The leather output in Asian regions accounts for 53% of the world’s total output, raw hide 40%. The leather output in European regions, represented by Italy, Spain, France and Portugal, accounts for 27% of the world’s total output, raw hide 18%. The leather output in North and Middle America accounts for 10% of the world’s total output, raw hide 17%. The leather output in South America accounts for 8% of the world’s total output, raw hide 13%.
China’s leather industry has gone through rapid development since 1979 and already become a giant leather producer recognized by the whole world, ranking first in leather output and export. The annual output of light leather stands at over 500 square meters, accounting for over 20% of the world’s total and ranking third in the world. The international market has been the major target for the import and export of China’s finished leather for five years. The leather output fails to reach a large quantity, but a large number of leather products are exported.
India’s leather industry is playing an important role in its national economic activities. India produces 194 million heads of yellow cattle, 70 heads of water buffalo and 9,500 goats every year. According to the latest statistics, the number of livestock and export of its leather products have witnessed significant increases during the past 10 years, while the export structure has also been readjusted. In 1970s, the export of finished leather products with high added value accounted for 20% of the total export of leather products. The proportion has already increased to 84%, making India ranking first in this field. It raises 48 million heads of sheep every year, ranking sixth in the world.
As a traditional leather producer boasting the undisputed leading position in Europe and the whole world at large, Italy accounts for 20% of the total leather output of the world, 65% of the Europe. There are 2,300 leather manufacturers in Italy, and their sales volume reached up to 6.2 billion euros in 2002, accounting for 65% of that of the EU members. Its output accounted for 20% of the world’s total. According to the statistics of the Italian Federation of Leather Industries, Italy exported its finished leather products to 127 countries and regions in 2006. The export accounted for about two thirds of the total sales volume. Raw hide of Italy’s leather manufacturing industry was imported from 120 countries and regions.
Turkey’s leather industry has a long history and the country used to be the center of the world’s fur manufacturing industry. It is still be entitled as one of the world’s six major leather markets. Turkey’s leather industry has a long history of 500 years. Turkey, with the most advanced leather industry, plays an important role in the world and has been regarded as the World’s Fur Plant. Turkey is one of the countries with the world’s largest production capacity for processing of animal skin. Its daily capacity for cowhide is 22,000 pieces, sheepskin 280,000 pieces. The annual slaughter capacities of cattle, sheep and goat are respectively three million, 15-17 million and four-five million heads.
Furniture Manufacturing Industry
The global output of furniture stood at US $80 billion in 1980s. The furniture manufacturing industry has through significant changes during the past 20 years, and the figure increased to US $200 billion in 2002. The output of the global furniture industry was about US $250 billion in 2005, while seven major industrialized countries, the US, Italy, German, Japan, British, France and Japan in order, accounted for 56% of that. The furniture output of developed countries formed 73% of the global total. The top five furniture importers are the US, Germany, British, France and Japan. The top five exporters are China, Italy, German, Poland and Canada. The trade volume of the global furniture industry reached up to US $86 billion in 2006, a year-on-year increase of 7.5%.
The US is the world’s largest furniture consumer, the retail sales of its furniture markets reached up to US $ 64.12 billion in 2001, an increase of 1.7% compared with that of 2000. The figure soared to US $66.9 billion in 2002 and US $73 billion in 2004, accounting for over one third of the global output. The sales volume of furniture reached up to US $75 billion in 2005, representing 38% of the global output.
Germany’s furniture industry is of a large size and with a long history. The country used to be the world’s second largest furniture manufacturer. As China replaced its place in 2002, German became the third largest manufacturer and decreased to the fourth position in 2006. There used to be over 1,500 furniture manufacturers in Germany, with about 170,000 employees. The industry had lost nearly 45,000 jobs in the country since 2000. The number of furniture producers decreased from 1,500 to 1,100. Germany’s furniture industry has made greater efforts in collective purchasing during the past several years. In Germany, 90% of furniture shops adopt collective purchasing, and 50% of the furniture market is under the control of 20 procurement groups.
The number of Russia-based furniture manufacturers had doubled, from 2,820 to 5,770, from 1999 to 2003. Russia’s furniture market volume has already reached up to US $6.101 billion in 2007.
Introduction of Renowned Enterprises:
IKEA was founded in 1943 in Sweden. “To create a better everyday life for the many people” has remained as the company’s vision since its establishment. During the past 60 years, it has opened a total of 180 chain stores in 43 countries across the globe, with more than 70,000 employees.
The US, Canada and Brazil are giant hardware producers in America, while the US is the world’s largest hardware market. The major hardware products manufactured by the US are hand tools, saw, garden tools and electric tools. The output of the country’s hardware industry was US$ 7.175 billion in 1995. The market was worth US$125.8 billion in 1995 and increased to US$142 billion between 1996 and 1997, ranking first in America and the whole world at large. The figure was 2.7 billion Canadian dollars (about US$1.9 billion), ranking second in America. With a turnover of its hardware, Brazil ranked third in America. In Europe, according to the statistics on sales volumes of European hardware markets in 1997, German ranked second in Europe and the whole world at large with 67 billion German marks, while France ranked third in Europe and fifth in the world with 26 billion German marks. Major Asian hardware producers include Japan, China, South Korea as well as Hong Kong China and Taiwan of China.
Japan currently ranks first in Asia and third in the whole world in terms of market size. Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of China has become a major hardware supplier for the whole world in recent years. Taiwan of China has undergone rapid development during past several years, witnessing huge potential. In conclusion, the US, Germany and Japan are the world’s major hardware sellers and buyers.
The US, Germany, France and British are the world’s major hardware consumers. High-income families and countries form the mainstream consumers in the global hardware market. According to statistics on consumption, the US, Germany, France and British boast higher per capita consumption volume, followed by Czech and Russia. Consumption volumes of developing countries are lower than those of the two countries.