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An overview over -indigenous peoples- in the 33 states in Latin America

-First Part-

Country

  1. Overview

  1. Indigenous Groups




Republic of Antigua and Barbuda

It became an internally self-governing state in association with Great Britain in 1967. In November 1981, became the independent state of Antigua and Barbuda.

Source:

World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples - Antigua and Barbuda http://www.refworld.org/docid/4954ce0b19.html




The original inhabitants of the islands of Antigua and Barbuda were indigenous Taino (Arawak) - Kalinago (Carib) groups.

None listed (March, 2017)



Source:

World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples - Antigua and Barbuda

http://www.refworld.org/docid/4954ce0b19.html


Argentina

The results of the Additional Survey on Indigenous Populations (2004-5), published by the National Institute for Statistics and Census, gave a total of 600,329 people who recognized themselves as descending from or belonging to an indigenous people. When the survey was designed in 2001, it was based on the existence of 18 different peoples in the country. However, the latest national census from 2010 include a total of 955,032 persons self-identifying as descending from or belonging to an indigenous people, which at present numbers 35 distinct peoples, officially recognized peoples. This shows that there has been a notable increase in awareness amongst indigenous people in terms of their ethnic belonging.

Source: International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs http://www.iwgia.org/regions/latin-america/argentina

  • Ona

  • Tehuelche

  • Mapuche

  • Mocoví

  • Mbya-guaraní

  • Huarpe

  • Diaguita – Calchaquí

  • Rankulche

  • Kolla

  • Wichí

  • Chupupí

  • Toba/Qom

  • Chorote, Iyojwa’ja

  • Chorote, Iyo’wujwa

  • Pilagá

The number of individual languages listed for Argentina is 28. Of these, 24 are living and 4 are extinct. Of the living languages, 15 are indigenous and 9 are non-indigenous. Furthermore, 2 are institutional, 5 are developing, 2 are vigorous, 10 are in trouble, and 5 are dying.

Sources:

The Indigenous World. International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs, 2008.

Ethnologue. Languages of the World.

https://www.ethnologue.com/language/ona



Bahamas

In 1964 Great Britain granted the territory internal self-government. Some class/color tensions developed as a result of political party rivalry however three years later the black dominated center-left Progressive Liberal party (PLP) won control of the government in the 1967 general elections. In July 1973 the Bahamas became independent.

Source:

World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples – Bahamas http://www.refworld.org



The original inhabitants of the Bahamas were indigenous Taino (Arawak) who are also known as Lucayan. They originated from both Hispaniola (today Dominican Republic) and Cuba and migrated by canoe into the Bahamas, settling the entire archipelago by the 12th century of the Current Era.

None listed (March, 2017)



Source:

World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples - Bahamas

http://www.refworld.org


Barbados

Since 1966, it has been a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy.

Source:

Political Database of the Americas

http://pdba.georgetown.edu/Constitutions/Barbados/barbados66.html




Inhabited by Arawaks and Caribs at the time of European colonization of the Americas in the 16th century.

None listed.



Source:

World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples - Barbados

http://www.refworld.org


Belize

British Honduras became a self-governing colony in January 1964 and was renamed Belize in June 1973.

Sources:

World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples – Belize http://www.refworld.org/docid/4954ce1823.html

Political Database of the Americas: http://pdba.georgetown.edu


There are three Maya groups in Belize, namely Yucatec, Mopan, and Q'eqchi' Maya and the Garifuna which are an Afro-indigenous group resulting from the inter-marriage of African maroons and indigenous Kalinago (Carib-Arawak) on the Caribbean island of St Vincent.

Source:

World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples – Belize

http://www.refworld.org/docid/4954ce1823.html


Bolivia

The Bolivian population is largely indigenous.

Total population: 7 960 000

Indigenous Population: 5 652 000

% Indigenous: 71%



Source:

Indigenous health in Latin America and the Caribbean. Montenegro, Raul A. Stephens, Carolyn. The Lancet. Volume 367, Issue 9525, 3-9 June 2006, Pages 1859-1869.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(06)68808-9


  • Aymara

  • Araona

  • Baure,

  • Bésiro

  • Canichana

  • Cavineño

  • Cayubaba

  • Chácobo

  • Chimán

  • Ese ejja

  • Guaraní

  • Guarasuwe

  • Guarayu

  • Itonama

  • Leco

  • Machajuyaikallawaya

  • Machineri

  • Maropa

  • Mojeño-trinitario

  • Mojeño-ignaciano

  • Moré

  • Mosetén

  • Movima

  • Pacawara

  • Puquina

  • Quechua

  • Sirionó

  • Tacana

  • Tapiete

  • Toromona

  • Uru-chipaya

  • Weenhayek

  • Yaminawa

  • Yuki

  • Yuracaré

  • Zamuco.

All these communities are mentioned in the constitution as official languages. Chapter I - Article 5.

Source:

Political Database of the Americas

http://pdba.georgetown.edu/Constitutions/Bolivia/bolivia09.html


Brazil

The demographic census carried out in Brazil in 2010 revealed that there were 896,917 people self-identifying as indigenous, or 0.47% of the total Brazilian population. Of these 383,298 live in urban areas. The largest number of indigenous inhabitants in all of the Brazilian states is found i Roraima where they represent 11% of the total population (around 168,000 individuals) There are 305 different ethnic groups speaking 274 indigenous languages. Of these groups, only four- including the Guarani- have populations in excess of 20,000 individuals. Half of the indigenous peoples in Brazil comprise less than 500 members. It is estimated that there are 46 peoples living in voluntary isolation.

Source:

International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs, Indigenous peoples in Brazil: http://www.iwgia.org/regions/latin-america/brazil



  • Aché

  • Amanyé

  • Awá

  • Baniwa

  • Botocudo

  • Chamacoco

  • Chiripá

  • Cubeo

  • Cinta Larga

  • Enawene nawe

  • Guenoa

  • Yanomami

  • Macuxi

  • Xavante

  • Guaraní

  • Guaycurú

  • Hupde

  • Ticuna

  • Guajajara

  • Kaingang

  • Kamayurá

  • Karajá

  • Kayapó

  • Korubo

  • Karapoto

  • Mbyá

  • Munduruku

  • Ofaié

  • Paí Tavyterá

  • Panará

  • Payaguá

  • Piraha

Source:

El Mundo Indígena, 2008. International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs, IWGIA. 2008.



Chile

Increased indigenous population. The Mapuche population accounts for 84% of the indigenous population, followed by the Aymara, Diaguita, Atacameña and Quechua who, together, make up another 15%. Other peoples represent just 1% of the total.

According to these figures, the population that self-identifies as indigenous has therefore increased by 50% in the last 10 years. In fact, the 2006 national survey gave a total of indigenous population of 1,060,786 but, as of 2013, that number had increased by 505,129.



Source:

International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs, Indigenous peoples in Chile: http://www.iwgia.org/regions/latin-america/chile




In the Andeas valleys and highlands of the north, are the: Aymara (0.59%), Lickanantay (0.14%), Quechua (0.07%), Colla (0.06%), Diaguita (0.06%) On Easter Island (Te Pito oTe Henua), in Polynesia, is the: Rapa Nui (0.03%) In the temperate and rainy Wallmapu in the south: Mapuche (6.97%) In the southern Patagonian canals: Kawashkar (0.01%) and Yamana (0.01%).

Source:

International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs, Indigenous peoples in Chile: http://www.iwgia.org/regions/latin-america/chile



Colombia

The National Statistics Department puts Colombia’s indigenous population at 1,500,000 inhabitants or 3.4% of the national population. The Andean zone and Guajira are home to 80% of this population. Regions such as Amazonía and Orinoquía, where demographic density is very low, are home to the most peoples (70) some of them on the verge of extinction. 65 different Amerindian languages are spoken in the country, with five of them classified as dying (no possibility of revival) and another 19 “in serious danger” of disappearing.

Source:

International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs, Indigenous peoples in Colombia: http://www.iwgia.org/regions/latin-america/colombia




  • Achagua - Amorúa

  • Arhuaco - Awa

  • Barasana - Barí

  • Bora - Cañamomo

  • Cocama - Chimila

  • Coconuco - Coreguaje

  • Desano - Dujo

  • Embera Katío - Embera – Chamí

  • Guambiano - Guanaca

  • Guayabero - Hitnu

  • Inga - Juhup

  • Kamentsá - Kankuamo

  • Kawiyarí-Cabiyarí - Kofán

  • Kubeo - Kuiba

  • Letuama - Makaguaje

  • Masiguare - Matapí

  • Mokaná - Muinane

  • Nasa – Páez - Nonuya

  • Ocaina - Pasto

  • Piaroa - Piritapuyo

  • Puinave - Sáliba

  • Senú - Sikuani

  • Siriano - Taiwano

  • Tariano - Tatuyo

  • Totoró - Tsisipu

  • Tule - Tuyuka

  • U’wa – Tunebo - Wanano

  • Wayuu - Wiwa

  • Yanacona - Yauna

  • Yukuna - Yuri

Source:

Colombia: Una Nación Multicultural – Su diversidad Étnica. DANE – Departamento Administrativo Nacional de Estadísticas 2006.


Los Pueblos Indígenas de Colombia en el Lumbral del Nuevo Milenio. DNP – Departamento Nacional de Planeación 2006.


Costa Rica

With a population of 104,143 people divided between eight different ethnic groups, indigenous peoples account for 2.5% of the country’s total population of around 4.5 million. Of the 104,143 people who self-identify as indigenous, 78,073 state that they belong to one of the country's eight indigenous peoples while the rest do not specify their belonging.

Source: International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs, Indigenous peoples in Costa Rica http://www.iwgia.org/regions/latin-america/costa-rica

Seven of these groups speak languages that are of Chibchense origin. These groups are the:

  • Huetar in Quitirrisí and Zapatón

  • Maleku in Guatuso

  • Bribri in Salitre, Cabagra, Talamanca Bribri and Kekoldi

  • Cabécar in Alto Chirripó, Tayni, Talamanca Cabécar, Telire and China Kichá, Bajo Chirripó, Nairi Awari and Ujarrás

  • Brunca in Boruca and Rey Curré

  • Ngöbe in Abrojos Montezuma, Coto Brus, Conte Burica, Altos de San Antonio and Osa

  • Teribe in Térraba

And one group speak a language that is of Meso-American origin: Chorotega in Matambú

Source:

International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs, Indigenous peoples in Costa Rica

http://www.iwgia.org/regions/latin-america/costa-rica


Cuba

Although there are no distinct indigenous communities still in existence, some mixed but recognizably indigenous Ciboney-Taino-Arawak-descended populations are still considered to have survived in parts of rural Cuba. Furthermore, the indigenous element is still in evidence, interwoven as part of the overall population's cultural and genetic heritage.

Source:

World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples - Cuba

http://www.refworld.org/docid/4954ce3123.html


Ciboney-Taino-Arawak-descended populations.

Source:

World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples - Cuba

http://www.refworld.org/docid/4954ce3123.html


Dominica

The indigenous Caribs (Kalinago) who are a minority in Dominica are unique in being the last community in the Caribbean that claims direct descent from the indigenous Kalinago who originally populated the entire region before the arrival of European colonizers. The Carib Territory is governed by the 1978 Carib Act. Residents over the age of 18 are eligible to elect a Chief and six-member Council of Advisors for a five-year term as well as to elect a representative for the national parliament.

Source:

The UN Refugee Agency

http://www.refworld.org/docid/49749d2f2.html


Today's Caribs are the descendants of what was long considered to be male migrants from mainland South America, who 'roamed' the sea that bears their name, supposedly killing off the Arawak men and intermarrying with the indigenous Arawak women.

Source:

The UN Refugee Agency

http://www.refworld.org/docid/49749d2f2.html


Dominican Republic

The original inhabitants of the island of Hispaniola (now Haiti/DR) were the indigenous Taíno, an Arawak-speaking people who began arriving by canoe from the Belize and the Yucatan peninsula between 6000 and 4000 BC. Hispaniola is now recognized as the main cultural centre of the Taíno-Arawak, who also colonized most of the Caribbean islands in conjunction with indigenous people who sailed up from the Orinoco/Amazon region of South America.

Source:

World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples

http://minorityrights.org/country/dominican-republic


Ciboney-Taino-Arawak-descended populations.

Source:

World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples

http://minorityrights.org/country/dominican-republic


Ecuador

Ecuador’s total population numbers some 16,189,044 inhabitants, and includes 14 nationalities accounting for around 1,100,000 people, all joined together in a series of local, regional and national organisations. 60.3% of the Andean Kichwa live in six provinces in the Central-North Mountains; 24.1% live in the Amazon region and belong to ten nationalities; 7.3% live in the Southern Mountains; and the remaining 8.3% live in the Coastal region and the Galapagos Islands. 78.5% still live in rural areas and 21.5% in urban areas.

Source:

International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs, Indigenous peoples in Ecuador http://www.iwgia.org/regions/latin-america/ecuador



A number of nationalities have very low population numbers and are in a highly vulnerable situation: in the Amazon the:

  • A'i Cofán (1,485 inhabitants)

  • Shiwiar (1,198)

  • Siekopai (689)

  • Siona (611)

  • Sápara (559)

And in the coastal areas, the:

  • Epera (546)

  • Manta (311)

Source:

International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs, Indigenous peoples in Ecuador

http://www.iwgia.org/regions/latin-america/ecuador


El Salvador

Before the Spanish colonial period El Salvador was inhabited by a sizeable indigenous population. These groups included, Lenca, Maya Chortí, Maya Pocomam, Cacaopera and Nahua Pipil. Some like the Lenca occupied a large territory that also encompassed present day Honduras. According to the National Salvadoran Indigenous Coordination Council (CCNIS) and CONCULTURA (National Council for Art and Culture at the Ministry of Education), approximately 600,000 or 10 per cent of Salvadorian peoples are indigenous.

Source:

World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples

http://minorityrights.org/minorities/indigenous-peoples-2/


The majority of the El Salvador indigenous population is Nahua-Pipil. A few Maya Chorti live in the department of Ahuachapán, near Guatemala.

Source:

World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples

http://minorityrights.org/minorities/indigenous-peoples-2/


Grenada

The majority of the population of Grenada is of African descent (82 per cent, US Dept of State). Some members of the population (3%, CIA: 2000) are also descended from East Indian indentured labourers. There is a small Muslim population mostly originating from Gujarati Indian immigrants and there is also a small community of Rastafarians.

Source:

World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples

http://minorityrights.org/country/grenada


No significant indigenous Kalinago (Carib) and Taino (Arawak) populations survived the colonial era.

Source:

World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples

http://minorityrights.org/country/grenada


Guatemala

The more than 6 million indigenous inhabitants (60% of the country’s total population), are made up of the indigenous peoples. The indigenous population continue to lag behind the non-indigenous population in social statistics: they are 2.8 times poorer and have 13 years’ less life expectancy; meanwhile, only 5% of university students are indigenous. The human development report from 2008 indicates that 73% of the indigenous population are poor (as opposed to 35% of the non-indigenous population), and 26% are extremely poor. Even so, indigenous participation in the country’s economy as a whole account for 61.7% of output, as opposed to 57.1% for the non-indigenous population.

Source:

El Mundo Indígena, 2016. By Grupo Internacional de Trabajo sobre Asuntos Indígenas (IWGIA), 2016.



  • Achi’

  • Akateco

  • Awakateco

  • Chalchiteco

  • Ch’orti’

  • Chuj

  • Itza’

  • Ixil

  • Jacalteco

  • Kaqchikel

  • K’iche’

  • Mam

  • Mopan

  • Poqomam

  • Poqomchi’

  • Q’anjob’al

  • Q’eqchi’

  • Sakapulteco

  • Sipakapense

  • Tektiteko

  • Tz’utujil

  • Uspanteko

  • Xinka

  • Garífuna

Source:

El Mundo Indígena, 2016. International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs, IWGIA. 2016.



Guyana

The indigenous people of Guyana are known locally as ‘Amerindians'. It is estimated that they number around more than 50,000. Indigenous groups now constitute about nine per cent of the total population of Guyana and about 90 per cent of the communities are located in the vast remote interior. This is in contrast to the majority of Guyana's people who are essentially concentrated on the narrow Atlantic coastal strip.

Source:

World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples

http://minorityrights.org/minorities/indigenous-peoples-3/


The coastal Amerindians are the Kalihna, (Carib-Galibi), Lokono (Arawak-Taino) and Warau, whose names reflect the three indigenous language families. The interior Amerindians are classified into six groups: Akawaio, Arekuna, Patamona, Waiwai, Makushi and Wapishana. All of these interior groups originally spoke Carib with the exception of the Wapishana, who are within the Taino-Arawak linguistic family.

Source:

World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples

http://minorityrights.org/minorities/indigenous-peoples-3/


Haiti

The original inhabitants of the island of Hispaniola (now Haiti/DR) were the indigenous Taíno, an Arawak-speaking people who began arriving from the Yucatan peninsula as early as 4000 BCE. Joined later by successive additional waves of indigenous groups from the Orinoco/Amazon region of South America (present-day Venezuela) the Taíno settled all across the Caribbean and became known as the Island Arawaks. The name Haiti is derived from the indigenous Taíno-Arawak name for the entire island of Hispaniola, which they called Ay-ti ‘land of mountains’.

Source:

World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples

http://minorityrights.org/country/haiti


The overwhelming majority of the population (95%)of Haiti is predominantly of African descent. The rest of the population is mostly of mixed European-African ancestry (mulatto).

Source:

World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples

http://minorityrights.org/country/haiti


Honduras

Given the lack of an official census, it is estimated that the nine indigenous and Afro-descendant peoples living in Honduras number 1.27 million inhabitants.

Source:

International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs, Indigenous peoples in Honduras: http://www.iwgia.org/regions/latin-america/honduras



Divided between the following groups: Lenca, 720,000; Garífuna, 380,000; Miskito, 87,000; Tolupan, 47,500; Nahua, 20,000; Chortí, 10,500; Pech, 3,800 and Tawahka, 1,500.

Each of the peoples retains a degree of individuality, in line with their habits and customs, and this is reflected in their day-to-day practices in terms of, for example, their community councils.



Source:

International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs, Indigenous peoples in Honduras: http://www.iwgia.org/regions/latin-america/honduras



Jamaica

The original inhabitants of Jamaica were the indigenous Taíno, an Arawak-speaking people who began arriving on Hispaniola by canoe from the Belize and the Yucatan peninsula sometime before 2000 BCE. From there they colonized the large islands like Jamaica and the rest of the Caribbean in conjunction with waves of indigenous people who had also sailed up from the Orinoco/Amazon region of South America. The name Jamaica is derived from Xaymaca, the Taíno-Arawak name for the island, which translates, as ‘isle of springs’.

Source:

World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples

http://minorityrights.org/country/jamaica


The majority of the population (90 per cent, 2006 Census) is of Jamaica is of West African origin. The rest are people of mixed heritage with combinations that include European-African, Afro-indigenous, Chinese-African and East Indian-African.

Source:

World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples



http://minorityrights.org/country/jamaica

Mexico

Mexico has the largest indigenous population of all Latin American countries. A total of 16,933,283, representing 15.1% of the total population (112,236,538), have been recorded and some 68 indigenous languages and 364 dialects are spoken within its territory. Mexico ratified ILO Convention No.169 in 1990. In 1992, the Constitution was amended and Mexico was recognized as a pluricultural nation (Art. 6). In 2001, as a result of the mobilization of indigenous peoples, the Constitution was again amended to reflect the “San Andres Accords” negotiated in 1996 between the government and the Zapatista National Liberation Army (EZLN).

Source: The Indigenous World. International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs, IWGIA. 2016.

By Region / State:

Baja California (Cochimi, Cucapá, Kiliwa, Kumiai, Paipai)

Campeche (Jacaltecos, Kanjobales, Mam, Mayas)

Coahuila (Kikapúes)

Chiapas (Aguacatecos, Choles, Jacaltecos, Kanjobales, Lacandones, Mam, Mochos, Tojolabales, Tzeltales, Tzotziles, Zoques)

Chihuahua (Guarijíos, Pimas, Tarahumaras, Tepehuanos)

City of Mexico (Matlatzinca, Nahuas)

Durango (Huicholes, Mexicaneros, Nahuas, Tarahumaras, Tepehuanos)

Guanajuato (Chichimica Jonaz)

Guerrero (Amuzgos, Mixtecos, Nahuas, Tlapanecos)

Hidalgo (Nahuas, Otomíes, Tepehuas)

Jalisco (Nahuas, Huichol)

Estado de México (Matlatzinca, Mazahuas, Nahuas, Tlahuicas)

Michoacán (Otomíes, Mazahuas, Nahuas, Purépechas)

Morelos (Nahuas)

Nayarit (Coras, Huicholes, Mexicaneros, Nahuas, Tepehuanos)

Oaxaca (Amuzgos, Chatinos, Chinantecos, Chochos, Chontales, Cuicatecos, Huaves, Ixcatecos, Mazatecos, Mixes, Mixtecos, Nahuas, Tacuates, Triquis, Zapotecos, Zoques, Zoques Chimalapas)

Puebla (Mixtecos, Nahuas, Otomíes, Popolocas, Tepehuas, Totonacas)

Querétaro (Pames)

Quintana Roo (Jacaltecos, Kanjobales, Mam, Mayas)

San Luis Potosí (Chichimica Jonaz, Huastecos, Nahuas, Pames)

Sinaloa (Mayos)

Sonora The eight different tribes that inhabit Sonora are distributed in 19 municipalities. Mayos in Huatabampo, Etchojoa, Navojoa and Benito Juárez; Yaquis, represented in Guaymas, Bácum, San Ignacio Rio Muerto and Cajeme; Seris in Hermosillo and Pitiquito; Guarijíos, in Alamos and Quiriego. Pimas in Yécora; Papagos in Plutarco Elías Calles, Puerto Peñasco, Caborca and Altar; Cucapá, in San Luis Río Colorado and kikapú in Bacerac.

Tabasco (Nahuas, Chontales)

Tamaulipas (Nahuas)

Tlaxcala (Nahuas)

Veracruz (Nahuas, Popolocas, Tepehuas, Totonacas)

Yucatán (Mayas)

Sources: Atlas de los Pueblos Indígenas, 2010. (http://www.cdi.gob.mx/atlas)

Instituto Estatal Electoral y de Participación Ciudadana IEE, Sonora. México. http://www.ieesonora.org.mx/



Nicaragua

The Sandinista National Liberation Front (FSLN) came to power in Nicaragua in 1979, subsequently having to face an armed insurgency supported by the United States. Indigenous peoples from the Caribbean Coast, primarily the Miskitu, took part in this insurgency. In order to put an end to indigenous resistance, the FSLN created the Autonomous Regions of the North and South Atlantic (RAAN/RAAS), on the basis of a New Political Constitution and the Autonomy Law (Law 28). Having lost democratically-held elections in 1990, Daniel Ortega, of the FSLN, returned to power in 2007. Ortega is now in his third term of office (2011-2016), and has now managed to amend the Constitution to enable perpetual re-election.

Source:

International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs http://www.iwgia.org/regions/latin-america/nicaragua



The seven indigenous peoples of Nicaragua live in two main regions: firstly, the Pacific Coast and Centre North of the country (or simply the Pacific), which is home to the:

  • Chorotega (221,000)

  • Cacaopera or Matagalpa (97,500)

  • Ocanxiu or Sutiaba (49,000)

  • Nahoa or Náhuatl (20,000)

And on the Caribbean (or Atlantic) Coast, the:

  • Miskitu (150,000)

  • Sumu-Mayangna (27,000)

  • Rama (2,000)

Other peoples enjoying collective rights in accordance with the Political Constitution of Nicaragua (1987) are the black populations of African descent, known as “ethnic communities” in national legislation. These include the Creole or Afro-Caribbeans (43,000) and the Garífuna (2,500).

Source:

International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs http://www.iwgia.org/regions/latin-america/nicaragua



Panama

The indigenous peoples are organized into 12 representative structures (10 congresses and 2 councils) affiliated to the Coordinating Body of Indigenous Peoples of Panama (Coordinadora de los Pueblos Indígenas de Panamá/ COONAPIP). Most of these peoples did not traditionally recognise unitary forms of government, outside of kinship and the community; the indigenous comarcas and the Kuna model of relating to the State have since spread among them, opening a path to new forms of authority and institutionality. Worthy of note among these are the Kuna, Emberá-Wounaan and Ngöbe-Buglé general congresses as well as their caciques. These forms of organisation are also reproduced at community level.

Each indigenous comarca has a Comarca Law and an administrative organic charter that lays down the laws and forms of organisation agreed with the Panamanian government. These include justice administration and conflict resolution agreed in line with their culture, the methods of use and enjoyment of the land and bilingual education. Political representation of the comarcas is also guaranteed by Panama. The Kuna are organised into two collective bodies: the General Congress and the Congress of Culture. The Kuna General Congress represents the Kuna people externally whilst also guaranteeing their autonomy, legislating and administering social, educational, historical and environmental policies. The task of watching over Kuna cultural life falls to the Kuna Congress of Culture



Source:

International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs

http://www.iwgia.org/regions/latin-america/panama


The 2000 Census indicated that there were 285,231 indigenous people in the country, of which 61,707 were Kuna, 17,731 Buglé, 993 Bokota, 6,882 Wounaan, 169,130 Ngöbe, 3,305 Teribe, 22,485 Emberá, 2,521 Bri-bri and 477 unclassified.

60% of the Kuna live in the three indigenous Kuna comarcas (regions). The oldest and most well-known comarca is Kuna Yala, which includes some 365 islands along the Caribbean coast and has the category of province. The Madungandí comarca was later created and, lastly, that of Wargandí. Both are classified as corregimientos. The rest of the population live in Kuna communities in other areas of Darién Province and Panama, as well as in urban areas.

The Kuna or Dule are characterised by their strong political and administrative cohesion as demonstrated in the Kuna General Congress, which was established in 1945 as their highest government body.

Source:

International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs

http://www.iwgia.org/regions/latin-america/panama


Paraguay

According to preliminary data from the 2012 National Census of Indigenous Population and Housing, published in 2013, the Oriental region is home to the highest proportion of indigenous peoples (52.3%) while the Chaco region has the greatest diversity of peoples. They form, in all, 531 communities and 241 villages.

Source:

International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs

http://www.iwgia.org/regions/latin-america/paraguay


There are approximately 112,848 indigenous people living in Paraguay, belonging to 19 peoples from five different linguistic families:

  • Guaraní (Aché, Avá Guaraní, Mbya, Pai Tavytera, Guaraní Ñandeva, Guaraní Occidental)

  • Maskoy (Toba Maskoy, Enlhet Norte, Enxet Sur, Sanapaná, Angaité, Guaná)

  • Mataco Mataguayo (Nivaclé, Maká, Manjui)

  • Zamuco (Ayoreo, Chamacoco: constituting the Yvytoso and Tomáraho)

  • Guaicurú (Qom)

Source:

International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs

http://www.iwgia.org/regions/latin-america/paraguay


Peru

Peru has 28.2 million inhabitants (Population Census 2007). The indigenous population represents 14% of the national population- or more than 4 million persons who belong to some 55 different indigenous peoples. 47.5 percent of the indigenous population is under 15 years of age, and 46.5 percent has no kind of health insurance. 19.4 percent stated that they were unable to read or write but, in the case of women, this rose to 28.1 percent, out of a population in which only 47.3 percent of those over 15 have received any kind of primary education.

Source:

International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs

http://www.iwgia.org/regions/latin-america/peru


Of the indigenous peoples in Peru, 83.11% belong to the Quecha people; 10.92% to the Aymara people, and 1.67% to the Asháninka people. The remaining 4.31% belong to 52 different indigenous peoples in the Amazon region, who are organized in 1786 communities according to the Census of the Indigenous Communities (2007). This census, however, did not include nine peoples "due to the fact that certain ethnic groups no longer are organized in communities having been absorbed by other villages; there are, furthermore, other communities who because of their isolated location are of very difficult access".

According to the Ministry of Education there are 47 indigenous languages in the country. Peru's constitution stipulates in its Art. 48 "The official languages of the State are Spanish and, wherever they predominate, Quechua, Aymara and other native tongues, in accordance with the law". Almost 3.4 million are Quechua speakers and 0.5 million are Aymara speakers. Both languages predominate in the Coastal-Andean part of the country.



Source:

International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs

http://www.iwgia.org/regions/latin-america/peru


St. Kitts and Nevis

When Columbus landed in 1493 he named Saint Kitts after his patron Saint. Christopher. Saint Kitts was eventually settled by the English in 1623 and Nevis in 1628. For the next two hundred years shiploads of Africans were brought in to provide forced labour on the sugar plantations. As in the rest of the British Empire slavery on St Kitts was abolished in 1883. During the 17th and 18th centuries Saint Kitts was seized by the French several times but was finally ceded to Great Britain in the 1783.Treaty of Paris. Saint Kitts, Nevis, and Anguilla were united as a British dependency in 1871. They became an internally self-governing member of the West Indies Associated States in 1967. The islands became independent from Britain in 1983 after Anguilla broke away from the dependency in 1980 opting to remain a British overseas territory.

Source:

World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples

http://minorityrights.org/country/st-kitts-and-nevis


As in the rest of the Caribbean the original inhabitants of St Kitts and Nevis were Kalinago (Carib) and Taino (Arawak) groups.

Source:

World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples

http://minorityrights.org/country/st-kitts-and-nevis


St. Lucia

The first inhabitants of St Lucia were the indigenous Kalinago (Caribs) who had originally settled on the islands across the Caribbean and were noted for the fierce resistance they mounted for more than a century against attempts at European colonization. Saint Lucia is named for the Roman Catholic Saint Lucy of Syracuse. It was first visited by Europeans in about the year 1500 and first colonized successfully by France who signed a treaty with the indigenous Kalinago (Carib) peoples in 1660. Over the next two centuries Africans were brought in to provide slave labour on the agricultural plantations. England took control of the island from 1663 to 1667 before going to war with France fourteen times over it. The British finally assumed complete control of St Lucia in1814. Representative government came about in 1924. From 1958 to 1962 the island was a member of the Federation of the West Indies. In February 1979 Saint Lucia became an independent state within the Commonwealth.

Source:

World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples

http://minorityrights.org/country/st-lucia


Approximately 82.5% (2001 census) of its population is of African descent. Most of the rest are African–European. A small Carib (Kalinago) population is mainly centred in the Choiseul region, but lives also in other towns on the western coast.

Source:

World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples

http://minorityrights.org/country/st-lucia


St. Vincent and the Grenadines

St Vincent became a crown colony in 1877 and a legislative council was created in 1925. The island became a member of the West Indies Federation that collapsed in 1962. St Vincent was granted associate statehood status in October 1969 and became the last of the Windward Islands to gain independence from Britain in October 1979.

There are two identifiable indigenous groups descended from Kalin-ago (Caribs), numbering in all approximately 3,000, who live at the extreme north-east tip of the island of St Vincent. Some are regarded as ‘pure’ or ‘yellow’ Caribs, others as ‘black Caribs’. The latter are descendants of the island’s original indigenous population who intermarried with Africans brought to the Caribbean during the colonial plantation era.



Source:

World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples

http://minorityrights.org/country/st-vincent-and-the-grenadines


Distinctions between Caribs, ‘black Caribs’ and the island’s majority African-descended population are unclear in a region that is still class-, colour- and appearance-conscious. There is disagreement as to whether those who identify themselves as ‘pure Caribs’ are indeed direct unmixed descendants of St Vincent’s original indigenous population. Even within this group intermarriage with the majority Africa descended population is common.

Source:

World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples

http://minorityrights.org/country/st-vincent-and-the-grenadines


Suriname

Indigenous peoples in Suriname number 20,344 people, or approximately 3.8% of the total population of 541,638 (census 2012).

Source:

International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs

http://www.iwgia.org/regions/latin-america/suriname


The four most numerous Indigenous peoples are the:

  • Kali’ña (Caribs)

  • Lokono (Arawaks)

  • Trio (Tirio, Tareno)

  • Wayana

In addition, there are small settlements of other Amazonian Indigenous peoples in the south-west and south of Suriname, including the:

  • Akurio

  • Apalai

  • Wai-Wai

  • Katuena/Tunayana

  • Mawayana

  • Pireuyana

  • Sikiiyana

  • Okomoyana

  • Alamayana

  • Maraso

  • Sirewu

  • Sakëta

The Kali’ña and Lokono live mainly in the northern part of the country and are sometimes referred to as “lowland” Indigenous peoples, whereas the Trio, Wayana and other Amazonian peoples live in the south and are referred to as “highland” peoples.

Source:

International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs

http://www.iwgia.org/regions/latin-america/suriname


Trinidad and Tobago

In the wider Circum-Caribbean region, there are an estimated 100,000 self-identified indigenous persons. According to government censuses, this number includes: 41,000 in Guyana, out of a national population of 756,000; 26,000 in Belize, out of a population of 146,000; 6,000 in St. Vincent, out of a population of 113,000; and, 3,000 Caribs in Dominica, out of a national population of 74,000. The total population of Trinidad and Tobago is 1.1 million but there is no official census category for indigenous people of Amerindian descent. Estimates range from as few as 12,000 in north-east Trinidad, to as many as 400,000 indigenous people nationwide.

Source:

International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs

http://www.iwgia.org/regions/latin-america/trinidad-and-tobago


Around half of those who self-identify as being of Amerindian descent belong to the Santa Rosa Carib Community in the Borough of Arima. The community was the first to get official recognition as indigenous by the state in May 1990.

Source:

International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs

http://www.iwgia.org/regions/latin-america/trinidad-and-tobago


Uruguay

It is commonly assumed that little ethnic mixing took place between Uruguay’s indigenous population and early Spanish colonists. Indigenous peoples that survived Spanish colonial rule were deliberately exterminated in the nineteenth century. This coincided with a relatively large influx of European immigrants and government efforts to promote Uruguay as the ‘Switzerland of South America’.

In Uruguay, as in the other southern cone countries, the 1970s were marked by continual human rights violations on the part of the armed forces and military government. Investigation of these violations became a political issue after re-democratisation in 1985, when the government proposed an amnesty for those involved; a referendum held in 1989 upheld the amnesty by a narrow majority. In 2001, the government finally established a Peace Commission to clarify the fate of those who were disappeared between 1973 and 1985.



Source:

World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples

http://minorityrights.org/country/uruguay


As a result of the deliberate genocide practised in the nineteenth century, Uruguay’s most renowned indigenous population – the Charrúa – was almost totally wiped out. From the 1980s several families of Guaraní Mbyá hunter gatherers, whose ancestral lands extend from the Paraguayan jungle to the Atlantic coast, began to settle in various parts of Uruguay, notably in the estuaries of the Rio Plata and Rio Uruguay.

Source:

World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples

http://minorityrights.org/country/uruguay


Venezuela

For the first time in history, the 1999 Venezuelan Constitution recognized the multiethnic, pluricultural and multilingual nature of Venezuelan society. There are more than 40 recognized indigenous peoples in the country.

Of the 30 million inhabitants, 2.8% self-identify as indigenous.

According to the XIV National Census of Population and Housing conducted in 2011 with regard to the indigenous population key results highlighted that Venezuela's indigenous population totals 725,128 people, indicating that the indigenous population has increased 41.8% between 2001 and 2011. Of the 30 million inhabitants, 2.8% self-identify as indigenous.

Source:

International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs

http://www.iwgia.org/regions/latin-america/venezuela


The census recorded declarations of individuals belonging to 51 indigenous pueblos in the country. Among these are the:

  • Wayuu (58% of the total indigenous population)

  • Warao (7%)

  • Kariña (5%)

  • Pemón (4%)

  • Jivi, Cumanagoto, Anu, and Piaroa (3% each)

  • Chaima and Yukpa (2%)

  • Yanomami (1%)

  • Other pueblos (9%)

Source:

International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs

http://www.iwgia.org/regions/latin-america/venezuela


Preliminary conclusions

  • The sample for this research was 33 Latin American countries: Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Grenada, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, St. Kitts and Nervis, St. Lucia, St. Vincent and Grenadines, Surinam, Trinidad y Tobago Uruguay and Venezuela. This number was based on: The Comparative Constitutions Project and the Political Database of the Americas.

  • From 33 Latin American States, 8 of them (Republic of Antigua and Barbuda, Bahamas, Barbados, Grenada, St. Kitts and Nervis, St. Lucia. St. Vincent and the Grenadines and Uruguay) do not register any indigenous population.

  • From 33 Latin American States, 17 of them are registered in the International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs one of our main sources (Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago and Venezuela)

About the sources

International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs, www.iwgia.org

World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples, www.refworld.org

Political Database of the Americas, pdba.georgetown.edu

The UN Refugee Agency, www.refworld.org

The Comparative Constitutions Project, comparativeconstitutionsproject.org

Indigenous health in Latin America and the Caribbean. Montenegro, Raul A. Stephens, Carolyn. The Lancet. Volume 367, Issue 9525, 3-9 June 2006, Pages 1859-1869. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(06)68808-9





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