What is the name of the phenomenon in which organs of the peritoneal cavity are irritated by blood released at ovulation which may result in intense pain?
What are the three names for the second half of the menstrual cycle?
Is the length of the postovulatory phase variable or fixed? How long is it?
Fixed, 14 +/-2 days
After ovulation, what develops from the remains of the Graafian follicle? This is the hormone producing site of the postovulatory phase
The corpus luteum
What hormones does the corpus luteum produce?
What color is the corpus luteum?
What occurs in the proliferative phase in terms of the uterus?
Cells of the endometrium increase in size and number after menses to ovulation
What occurs during menses in terms of the uterus?
Endometrium sloughs off and is eliminated in menstruation
Does menstrual bleeding occur in the follicular of the luteal phase?
The follicular phase
What does menstrual fluid consist of?
Approximately 2-4 tablespoons of blood,
cell fragments from the cells of the endometrium,
glandular secretions from endometrial cells and
the unfertilized ovum
What occurs in the secretory phase in terms of the uterus?
Endometrial cells fill with fats and glycogens
What are prostaglandins and what effect do they have on the uterus?
these are paracrines, meaning they act on tissues very close to their site of production. Women with dysmenorrhea (cramps) have very high levels of prostaglandin in their uteri. The prostaglandins are actually stimulating small contractions in their uterine muscles.
Can any drugs inhibit prostaglandins? If so, which ones? When should they be taken?
Over the counter drugs like ibuprofen, aspirin and acetaminophen can be taken to inhibit prostaglandin production by the endometrium but must be taken 2-3 days before cramps start in order to stop the release of the hormones.
Otherwise known as the G spot, this is a small highly sensitive region of the vaginal wall of some women. It has a spongy and striated texture. Stimulation can result in ejaculation of fluids through the urethral opening
Where does vagina lubrication during sexual excitement come from?
Comes from interstitial fluid forced from between cells of the vaginal lining when blood vessels in the region enlarge by engorging with blood during sexual excitement
What is the mons pubis?
A mound of fat and connective tissue on the pubic bone, covered with hair after puberty. Marks the front of the vulva
What are the Bulbs of the Vestibule?
Specialized erectile tissue located in the labia majora that engorge with blood in sexual excitement
Can the thickness and vascularization of the hymen vary from woman to woman?
What is totally sealed hymen without an opening called?
An imperforate hymen
What do the Glands of Bartholin do?
Thought to play some role in vaginal lubrication
What are differences in breast size between women usually due to?
Amount of adipose tissue or connective fat
What are the structures within the breast in which milk is stored momentarily before letdown?
What are the Montgomery glands and what do they do?
The Montgomery glands are glands on the areola of the breast that secrete antibacterial substances during breast feeding that both lubricate the nipple and reduce the risk of breast infections.
What happens to the color of the areola during and after pregnancy?
The areola darkens with pregnancy and stays dark afterwards
What do endocrine glands produce?
What are the reproductive actions of estrogen?
Proliferation of the endometrium during the follicular phase of the monthly cycle
Build up of mammary tissue in the breast during the luteal phase and during pregnancy
What are the target tissues of estrogen and progesterone?
Every cell of the body
What are the reproductive actions of progesterone?
Increases fats and glycogens in endometrial cells
Increase mammary gland development
Inhibits coordinated contractions of the uterus
What are the non-reproductive actions of progesterone?
reverses estrogens suppression of fat storage
Increases food intake and appetite
Decreases coordinated contractions of smooth muscle throughout the body
Maintains stability of blood pressure
How are hormones transported to the posterior pituitary?
Axons carry hormones produced by cell bodies located in the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei of the hypothalamus to the posterior pituitary
What is the major difference between an endocrine gland and an exocrine gland?
While an exocrine gland is ducted, an endocrine gland is a ductless gland that discharges hormones directly into the bloodstream and the released hormones are transported long distances through the blood to their target tissue where they act.
What are the two simultaneously present endocrine glands of the pituitary gland?
The posterior pituitary
The anterior pituitary
Do the anterior and posterior pituitary glands directly communicate with each other?
What is the structure that connects the hypothalamus to the pituitary?
Does the posterior pituitary produce hormones?
No! It only RELEASES hormones that are produced in the hypothalamus
What are the two hypothalamic nuclei that produce hormones released by the posterior pituitary?
What hormone does the paraventricular nucleus produce?
What hormone does the supraoptic nucleus produce?
Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH) or Vasopressin
What are the two things that oxytocin does?
Stimulates milk letdown during breast feeding
Stimulates contractions of the uterus
What is the primary stimulus for oxytocin release?
Sucking of the breast sends a neural signal to the hypothalamus
What is a synthetic oxytocin that can be used to stimulate labor?
What does ADH/Vasopressin do?
Promotes the retention of water by blocking water loss in urine
Increases blood pressure, vasoconstrictor
What are some inhibitors of ADH/Vasopressin?
Caffeine and alcohol
Explain how hormones are produced in the hypothalamus and released in the posterior pituitary
Cell bodies in the hypothalamus (specifically the paraventricular nucleus and the supraoptic nucleus) produce the hormone (oxytocin and ADH/ Vasopressin), they leave the cell bodies, travel down the cell axons through the infindibulum and then terminate in the posterior pituitary where those hormones are released into the pituitary and then into the blood stream where they act on their target tissue