Packet by Fresno State (C. Marklund et al.) & Wake Forest & UC-Berkeley (B. Shapiro)
1. As his country’s minister of justice, this man supported the Lerdo Law, and one of this man’s major achievements was to create a treasury surplus in part by discouraging empleomania. Exiled by General Felix Zuloaga, this man was also opposed by Zuloaga’s successor, Miguel Miramon, and his own forces were led by Gonzalez Ortega. A leader of the La Reforma movement together with Melchor Ocampo, this man succeeded Ignacio Comonfort by virtue of being elected at the rump congress in Queretaro, and he set up his capital in Veracruz in 1858 and a year later issued the Law of the Reform. Briefly succeded by Maximilian I, whose forces his general Ignacio Zaragoza defeated at Puebla, and then again by Porfirio Diaz, for ten points, identify this Zapotec Indian, Mexico’s president 1861 to 1863 and 1867 to 1871, whose name is given to the city across the Rio Grande from El Paso.
Answer: Benito Juarez 2. They dig up roots, eat several kinds of herbs, and scratch about for carrion, or sometimes catch weasels and luhimuhs (a sort of wild rat) which they greedily devour. Nature hath taught them to dig deep holes with their nails on the side of a rising ground, wherein they lie by themselves. They swim from their Infancy like Frogs, and are able to continue long under Water, where they often take Fish, which the Females carry home to their Young. Once, when the Sorrel Nag allowed Lemuel Gulliver to bath naked in a river, one of the females of this species, enflamed with desire grabbed him and stood gazing and howling as he redressed. FTP, name this race of brutish, degraded creatures having the form and all the vices of man, who were subject of the equine Houyhnhnms and whose name is now associated with Jerry Yang and David Filo.
3. One of the people depicted in this work is Aris Kindt, and this painting is frequently compared with a work on a similar subject featuring Sebastian Egbertsz [egg-bertz] by Thomas de Keyzer. A man consulting a notebook looks over the shoulders of the people in front of him in the back center of this painting, while a tome, possibly a treatise by Vesalius, can be seen in the lower-right. A set of rules hangs under the stone archway in the background, while one of the eight men in this painting leans forward, shadowing the face of the deceased as the titular character holds up an arm with his forceps. Depicting a public dissection following a criminal’s execution, for ten points, identify this group portrait which includes the titular doctor, by Rembrandt van Rijn.
Answer: The Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Nicolaes Tulp (accept equivalents)
4. The Meerwein-Ponndorf-Verley one synthesizes acetone as a side product, while the Bouveault-Blanc one produces methanol and a primary alcohol. The Benkeser one, also called the "Nazi method", requires a lithium or calcium catalyst. A palladium-barium sulfate catalyst is necessary for the Rosenmund one, which produces hydrochloric acid and an aldehyde from an acyl chloride and hydrogen. Two hydrogens are added to a phenyl group with one substituent in the Birch one. Hydrazine is converted to nitrogen gas and an ester turned into a CH2 group in a two-step process known as the Wolff-Kishner one. Also occurring in the conversion of NAD+ to NADH and FAD to FADH2, FTP, identify this general type of reaction in which a compound gains electrons.
Answer: reduction 5. The islands of Thasos and Lesbos in the Aegean were for a time occupied by the Gateluzi family, a notable family of this city. Their quarter in Trebizond was known as Leontokastron and their colony in Constantinople was known as Pera. A famous possession of this city was captured by Gedik Ahmet Pasha in 1475, a Black Sea port that was one of the main conduits for the Black Death. Among the notable ruling families of this naval power were the Spinola, Grimaldi, and a family that produced the loser at the battle of Preveza, the Doria family. The long-time rulers of Kaffa, Kerch, and Corsica, FTP, name this Italian seaport in Liguria perhaps best known for being the birthplace of Christopher Columbus.
Answer: Geno(v)a or Zena or Gênes
6. Among his children were Phisadie, a servant of Helen. He shared the same grandfather with Asclepius, and he fathered the attempted kidnapper of Deianeira with the mother of Phrixus and Helle of Golden Fleece fame. Another of his children was the rescuer of Helen, and he was the son of Phlegyas. At Larissa, he pushed his father in law onto a bed of burning coals, as his bride had not come with the money whose payment was incumbent on Deinoeus. He would later come to Olympus, but his lust for Hera led to this to this husband of Dia being struck with a thunderbolt and being condemned to a fiery wheel. FTP, name this progenitor of the Centaurs, a Lapith king of Thessaly.
7. Rumor has it that Radiohead's Thom Yorke once recommended this book to fans at a concert. When we first meet the narrator, he is cooking spaghetti while listening to Rossini's "The Thieving Magpie," but keeps getting interrupted by salacious phonecalls. Events that follow include the loss of a beloved cat, the beginnings of the evil Toru Okada's political career, weird entaglements with two psychic prostitutes, and a terrifying first-hand account of the battle of Nomonhan, all of which lead conclude with the narrator sitting at the bottom of a well, clutching a baseball bat. FTP, name this 1996 novel by Haruki Murakami, named for a bizarre animal the narrator hears every morning.
Answer: The Wind-up Bird Chronicle
8. He came to the team with which he is most associated for $700,000 and left that team in a trade for Jimmy Carson and Martin Gelinas, which led his previous owner Peter Pocklington being burned in effigy. Starting out with the Sault (SOO) Ste. Marie Greyhounds, he played a few games for the Indianapolis Racers before joining a team that he would lead to glory with help from Glenn Anderson, Jari Kurri, and Grant Fuhr. Later playing briefly for St. Louis and retiring with New York, he won five Stanley Cups with Mark Messier in Edmonton. Now embroiled in a scandal involving his wife Janet Jones, this is, FTP, what Coyotes coach and legendary hockey star known as the “Great One.”
Answer: Wayne Gretzky
9. In this language, perfect plurals can only take two cases, whereas most other nouns can take three. It also features a jussive case in which the final vowel marking is dropped, and its passive features a “u” sound attached to the first letter and an “i” or “a” to the second. The future in this language is made by the use of “saufa” or “se” and a present tense verb and negated by a past tense verb and “len.” Its cases are the majrur [MEJ-ROOR], mansub [MEN-SOOB], and marfu’ [MAHR-FOO], and all nouns must have tanween, though in this language’s amiya dialects, they are usually dropped. Also known for its idaafa structures, name this language featuring an abjad and vowel markings called haraket, the official language of countries like Egypt and Oman.
Answer: Arabic or Al-Lughat al-Arabiyya
10. Its variation with time depends on a parameter that is given by one plus this quantity’s derivative with respect to time times its inverse square. It can be determined from the slope of the low-redshift region of the plot of magnitude against redshift, and theoretically it can be obtained from the integration of the first of the Friedmann equations. Since the curvature has recently been found to be zero, this quantity only depends on the density and the cosmological constant, and the WMAP project used the cosmic microwave background to give a recent value of 71 plus or minus 4 kilometers per second per megaparsec for this parameter. For ten points, idenitfy this eponymous astrophysical parameter, the proportionality constant between recessional velocity and distance whose inverse gives the age of the universe.
Answer: Hubble’s constant or parameter
11. This holiday shares many of the same prohibitions as Yom Kippur, but only certain sections of the Torah can be study on this day. In the three-week period leading up to it, Bein ha-M’tsarim, haircuts and buying clothes other than socks are underwear are prohibited, and the period beginning with Rosh Hodesh or “beginning of the month” is a period of mourning. Often preceded by Seder ha-Mafseket, important events such as the declaration of the First Crusade and the expulsion of the Jews from Spain as well as the burning of the first two temples are supposed to have occurred on this most tragic day for the Jews. FTP, name this holiday which falls on a certain day in the second week of a Jewish month.
Answer: Ninth of Av or Tisha B’Av
12. His first song cycle was Ofrahs Lieder, his first opera Der Protagonist, and his first traditional musical comedy, a collaboration with Maxwell Anderson, was Knickerbocker Holiday, for which he wrote the ballad “September Song”. His work with his best-known collaborator includes the ballet Die Sieben Todsünden, written in Paris three years after they first split, and the operas Aufsteig und Fall der Stadt Mahagonny and Die Dreigoschenoper, a socialist adaptation of Gay’s Beggar’s Opera revived by Marc Blitzstein as The Threepenny Opera. FTP, who is this German composer of the song “Mack the Knife”, most famous for his collaborations with Bertolt Brecht?
Answer: Kurt Weill
13. One of its largest cities got its name from Saamis (SAH-AH-UMP-SIN), a type of native headgear, and its home to Cardston, a Mormon town founded by Orson Scott Card’s father. Geographical features of its north include the Caribou and Birch Mountains, and its rivers include the Wabasca and the Peace River. Drumheller is home to a world-renowned paleontology museum, and its main national parks include Wood Buffalo, Banff, and Jasper. Home to Lethbridge and Medicine Hat, FTP, name this Canadian province whose largest cities are Calgary and Edmonton.
14. The majority opinion in this case cited Mugler v. Kansas and Crowley v. Christensen as evidence that the 14th Amendment was not designed to interfere with property and liberty. Allgeyer v. Louisiana was also cited by the majority, delived by Rufus Peckham, from which John Harlan dissented by citing that the determination of harm had been made and that it was not for the courts to ask whether this determination was correct. Three years after this case, David Brewer’s opinion, written for a unanimous majority, distinguished this case from Muller v. Oregon by pointing to “the difference between the sexes,” and this case itself resulted from a fine of $50 to the plaintiff in Oneida County. Famous for Oliver Wendell Holmes’ dissent stating that “the 14th Amendment does not enact Mr. Herbert Spencer’s Social Statics,” for ten points, identify this 1905 Supreme Court case which dealt with the working hours of bakers.
Answer: Lochner v. New York
15. George Briggs and John Haldane showed that its pre-equilibrium step is unnecessary and instead applied steady-state approximation to calculate its constant as the sum of the backward rate and catalytic constants divided by the forward rate constant. Based on Victor Henri's work, its constant is equal to the dissociation constant when the turnover number is small, and also equal to the concentration at which the rate is equal to half the maximum rate. Reciprocal of the Lineweaver-Burk equation, FTP name this equation of enzyme kinetics named for German and Canadian chemists.
Answer: Michaelis-Menten equation or kinetics
16. It sees the domestic interest rate as set by the global one, as set forth in a model of the open economy by Marcus Fleming. It supports the gold standard and emphasizes value over quantity. Criticized by Paul Krugman, it claims lineage to classical economics, and especially Say's law. Described in the book The Way the World Works by Jude Wanniski, who is credited with coining this term, it emphasizes the growth of firms as an incentive as opposed to money supply and monetarism. Blaming stagflation on Keynesian economics, FTP name this economic theory based on the possible increase in tax revenue associated with tax cuts, as codified in the Laffer curve, sometimes called Reagonomics.
Ans: supply-side economics
17. The first major post-Election Day controversy in this election occurred when William Gleason challenged the results of a local election he had lost, leading to a recount in which the votes of an entire precinct were thrown out. Another occurred when one of Oregon’s electors was found to be a postmaster and therefore ineligible to be an elector, and another happened when Colorado didn’t even bother to put the presidential race on its ballot. Yet another started when Joseph P. Bradley joined the committee to decide disputed votes after independent David Davis was elected to the Senate. FTP, identify this controversy-marred election in which, despite winning a majority of the popular vote, Samuel Tilden lost to Rutherford B. Hayes.
18. He criticized Fechner’s law and the confusion of duration with extension in his doctoral thesis. He elaborates on the distinction between qualitative and quantitative multiplicities in his most famous work, and emphasized the idea of intuition. Although he had solved a famous problem by Pascal at the age of 18, he chose to study humanities upon entering the Ecole Normale. Author of The Two Sources of Morality and Religion and Matter and Memory, he attacked the Kantian notion of linked space-time, which he viewed as unfaithful to the actual "duration," or la duree, which characterizes conscious experience and free action. FTP name this winner of the 1927 Nobel prize in literature who is best known for philosophical concepts like élan vital, author of Time and Free Will and Creative Evolution.
Answer: Henri Bergson
19. Robert Louis Stevenson based Long John Silver in part on this writer, not least because of this man’s amputated leg. As editor of the National Observer, he helped introduce the English public to such writers as Thomas Hardy and Ruyard Kipling. One poem by this man called Pro Rege Nostro contains the question, “When shall [the Sun] rejoice again, such a breed of mighty men, as come forward one to ten?” and a line from that poem was adopted by D.H. Lawrence for the title of his short story, England, My England. Though he was the author of such collections as The Song of the Sword and The Song of Speed, he is better known for a poem published in 1875, whose last stanza claimed that it didn’t matter “how strait the gate” or “how charged with punishments the scroll” and that “I am the captain of my soul.” For ten points, identify this author of the collection In Hospital, best known as the poet of Invictus.
Answer: William Ernest Henley
20.It is estimated to be as much as 25% water ice, and its atmosphere has pressure of only about one millibar. The furthest body from the sun known to be volcanically active, its so-called "ice volcanoes" shoot nitrogen or methane into the atmosphere. As it could not have formed from the Solar Nebula, the capture theory is the most popular theory as to why it is where it is today. Is orbit currently draws it into the gas giant it rotates, so it will eventually either break up or crash into that planet. Only five other moons, each less than one tenth its diameter in size, exhibit a retrograde orbit. Its extremely high albedo makes it the coldest known body in the solar system, even colder than Pluto, with which it has very similar properties. FTP, identify this largest moon of Neptune.
Answer: Triton 21. Three females have been given this name, although Carol Danvers had it only on the House of M alternative timeline and Monica Rambeau gave it up to become Photon. Four others, including the other female, are members of the alien race Kree. The most famous character with this name was created by C.C. Beck and Bill Parker in books published by Fawcett Comics, and as the most popular superhero of the 1940s, sold more copies than Superman. FTP, name this superhero that changes from the mortal Billy Batson by yelling “Shazam!” and who is published by DC Comics, despite what his name might imply.
Answer: Captain Marvel
1. Identify these Polish writers for ten points each.
 Awarded the 1905 Nobel Prize in Literature, Poles celebrate his historical trilogy, With Fire and Sword, The Deluge, and Master Michael about Poland's glorious past. He is probably best known for Quo Vadis, a novel about Christians persecuted in Rome under the reign of Emperor Nero.
Answer: Henryk Sienkiewicz [sin-kay-vich]
 He became involved in gunrunning and political conspiracy, which he later fictionalized in his novel The Arrow of Gold.
Answer: Joseph Conrad or Teodor Josef Konrad Korzeniowski
 Born in 1798, his epic poem Pan Tadeusz is for Poles what Dante's "Divine Comedy" is for Italians. Another masterpiece is "Dziady" (Forefathers' Eve), also adapted into a movie.
Answer: Adam Mickiewicz [meets-kay-vich]
2. In 1994, its fragments collided with Jupiter. For ten points each:
 Identify this comet discovered at Mt. Palomar by its namesakes.
Answer: Shoemaker-Levy 9
 Two years before the collision, Shoemaker-Levy 9 was torn apart by tidal forces when it approached too close to Jupiter. What name is giving to the orbital distance at which a satellite will begin to be tidally torn apart by the body it is orbiting?
Ans: Roche Limit
 The nucleus is the portion of a comet which is relatively solid and stable, mostly ice and gas with a small amount of dust and other solids. What name is given to the dense cloud of water, carbon dioxide and other neutral gases sublimed from the nucleus?
Answer: the coma 3. Answer these questions about one of history’s great wars, FTPE.
 This war is also known as the Potato War because its combatants spent more time picking potatoes than actually fighting the war. It involved a dispute over who should succeed a member of the House of Wittelsbach and involved Prussia and Austria.
Answer: War of the Bavarian Succession
 This man was the Prussian king during this war. He is far better known for leading the Prussians in conflicts such as the Seven Years’ War and the War of the Austrian Succession.
ANSWER: Frederick II or Frederick the Great
 The congress ending this war was signed here. This region, home to a namesake city, is now split between Poland and the Czech Republic and was taken by Poland from Czechoslovakia in the same swoop as Germany’s annexation of the Sudetenland.
ANSWER: Teschen or Cieszyn [TSEE-esh-shin]
4. FTPE, name these Russian poets.
 Now teaching Russian poetry at Tulsa, his most famous works include the poems “Zima Junction” and “Babi Yar.”
Answer: Yevgeny Aleksandrovich Yevtushenko
 He married the daughter of Mendeleev, and was a leader of the Symbolist movement famous later in his life for poems such as “The Twelve.”
Answer: Aleksandr Aleksandrovich Blok
 This member of the Acmeists wrote paeans to his dictator such as “Ode to Stalin,” but sharply criticized Stalin in an epigram and died in Siberian exile in 1938.
Answer: Osip Mandelstam 5. A student of Ary Scheffer, the installation of this man’s most famous project was made possible by the fundraising of Joseph Pulitzer. For ten points each:
 Name the French sculptor who designed the Statue of Liberty.
 Bartholdi is also well-known for this stone sculpture, commemorating its namesake city’s resistance during the Franco-Prussian war.
Answer: the Lion of Belfort
 The supports for the Statue of Liberty were designed by Eugene Viollet-le-Duc and this man, who would go on to build an ugly pointed thing on the Champ de Mars.
Answer: Alexandre Gustave Eiffel 6. FTPE, name these actors slated to appear in the next James Bond film, Casino Royale.
 This actor, chosen to play James Bond, has been the target of heavy criticism for incidents on the film set such as his not being able to drive his Aston Martin. He previously appeared in films such as Munich and Layer Cake.
Answer: Daniel Craig
 This actress has been tapped to play the role of Vesper Lynde, the primary Bond girl in the film. She made her debut in the Bertolucci film The Dreamers and played Sibylla in Kingdom of Heaven.
Answer: Eva Green (supposedly pronounced GRAIN)
 This actor will play the first black Felix Leiter since Bill & Ted’s history teacher in Never Say Never Again. He is better known for roles in Syriana, Angels in America, and the title role in Basquiat.
Answer: Jeffrey Wright 7. It can be derived by integrating Planck’s radiation formula over all solid angles and frequencies. For ten points each:
 Identify this law, which states that the energy flux density emitted by a black body scales as the fourth power of the temperature.
Answer: Stefan-Boltzmann law or equation
 The Stefan-Boltzmann law can be combined with the Schwarzschild radius to get the energy emitted from this process, which results when pair production occurs on both sides of the event horizon.
Answer: Hawking radiation
 The information paradox of black holes occurs in part because of contradictions to this theorem, which states that black holes are completely described by mass, charge, and angular momentum. In particular, the theorem implies they also lack follicles.
Answer: the no hair theorem
8. Answer these questions about the last president born in a log cabin, FTPE:
 He defeated Winfield Scott Hancock in the presidential election and his quick assassination saw a possible Canadian ascend to the presidency.
Answer: James Abram Garfield
 This man, Garfield’s Secretary of State, was with Garfield when he was assassinated. He is better known for being a “continental liar from the state of Maine” and losing the 1884 election to Cleveland.
Answer: James Gillespie Blaine
 Garfield’s son, James Rudolph Garfield, served in the cabinet of this man, among whose other Cabinet members are Philander Knox and Secretary of State Elihu Root.
Answer: Theodore Roosevelt 9. Stuff about a Russian composer, FTPE:
 This man’s lesser known operas include The Gambler, War and Peace, and Betrothal in a Monastery, based on a Sheridan play. He also composed music for Eisenstein’s Ivan the Terrible and Alexander Nevsky.
Answer: Sergei Sergeyevich Prokofiev
 Based on a Carlo Gozzi play, this most famous opera of Prokofiev’s features a prince, who, cursed by Fata Morgana must retrieve the titular trio from Creonte.
Answer: Love for Three Oranges or Lyubov’ k Tryom Apel’sinam
 This work heavily uses leitmotifs in, for instance, the representation of a cat with a clarinet and hunters’ guns with timpani and bass drum.
Answer: Peter and the Wolf or Pyotr i Volk 10. Answer some questions about a recent intelligence examination, FTPE:
 A report circulated stating that this University of Texas quarterback had scored a 6 on the Wonderlic intelligence test, which suggests illiteracy. On a second go around, he scored 16 out of 50.
Answer: Vince(nt) Paul Young Jr.
 Also rocking the 16 on the Wonderlic test was this former U. Pittsburgh quarterback and rival to Ray Finkle, who has a shitload of passing records.
Answer: Dan(iel) Constantine Marino Jr.
 This ex-Syracuse quarterback and recent Super Bowl loser got a total of twelve on the test. No wonder Wilma’s writing the playbook.
 His travels took him to the Andaman Islands and Western Australia, and was one of the leading figures in structural functionalism, writing Structure and Function in Primitive Society.
Answer: Alfred Reginald Radcliffe-Brown
 Bronislaw Malinowski’s description of the kula exchange helped to inspire this Frenchman’s The Gift.
Answer: Marcel Mauss 14. Name these battles pitting Europeans against Ottomans, FTPE:
 Suleiman the Magnificent defeated the forces of Louis II of Hungary at this 1526 battle.
Answer: Mohacs [MOE-HAWTCH]
 This battle, fought in a town on the Danube, was the result of the last great western crusade. This 1396 battle saw the Franco-Hungarian alliance defeated by the Ottomans.
 This battle was one of the first great losses for the Ottomans, and it came at the hands of a mishmash Holy League which defeated the Turkish fleet in the Gulf of Corinth in 1571.
Answer: Lepanto 15. He was elected to the Holy See in 1978 and among his accomplishments were the establishment of the Vatican’s full diplomatic relations with the United States and Israel. FTPE:
 For 10 points—who was this man?
Answer: Pope John Paul II or Karol Wojtyla
 John Paul II was the youngest pope since this man, whose thirty-one year reign is the only reign longer than John Paul’s. His papacy saw the elimination of the Papal States in 1870.
Answer: Pope Pius IX or Giovanni Maria Mastai-Ferretti
 This man was released on January 12 only to be arrested on January 20 again because time served in Italian prison could not count towards this man’s time in Turkey. He shot JPII in 1981 in a weird plot involving Bulgarians.
Answer: Mehmet Ali Ağca [AAH-JAH]
16. This novel begins when a plane evacuating a group of schoolboys is shot down over a deserted island, and ends when a British naval officer rescues them after noticing a forest fire started by the boys. FTPE:
 The boys elect a leader and construct their own adultless society in what book?
 This other Golding novel has a similar ending to that of “An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge.” It concerns a British navy man who survives a sinking and winds up on a rock in the North Atlantic.
Answer: Pincher Martin 17. Name these geographical sites in England relating to Arthurian legend.
 This 518 foot hill contains the ruins of St. Michael’s Church and is oddly terraced. It has been associated with Avalon, and Arthur’s purported coffin was found here.
Answer: Glastonbury Tor
 The castle of Tintagel, associated with Arthur’s birth is located in this far southwestern region including cities such as Penzance and the feature Land’s End.
Answer: Cornwall or Kernow
 The purported site of the Battle of Camlann, as well as Glastonbury Tor, is this English county which also features Bath and Taunton.
Answer: Somerset 18. The youngest of nine children from Kirriemuir, Scotland, his first novels were set in Kirriemuir, disguised as "Thrums,” in works like Auld Licht Idylls (1888) and a Window in Thrums. For ten points each:
 Name this writer whose works include The Little Minister.
Answer: James Matthew Barrie
 In this Barrie novel Lord Loam and his family suffer shipwreck in the Pacific. After the wreck, their talented butler takes charge, but once the party is rescued, everyone returns to their previous ways, which the butler defends.
Answer: The Admirable Crichton
 This family, whose patriarch married his wife because he reached her house first, includes such members as Wendy, John and Michael and is at the center of Barrie’s Peter Pan.
Answer: Darling 19. Answer these questions about the presidency of Martin Van Buren, for ten points each.
 First identify any of the three men who served as Attorney General under the “Little Magician.”
Answer: Benjamin Butler, Felix Grundy, and Henry D. Gilpin
 One of the key foreign affairs issues of his presidency dealt with this US steamboat, which was leased to Canadian insurrectionists, and which was seized by a Canadian militia on the US side of the Niagara River on December 29, 1837, with one American killed.
Answer: The Caroline
 Another major foreign affairs problem required Van Buren to send General Winfield Scott to take command of US forces in Maine where this battle-free border war had broken out.
Answer: the Aroostook War
20. Until his two landmark reports this entomologist was best known for a 1926 high school biology textbook notable for combining botany and zoology. FTPE:
 Who is this scientist who founded the Institute for Research in Sex, Gender and Reproduction at Indiana University?
Answer: Alfred Charles Kinsey
 Name either of those two reports that became bestsellers in 1948 and 1953, respectively.
Answer: Sexual Behavior in the Human Male and Sexual Behavior in the Human Female
 Kinsey’s work in entomology was done on this family of insect in order Hymenoptera.
Answer: gall wasps or gallflies or Cynipidae 21. Name these twentieth century European treaties, FTPE:
 This treaty signed in 1922 renounced all claims relating to the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, and the USSR and the Weimar Republic diplomatically recognized each other.
Answer: Treaty of Rapallo
 This treaty superceded the Treaty of Sèvres, which was untenable due to the conquests of Ataturk. In the aftermath of this treaty, hundreds of thousands of Turks would be sent to Turkey and Greeks to Greece.
Answer: Treaty of Lausanne
 This treaty led to the creation of the European Union and was signed in 1992, officially ratified in 1993.