stimulates milk letdown during breast feeding

    2. Stimulates contractions of the uterus

  12. What is the primary stimulus for oxytocin release?

    1. Sucking of the breast sends a neural signal to the hypothalamus

  13. Are oxytocin levels high or low during labor?

    1. High, but we do not know if a high level of oxytocin causes labor or is a result of labor

  14. What is a synthetic oxytocin that can be used to stimulate labor?

    1. Pitocin

  15. What does ADH/Vasopressin do?

    1. Promotes the retention of water by blocking water loss in urine

    2. Increases blood pressure, vasoconstrictor

  16. What are some inhibitors of ADH/Vasopressin?

    1. Caffeine and alcohol

  17. Explain how hormones are produced in the hypothalamus and released in the posterior pituitary

    1. Cell bodies in the hypothalamus (specifically the paraventricular nucleus and the supraoptic nucleus) produce the hormone (oxytocin and ADH/ Vasopressin), they leave the cell bodies, travel down the cell axons through the infindibulum and then terminate in the posterior pituitary where those hormones are released into the pituitary and then into the blood stream where they act on their target tissue


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