Name the four things that are released at ovulation:
sticky cumulus and
What occurs if the sticky cumulus is not produced?
The cilia of the fimbria will have a hard time getting the ovum into the lumen of the oviducts
What does the corona radiata do?
Provides nutrients for ovum from ovulation until the ovum is inside the oviduct
What is the name of the phenomenon in which organs of the peritoneal cavity are irritated by blood released at ovulation which may result in intense pain?
What are the three names for the second half of the menstrual cycle?
Is the length of the postovulatory phase variable or fixed? How long is it?
Fixed, 14 +/-2 days
After ovulation, what develops from the remains of the Graafian follicle? This is the hormone producing site of the postovulatory phase
The corpus luteum
What hormones does the corpus luteum produce?
What color is the corpus luteum?
What occurs in the proliferative phase in terms of the uterus?
Cells of the endometrium increase in size and number after menses to ovulation
What occurs during menses in terms of the uterus?
Endometrium sloughs off and is eliminated in menstruation
Does menstrual bleeding occur in the follicular of the luteal phase?
The follicular phase
What does menstrual fluid consist of?
Approximately 2-4 tablespoons of blood,
cell fragments from the cells of the endometrium,
glandular secretions from endometrial cells and
the unfertilized ovum
What occurs in the secretory phase in terms of the uterus?
Endometrial cells fill with fats and glycogens
What are prostaglandins and what effect do they have on the uterus?
these are paracrines, meaning they act on tissues very close to their site of production. Women with dysmenorrhea (cramps) have very high levels of prostaglandin in their uteri. The prostaglandins are actually stimulating small contractions in their uterine muscles.
Can any drugs inhibit prostaglandins? If so, which ones? When should they be taken?
Over the counter drugs like ibuprofen, aspirin and acetaminophen can be taken to inhibit prostaglandin production by the endometrium but must be taken 2-3 days before cramps start in order to stop the release of the hormones.
What role do prostaglandins play in labor?
Prostaglandin levels are high during labor and can be used to stimulate labor along with oxytocin
When does a female have the most ova in her ovary
Before she is born, 20 weeks after conception (about 7 million)
Around the time of ovulation, the cells lining the cervix produce what kind of mucus?
Clear, slippery like raw egg whites and relatively easy for sperm to penetrate
What is the major hormone produced by the ovarian follicle and by the corpus luteum, respectively?
Ovarian follicle= estrogen,
corpus luteum= progesterone
What are the hair-like cells on the fimbria that help transport the ovum into the lumen of the fallopian tube?
Which has the narrower lumen, the ampulla or the isthmus of the oviduct?
How do the ligaments holding the ovaries in place respond to changing estrogen levels?
the higher the estrogen level, the more they contract and relax to jiggle the ovaries
What is endometriosis?
An illness that occurs when endometrial tissue grows somewhere outside of the uterus
Is the vagina sensitive to pain?
Relatively no, that is why surgery on the vagina usually does not require anesthesia
What is the Grafenburg spot?
Otherwise known as the G spot, this is a small highly sensitive region of the vaginal wall of some women. It has a spongy and striated texture. Stimulation can result in ejaculation of fluids through the urethral opening
Where does vagina lubrication during sexual excitement come from?
Comes from interstitial fluid forced from between cells of the vaginal lining when blood vessels in the region enlarge by engorging with blood during sexual excitement
What is the mons pubis?
A mound of fat and connective tissue on the pubic bone, covered with hair after puberty. Marks the front of the vulva
What are the Bulbs of the Vestibule?
Specialized erectile tissue located in the labia majora that engorge with blood in sexual excitement
Can the thickness and vascularization of the hymen vary from woman to woman?
What is totally sealed hymen without an opening called?
An imperforate hymen
What do the Glands of Bartholin do?
Thought to play some role in vaginal lubrication
What are differences in breast size between women usually due to?
Amount of adipose tissue or connective fat
What are the structures within the breast in which milk is stored momentarily before letdown?
Decreases coordinated contractions of smooth muscle throughout the body
Maintains stability of blood pressure
How are hormones transported to the posterior pituitary?
Axons carry hormones produced by cell bodies located in the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei of the hypothalamus to the posterior pituitary
What is the major difference between an endocrine gland and an exocrine gland?
While an exocrine gland is ducted, an endocrine gland is a ductless gland that discharges hormones directly into the bloodstream and the released hormones are transported long distances through the blood to their target tissue where they act.
What are the two simultaneously present endocrine glands of the pituitary gland?
Explain how hormones are produced in the hypothalamus and released in the posterior pituitary
Cell bodies in the hypothalamus (specifically the paraventricular nucleus and the supraoptic nucleus) produce the hormone (oxytocin and ADH/ Vasopressin), they leave the cell bodies, travel down the cell axons through the infindibulum and then terminate in the posterior pituitary where those hormones are released into the pituitary and then into the blood stream where they act on their target tissue