1. Introduction to the course



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LECTURE 1. INTRODUCTION TO THE COURSE. GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION, REGIONAL DISTRIBUTION, CLIMATE AND POPULATION OF THE REPUBLIC OF UZBEKISTAN.

Plan:


1. Introduction to the course

2. Geographical location

3. Regional distribution

4. Climate

5. Population of the republic

6. Natural resources

1. Introduction to the course

The history of our Motherland – Uzbekistan and the Uzbek people are rich in events of global significance. The past of our country, known in the world under the names of Turan, Turkestan and Transoxiana, and the Uzbek people, who turned it into a flourishing land are interesting and instructive. Laying channels, our ancestors watered the arid steppes, developed virgin lands, turning them into blooming gardens. Agriculture, cattle breeding and handicrafts were developed. On the site of pastures there were settlements and cities that turned into centers of education and crafts. The development of fine arts, music, and architecture led to the emergence of unique original culture. The history and society of this region leads to its study and creation of a new subject as “Regional Studies”.

Regional studies (also Area studies) are interdisciplinary (studies involves the combining of two or more academic disciplines into one activity or a research project. It draws knowledge from several other fields like sociology, anthropology, psychology, economics etc.) fields of research and scholarship pertaining to particular geographical, national/federal, or cultural regions. The term exists primarily as a general description for what are, in the practice of scholarship, many heterogeneous fields of research, encompassing both the social sciences and the humanities. Typical area study programs involve international relations, strategic studies, history, political science, political economy, cultural studies, languages, geography, literature, and other related disciplines. In contrast to cultural studies, area studies often include history and emigration from the area.

Aim of the subject

A lot has been written about the importance of introducing the subject to people, since addressing the paternal heritage fosters respect and pride for the land on which you live. Therefore, people need to know and study the culture of their ancestors. The sense of patriotism is both love for the native places, and pride for the people, this feeling of the continuity with the surrounding world and desire to keep and increase wealth of the country. The immediate environment is important for raising children's interest and love for their native land. Gradually, the child becomes familiar with the kindergarten, his street, the city, and then with the country. Our task is to select from the mass of impressions received by the child, the most accessible to him: nature and the world of animals, life at home (kindergarten, native land); people's work, traditions, social events. Episodes that attract children's attention should be bright, imaginative, specific, and interesting. Therefore, when starting work on education of love for the native land, the teacher is obliged to know it well himself. He should think about what is more appropriate to tell and show the children, highlighting the most characteristic of our area. Hometown.... It is necessary to show the child that our city is famous for its history, traditions, sights, monuments, and the best people.

2.Geographical location.

The Republic of Uzbekistan is situated between the rivers of Amudarya and Syrdarya and occupies 447,400 square meters. The span of the territory from the west to the east is 1,425 km and from the north to the south - 930 km.

The borders: Most of the border of Uzbekistan passes along the plains, the territory borders on Kazakhstan in the north, on Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan in the east and southeast, on Turkmenistan in the west, and on Afghanistan in the south. The length of the border with Afghanistan is 137 km, with Kazakhstan - 2,203 km, with Kyrgyzstan - 1,099 km, with Tajikistan - 1161 km, and with Turkmenistan - 1,621 km. The total length is 6,221 km of borders.

Geographically, Uzbekistan is located at about the same latitude as the Mediterranean states, such as Spain, Italy, and Greece. Geography of Uzbekistan is mainly represented by deserts and mountains, and, in some areas - by valleys and lowlands. Approximately 80% of Uzbekistan is presented by a desert, namely, the Kyzylkum desert.Mountains of the country are the foothills and lower mountains of the Tien-Shan system.

The highest point of Uzbekistan is Khazret Sultan (4 643 meters) .

Landscape (relief): Uzbekistan possesses some of the most favorable natural and geographic conditions in Central Asian region. The territory of Uzbekistan is a mixture of plain and mountainous lands. The greatest part of the territory (about four fifth) is covered by plains. One of the main plains is the Turan plain. In the east and northeast are situated the spurs of Tyan-Shan and Pamir with the highest point of the country at 4643 meters above the sea level. To the north and the central part of the territory of Uzbekistan situated is one of the largest deserts in the world - Kyzylkoum.

Surface waters: The largest rivers are Amudarya and Syrdarya. The total length of Amudarya is 1437 km, that of Syrdarya - 2137 km. The majority of the rivers of Uzbekistan desiccate in their streams, only Amudaryaand Syrdarya fall into the Aral Sea. There are several large artificial lakes, such as Chardarya water reservoir.

Mountain system: Mountains and foothills comprise 1/5 of the territory of the Republic. To the east, prevalent are medium- and high-altitude forms of landscape. Within the boundaries of the Republic, there are flanks of hills and verges of mountain ridges of the Western Tyan-Shan (ridges Ugam, Pskem, Chatkal, Kuramin) and Pamir-Alay (ridges Zeravshan, Turkestan, Hissar, Kougitangtau, Baysuntau). To the south and west, they gradually decline and transform into plains. Rather massive trough lay between the mountains: the troughs of Kashkadarya, Surkhandarya, Zaravshan, and Samarkand. The largest intermountain trough is the Ferghana Valley (370 km in length and 190 km in width). The valley is surrounded by mountain ridges on three sides and is open only in the West. On the border with Afghanistan there is the broad Amudarya trough. 3. Regional distribution. The geographical map of Uzbekistan has gone through many changes. Until 1917, the territory of Uzbekistan was divided between Turkestan rule (a colony of the Russian Empire in Central Asia ), the Bukhara emirate and the Khiva khanate. The Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic was established in 1924 as a result of the national- territorial division of Central Asian republics.

From 1924 to 1929 the Tajik Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic was part of Uzbekistan. In 1925 a single administrative division was introduced. The republic was divided into seven provinces (Samarkand, Tashkent, Ferghana, Zarafshon, Surkhandarya, Kashkadarya, and Khorezm). The city of Samarkand was the capital. In 1930 these provinces were abolished and 9 towns were granted the status of independent administrative and economic units with 73 districts and 1696 village councils in Uzbekistan. From 1930 on, the city of Tashkent became the capital of Uzbekistan. In 1936, the Karakalpakstan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic was annexed to Uzbekistan SSR. Henceforth, the administrative territorial division of Uzbekistan developed by enlarging and establishing provinces. Many settlements have since turned into towns and cities.

The independence of the Republic of Uzbekistan was declared on August 31,1991 at an Extraordinary Session of the Supreme Council of the republic with the decree that the Uzbekistan SSR was renamed the Republic of Uzbekistan, Today the Republic of Uzbekistan consists of the Republic of Karakalpakstan, 12 provinces, 162 districts (199), and 120 towns.

Tashkent is one of the largest cities in Central Asia. It is located in the northwestern part of the Republic of Uzbekistan, in the Chirchik River Valley, 440-480 m above sea level.Area 256sq. km.; Population: more than 2,5 mln. Administratively the city is divided into 11 districts: Akmal Ikromov, Bektemir, Mirzo Ulugbek, Mirobod, Syrghali, Sobir Rakhimov, Chilonzor, Shaikhonlokhur, Yunusobod, Yakkasaroy, and Khamza, The head of the city is Khokim (mayor) who resides over about 500 self-government bodies or neighborhood (makhalla) committees.

The Samarkand province is located in the central part of Uzbekistan , in the Zarafshon River Basin , between the Turkestan and Zarafshon Mountain Ranges. Established in 1938; Area: 16,8 thousand sq. km. Population: 3 736 715people. The province consists of 14 rural districts - Okdaryo, Bulunghur, Jomboy, Ishtikhon, Kattakurgbon, Koshrabot, Narpay, Nurobod, Payarik, Pastdarghom, Pakbtacbi, Samarkand, Toilok, Urgut; 11 towns - Oklosh, Bulunghur, Jomboy, Juma, Ishtikhon, Kattakurghon, Nurobod, Payarik, Samarkand, Urgut, Chelak; as well as 12 town- typesettlements and 125 villages. City of Samarkand is the administrative center of the province (354 km away from Tashkent, 540 thousand people).

4.Climate. The climate of Uzbekistan is sharply continental, characterized by high amplitude of day and night, summer and winter temperatures. However, the weather conditions of Uzbekistan are significantly different from the conditions of these subtropical states. This is explained by the fact that the territory of Uzbek republic is considerably removed from warm oceans and seas, as it is located inside the Eurasian continent. From the south, high mountains prevent the penetration of moist and warm air masses from the Indian Ocean, but the way to the cold air flows is open from the north. In this regard, Uzbekistan has a special climate peculiar to the desert (summer is cloudless, with lots of sunny days, arid, hot, and winter is relatively cold).

However, despite its long form, the time of Uzbekistan is not scattered over several time zones. And it is +5 hours to Greenwich. And this is very convenient.

The temperature varies rather considerably with respect to the seasons. Average temperature in January falls below -6 0C, while the average temperature in July may rise above +32 0C. Average annual atmospheric precipitation on the plains is 120-200 mm, in mountainous areas - 1000 mm. The amount of precipitations is low, which is why the agriculture relies on irrigation to a great degree.

The coldest month is January. The temperature drops in the north to 8 C and below, and the extreme south, near the town of Termez, it is above zero. The absolute minimum winter temperatures of 35-38 degrees below zero.

The hottest months are July and August. During this period the average temperature on the plains and foothills is 25-30 degrees Celsius, while in the south (Termez - Sherabad) it reaches 41-42 degrees. The maximum temperature was registered in the city of Termez - 50 degrees (July 1944).In most of the annual rainfall does not exceed 200-300 mm.

5.Population. The current population of Uzbekistan is 33,250,860 as of Monday, January 20, 2020, based on Worldometer elaboration of the latest United Nations data.

Uzbekistan is a multinational state. Different nations and nationalities live in this country– Uzbeks, Karakalpaks,Tajiks, Kazakhs, Kirghizes, Uygurs, Dungans, west and east Slavs – Russians, Ukrainians, Byelorussians; also big diasporas of Koreans, Iranians, Armenians, Georgians, Azerbaijanis, Tatars, Bashkirs, Germans, Jews, Lithuanians, Greeks, Turks live in Uzbekistan. Age Group Males Male % Females Female % Total Age Group Population Age Group's share of total population 0-14 4,951,409 51.37% 4,687,737 48.63% 9,639,146 28.80% 15-24 2,715,904 51.07% 2,601,864 48.93% 5,317,768 15.89% Age Group Males Male % Females Female % Total Age Group Population Age Group's share of total population 25-54 7,081,937 49.73% 7,159,051 50.27% 14,240,988 42.55% 55-64 1,248,532 46.79% 1,419,972 53.21% 2,668,504 7.97% 65+ 699,136 43.62% 903,657 56.38% 1,602,793 4.79%

6.Natural resources. The Republic of Uzbekistan possesses large production and mineral potential, unique agricultural resources, significant volumes of semi-finished products obtained through processing, rich natural resources, and developed infrastructure.

The contemporary level of exploration of minerals is related to opening up of rich deposits of precious, non-ferrous and rare metals, all types of organic fuel - oil, natural and condensed gas, brown and other type of coal, shale oil, uranium, many kinds of construction resources.

A large variety of minerals has been discovered on the territory of the Republic of Uzbekistan with almost 100 kinds of minerals, 60 of which are already employed in the national economy.

Uzbekistan secures leading positions in the world in confirmed stocks of such minerals as gold, uranium, copper, natural gas, tungsten, potassium salts, phosphorite, and kaolin. Hence, for example, the Republic occupies the fourth place in stocks of gold, and the seventh in gold mining, the tenth/eleventh place - in copper stocks, the eighth - in uranium stocks, and eleventh/twelfth place in uranium mining.

Not only do the rich stocks of minerals provide the existing mining complexes with a long perspective, but they also allow for increasing facilities and re-organization of the extraction of the most important minerals such as gold, uranium, copper, lead, silver, lithium, phosphorites, potassium salts, fluor-spar, wollastonite, agrochemical ores, and other.The bowels of the earth contain stocks of natural gas, lignite and coal, gold, copper, tungsten, bismuth, and oil.

Soils and flora: Desert vegetation is prevalent on plains, while mountainous areas are covered with steppe, forests and mountain meadows.

Fauna: The country's fauna is quite diverse: there are rare antelopes saygak and giant lizards that can reach 1.5 meters in length. In the mountains, there are snow leopards and rare species of mountain goats.

LECTURE 2. FROM EARLY PERIOD TO XII CENTURY.

Plan:

1. The primitive communal system in Central Asia, its historical periods and their characteristics.



2. The emergence of Zoroastrianism. Avesta as an important source for studying the history of the people of Central Asia.

3. Early Middle Ages.

1. The primitive communal system in Central Asia, its historical periods and their characteristics.

Early Paleolithic (700 / 500-100 thousand years BC). The formation period of man and human society, as well as the appearance of the first tools. The most ancient people lived in primitive herds, limiting themselves to gathering and hunting. We used primitive tools, in the manufacture of which the labor process began. The physical type of man of the early Paleolithic is represented by an Archontrop (ancient man), of which Pithecanthropus and Sinanthropus are species.

The sites of the most ancient people: SELENGUR in the Fergana Valley (700-500 thousand years BC), as well as the KULBULAK site in the Tashkent oasis near Angren (700-500 thousand years BC).

The Middle Paleolithic (Moustier) (100-40 thousand years BC) In the Moustier era, ancient people began to use grottoes and caves for housing, primitive clothes from skins. One of the most important achievements was the invention of various methods of making fire. A variety of new tools appear, thanks to the improvement of the technology of stone processing, there has been a transition from macrolites to microlites.

In the Mousterian era, the beginnings of religious beliefs, primitive fine art (cave paintings) arise, people begin to make objects of decoration.

The physical type of human structure has also changed: the Neanderthal man is replacing the pithecanthropus and synanthropus.

Upper Paleolithic (Late Paleolithic) (40-12 thousand years BC). Along with the chipping technique, the squeezing retouching technique arises when processing stone, drilling appears, mainly bone, sometimes stone. The distinctive features of the Upper Paleolithic were the emergence of fishing, the gathering of wild plants, and the construction of long-term winter dwellings (dugouts, semi-dugouts, terrestrial type), indicating the beginning of the transition of people to settled.

In the Upper Paleolithic, the formation of the modern type of man, the Cro-Magnon, takes place. Human races and various anthropological types arise, approaching the modern three races - Caucasoid, Mongoloid, and Negroid.

And finally, in the Late Paleolithic era, the primitive herd was replaced by the maternal tribal community. The stage in the history of mankind, when tribal communities united around a mother, was called matriarchy. MESOLITH (from 12 to 7 thousand years BC). The most important inventions of the era were composite tools - an ax, a bow and arrows. A new technique arose - grinding, first the bones, and at the end of the period, the stone. In the Mesolithic era, man begins to name animals, new branches of the economy arise: hoe farming, cattle breeding. With the retreat of the glacier, the vast expanses of Uzbekistan become suitable for human life between the Amu Darya and Syr Darya rivers.

In Uzbekistan, more than 100 sites dating to the Mesolithic period were discovered. Neolithic(from 6 to 4 thousand years BC). The Neolithic era became a transitional period from the appropriating economy (hunting, gathering) to the producing one - agriculture and cattle breeding. The features of the Neolithic period were: the emergence of agriculture, the use of previously unknown methods of stone processing polishing, sawing, etc. A person learned to make a boat, which contributed to the development of shipping. In the Neolithic era, tribes move to a sedentary lifestyle, which served as the development of crafts: pottery, weaving.

ENEOLITH (copper-stone age) (from 4 to 3 thousand years BC). At the end of the Neolithic period, the use of copper begins in Uzbekistan. However, the stone continued to be the main raw material for the manufacture of tools, since copper did not have the necessary hardness.

At the same time, the Eneolithic era had its own distinctive features: a man mastered the smelting and hot processing of copper; agriculture occurs in the foothills, the population is engaged in breeding large domestic animals.

THE ERA OF BRONZES (from 3 to 1 thousand years BC). The great economic and cultural discovery was the production of bronze (an alloy of copper with tin, lead or zinc), which displaced stone as the main raw material for the manufacture of tools and became a new stage in the development of mankind, contributed to its further progress, caused enormous technical and cultural achievements.

Hoe agriculture is receiving intensive development. At the end of the Bronze Age, irrigation appears - the first artificial irrigation canals. Settlement cattle breeding is further developed and its separation from agriculture begins. A man tames a horse. On the whole, cattle breeding and agriculture become the basis of the economic life of society, while hunting and gathering lose their former role in the economy. The development of agriculture and cattle breeding contributed to the creation of a surplus product, the interchange between clans and tribes and the establishment of trade, economic, cultural, ethnic relations between them, and trade routes appeared - the Lazurite, the Great Silk Road.

The major discoveries of the Bronze Age were the development of jewelry, the use of bricks in construction, the use of the potter's wheel in ceramics.

The transition from matriarchy to patriarchy begins. A paired family becomes monogamous, paternal law in the family is strengthened. The formation of military tribal unions.

THE ERA OF IRON(from the second half of the 1st millennium BC - to the 1st century AD). Based on the widespread use of iron, metallurgical production was further developed, many technical inventions appeared – blacksmith, fur, hand mill, loom. The rudiments of architecture arose: stucco ceramics with a painted pattern, alabaster plaster. The use of iron completely separated agriculture and cattle breeding, contributed to the destruction of the primitive communal system, accelerated the decomposition of the primitive society: it strengthened private property, created the basis for the formation of the noble class, and played an important role in the emergence of class society.

In the era of iron, one of the signs of the city appears - the market, there is an intensive exchange of goods, resulting in an acceleration of the accumulation of wealth in the hands of individuals, the class stratification of society. All this leads to the formation of states on the territory of our region, the study of which will be devoted to a special lecture.

2. The emergence of Zoroastrianism "Avesta" as an important source for studying the history of the peoples of Central Asia.

The name of the religion came from the name of the prophet Zarathushtra (in Greek pronunciation, Zoroaster). Zarathushtra is undoubtedly a historical person who lived between the 10th and 7th centuries BC. His sermons laid the foundation for a new noble religion. What are they? In its initial form, Zoroastrianism was expressed in faith in the supreme god - Ahuramazda. At the same time as it was elevated, the situation was spread according to which everything in the world is gods, phenomena of nature and public life, animals, etc. relate to good or evil principles, to God and Evil. Truth and Lies. Between them there is an eternal struggle, which is the content of the world process. As a result of this struggle, Ahumazda must win and then the dead will be resurrected, all unclean things will disappear and the time will come for a happy life for all the good on earth. The role of man in the religious system of Zoroastrianism is determined by the concept of free choice. A person chooses between good and evil, and his actions are crucial in the course of the world struggle of good and evil principles.

The path of good is indicated by the true faith brought to earth by Zarathushtra. And the collective efforts of his adherents should lead to the ultimate victory of good. The main duty of a person to promote a good start in the fight against evil was considered, first of all, not to fulfill prayers, which Zoroastrianism, especially in the early stages of development, did not attach decisive importance, but a fair way of life: “good thought”, “good word”, “good deed - this is what man struggles with evil. As one of the main means in the fight against the forces of evil, an increase in material wealth, that is, occupation with cattle breeding and agriculture, was considered as a feat of piety.

What is the theological side of Zoroastrianism, especially the pantheon and rites? Among the main features of the religious system of Zoroastrianism, characteristic of the various stages of its development, the following can be noted:

1) a certain monotheistic tendency, expressed in faith in the supreme good god Ahura-Mazda / Ahur-master, Mazda-good /;

2) dualism of a moral and ethical nature, consisting in opposing two eternal abstract principles of Good and Evil, or Truth and Falsehood; at the head of the forces of Good is the good god Ahura-Mazda, at the head of the forces of Evil is the evil hostile spirit Anhra-Manyu (in the Avestan writing of Ango-Manyu, later - Ahriman); the struggle of these two forces is, as already mentioned, the content of the world process.

The most revered gods of the Avestan pantheon were the god of the sun and light of Mithras, as well as the goddess of fertility and waters of Ardvisur Anahita. Of the rites of Zoroastrianism, the most specific is the funeral rite.

The composition of the "Avesta". According to Beruni, the canonized "Avesta" consisted of 21 books, each of which was called "nask" (of which only 5 survived from the persecution of Zoroastrians and the spread of Islam):

1) "Yasna" ("sacrifice", "prayer") - a set of texts accompanying the main ritual ceremonies;

2) "Yashts" veneration "," praise "- hymns to the deities of the Zoroastrian pantheon

3) "Videvdat" - "the law against virgins (demons)", instructions for maintaining ritual purity (also contains a number of religious legal provisions, fragments of ancient myths, epics, etc.);

4) "Visprat -" all the lords ", a collection of prayers and liturgical texts;

5) a generalizing book - The Little Avesta.

Of the 72 chapters of the Yasna, 17 comprise the Ghats (Songs) of the prophet Zarathushtra. He is a famous poet, and his sermons are presented in poetic form ("gat" - rhythm, rhyme). The Ghats are the most ancient, archaic part of the book compared to the rest, the so-called Junior Avesta.

Chronology of the problem. The peculiarity of "Avesta" is that it includes many historical layers, chronologically related to different eras. Most scholars believe that the activities of Zarathushtra and the creation of the "Ghats" date back to the 7th-6th centuries. BC. (However, according to some reports, there is a legendary date - the prophet Zarathushtra lived at the age of 6 thousand years BC Alexander the Great, who began his preaching work at age 33, having received news of Ahura Mazda). Therefore, the ancient mythological strata of the "Avesta" are associated with the era of the universe, contain myths about the creation of man. Their texts are built in the form of dialogues between Zarathushtra and Ahura Mazda.

The first records of Avestan texts, according to Beruni, were made in the era of Alexander the Great in golden letters on the skins of 12 thousand deer or cows. According to the estate of many leading experts, the first recordings of Avestan texts were made back in the Achaemenid era by the Aramaic mute in the period of the VI-V centuries. BC, and the complete set of "Avesta" appeared much later - in the second half of the Parthian period and definitely by the beginning of the reign of the Sassanids (III century.). Over the centuries of its existence, the Avesta Code has been repeatedly codified. The latest edition of the Avesta refers to the reign of Sassanid Khosrov I Anushirvan the Fair (VI century).

Avesta language. Later, “Avesta” was written down by an alphabet specially created for this purpose, which was developed on the basis of the developed Pahlavian italics (that is, the font of the Central Persian Zoroastrian books), which is a development of one of the types of writing that arose on the basis of Aramaic writing. But the Avestan alphabet has a significantly larger (more than 2 times) number of letters, including 14 - to indicate vowels.

There is also a point of view that the very first recordings of the Avesta were made by a special ancient sacred language of religious rites and rituals, which was not used as colloquial. In this sense, the Avesta is a language relic. And this language is conditionally called Avestan.

Place of occurrence of the Avesta. Not a single scientific question has expressed so many hypotheses as contradictory as on the homeland of the teachings of Zoroastrianism. In particular, there is a "Western theory", whose supporters believe that the spread of Zoroastrianism began from Media, and an "Eastern theory", according to which the regions of Central Asia — Sogd, Bactria, Khorezm or Fergana — are the cradle of Zoroastrianism. The greatest number of adherents in the scientific literature is the theory that connects the first steps of Zarathushtra with Khorezm, since the historical tradition speaks of Khorezm as a country where the sacred fire of Zoroastrianism was first lit.

"Avesta", despite its religious and mythological character, can serve as a valuable source of information about the social and cultural life of the peoples of Central Asia. Analyzing the Avestan society, researchers noted that it was a four-step one. The family was called Nmana. The family also included non-full members - Vira, Weiss and Pariaitar. Vira usually means "man", "warrior", but can also be understood in the meaning of "slave." The clan ("vis") consisted of several agnatic groups, the head of the clan was called "vispati". Many of the most important issues were decided by the patrimonial council, which included the heads of agnatic groups. The Council addressed issues of internal life, both industrial and social, including those related to worship and justice, as well as relations with other tribal collectives.

Along with ordinary community members there were already "noble", "noble". One of the terms for “noble”, “noble” is “azat” (“noble-born”). Another term for "noble" in the "Avesta" is "asna."

The tribe - zantu played, apparently, a much smaller role. However, some texts relate to the advice of "best people." The term for such advice is hanchaman.

"Region" and "country", consisting of several regions, is called "Dahu" in the Avesta. The head of the Dahu was Dahyupati. Of the other persons in power, mention should be made of “Sastar” (“ruler”, “ruler”), who probably exercised power over some area from a fortified point.

Judging by the texts of the Avesta, the society of that time was characterized by farreaching social and property differentiation. Avesta has a list of "social and professional groups": a priest, a warrior - a chariot driver, a peasant - a pastoralist and (once) a craftsman.

3.Early Middle Ages Ephtalite State

In the 5th century Ephtalites conquered all the cities of Central Asia and created a vast empire that stretched from the Caspian Sea to Kashgar, and from the Aral Sea to India. They preferred not to interfere in politics of Sogdiana, which meanwhile had been divided into many kingdoms, the largest of which was Samarkand. Ephtalits promoted Buddhist traditions, they built many Buddhist temples. Ephtalites carried on active foreign trade through the Great Silk Road. They had good relations with China, India and Byzantine. They traded silk, jewelry and spices.

Turkic Khanate

In the 6th century the Ephtalite State was destroyed by the Turks, who in 550-750 through the union of various nomadic tribes and Altai nations established a powerful state, Turkic Khanate, stretching from China to the Volga. Central Asia became its part. Turkic Khanate lived by endless wars, by which it became richer. Captives were settled in special villages and paid to Khagans by products or handicrafts. Sogdiana and Fergana cities under the reign of Turks preserved a relative autonomy and paid only a tribute to kaghans.

The Turkic Khanate took part in political and economic relations of the largest states of that period: Byzantine, Sasanid Empire, Iran and China and struggled for the control on the Silk Road. Cotton and silk production were actively developed. In the early Middle Ages cotton and silk were the main resources of the region; local gold and silver were highly estimated too.

The Arab conquest and early Muslim expansion

In the 7th century AD a Sogdian fertile land became a subject of keen interest of the Arabs who from 673 started to invade these lands. The Arabs called it Mawarannahr ("that which is beyond the river"). In 709-712 the Arab leader Ibn Muslim Kuteiba conquered the main centers of Mawarannhr: Samarkand, Bukhara and Khorezm. As a result, Uzbekistan and practically the whole Central Asia became a part of the Arab Caliphate under the control of the Baghdad caliphs (Omeiad Dynasty till the middle of 8th century and since 750 the Abassid dynasty). The Arab influence in the Mawarannahr became dominant. The Arabs brought Islam and forcibly converted residents of the conquered lands to this new religion. By the 10th century the entire population of Mawarannahr (the region between the Amu Darya and Syr Darya) adopted Islam. All attempts of local people to resist the invaders were not successful. But such major rebellions as the rebellion of Mukanna and Rafi ibn Leis forever remained in the chronicles of the liberation movements of Central Asian nations. Takhirid State

Baghdad caliphs appointed governors in the conquered regions from the Persian officials. In 821 Abdullah ibn Takhir was appointed the Governor of Khorasan. He founded the Takhirid Dynasty, influence of which spread to Chorasan and Mawarannahr. During the Arab conquest economy and culture of the region were almost destroyed. Hundreds of the most precious monuments were ruined. Arabic became a state official language. Takhirids took decisive measures to organize strong power and to order agriculture. They improved water supply and constructed new channels. By an order of Abdallah ibn Takhir, outstanding lawyers of the country worked out standards to use water for irrigations. For two centuries these works had served as the guidance to solve disputes in water consumption matters .

Samanid State

Lest the possession of Chorasan and Mawarannahr do not increase too much the power of the Takhirid Empire, the caliphate began to strongly promote the Persian race of Samanids. The descendants of the founder of the Saman-Khudat kin were appointed the governors of Mawarannahr cities: Nuh in Samarkand, Ahmad in Fergana, Yahya in Tashkent and Ilyas in Herat. In 900, the Samanids attached Chorasan to their possessions. Samanids became the founders of the first centralized feudal state in Mawarannahr with the capital in Bukhara. Their reign lasted till 999. Samanids created new economy based on the reasonable tax collection, organized efficient work of the state apparatus. Samanids contributed to the unprecedented rise in cultural life. Bukhara, Merv, Samarkand, Urgench were worldwide famous centers of science and culture in the early Middle Ages. Trade flourished as never before. Particularly Samarkand paper and glass as well as leather, cloth, silk and wool were in demand.

Karakhanid State

In the end of the 10th century the Turkic tribes (the remnants of once powerful Turkic Khanate) founded a new state headed by a dynasty of Karakhanids, which in 992-999 won Mawarannahr. In 999 the Karakhanid Dynasty took the place of Samanids in Samarkand and Bukhara. Karakhanids had been ruling for 200 years, almost till the Mongol invasion in the 13th century, with short break in the 11th century, when Seljuks came to the power. State borders were constantly changing at that time.

Ghaznavid State

In the period of Samanid dynasty, Makhmud of Ghazni (city of Ghazni in eastern Afghanistan) was appointed the governor of Chorasan. Taking advantage of revolts in the Samanid State, he began to interfere in the affairs of Mawarannahr and infringe on the heritage of the Samanids. But he could not break the influence of Karakhanids who had already consolidated their position in the conquered Mawarannakhr and moved to Khorezm, which was a separate state at that time. In 1017 he defeated and destroyed Khorezm. Then he decided to conquer India. Makhmud of Ghazni made 15 campaigns to India from 1002 to 1026. In the 12th century Ghaznavid Dynasty was replaced by Ghurids Dynasty.

Seljuk Empire

In 1040 the state, created by Makhmud of Ghazni, was weakened by the nomads, the Seljuk-Turks tribes. Ghaznavids were unable to hold power for long and by 1059 Seljuks had taken over Chorasan and Mawaranahr. As the result of countless conquests these tribes succeeded to create a great empire at the turn of the 11th-12th centuries. This empire included Asia Minor, Middle East and major part of the Armenian-Kurdish highlands. Following the approval of Western domination Seljuks transferred their attention to the east, namely to Mawarannahr. They conquered it in 1097. During the Seljuk reign, territory of modern Uzbekistan was decorated with many wonderful palaces and buildings. Architecture, crafts, arts and culture were flourishing. In the 12th century Mawarannahr was invaded by new nomadic tribes, Kara-Khitan. They conquered the entire Mawarannahr, large areas from Khorezm to Kashgar. Defeating the Seljuk Empire, KaraKhitan created all the prerequisites for the strengthening of a powerful state of Khorezmshahs in the early Middle Ages.

LECTURE 3: RENAISSANCE ERA IX–XII CENTURIES.

Plan: 1. The great scientists and thinkers of Central Asia IX-XII centuries and their contribution to the development of world civilization.

2. The development of literature, architecture and religion in the IX-XII centuries.

3. Culture and science of the era of A. Temur and Temurids.

1. The great scientists and thinkers of Central Asia IX-XII centuries. and their contribution to the development of world civilization.

A synthesis of the Greek scientific and philosophical school, Arabian geography, Persian history, and the Central Asian medical and mathematical schools was formed in the Movarounnahr (Transoxiana) of the Samanids era (IX-XII centuries). It was this synthesis that gave brilliant results. A group of talented scientists gathered here. Muhammad Musa Al-Khorezmi (783-857) - the founder of algebra, worked in Baghdad at the Baitul Al-Hikma Academy. The name of this section of mathematics is taken from his work “Kitab al-jabr va mukabala” (Book of restorations and oppositions), which introduces the rules of action with algebraic quantities, gives a way to solve equations of the 1st and 2nd degree. The name Al-Khorezmi itself was preserved in mathematics in the form of the term "algorithm". The works of Khorezmi "Astronomical Tables", "Treatise on the Sundial" and others, translated into Latin, had a fruitful influence on the development of medieval scientific thought in the countries of East and West.

The scientific range of Al-Khorezmi is very wide no matter it is mathematics, geometry, astronomy, geography, history and other sciences. His works are Hisob al-Hind (The Indian Account), Kitob al-jabr wa mukabala(Book of restorations and oppositions), Kitob al-Arz (Face of the earth), Kitob at-Tarih (Book of History), Arithmetic, "Marmar soat hakida" ("About the marble clock"), "Yahudiy eralari bayramlari hakida" ("On the holidays of the Jewish era") entered the treasure of world science.

One of the most talented scientists of his time was Ahmad al-Fergani. (He died in 861, the year of birth is unknown). He achieved fame in the fields of astronomy, mathematics and geography. Together with al-Khorezmi, Al-Fergani was also engaged in scientific activities in Baghdad at the Baytul al-Khikma Academy. He personally participated in the construction of observatories in Baghdad and Damascus. In Baghdad, Ahmad Fergani led the astronomical school.

His best-known writings are The Book of Celestial Motions and The Code of Star Science. The contribution of Ahmad Fergani to the development of world science is great. In particular, in 812, he predicted an eclipse of the sun, his discovery that the earth has the shape of a ball brought him well-deserved fame. Fergani proved that the earth’s meridian is 40 thousand 800 kilometers. Modern science refines these data - 40 thousand 8 km. In Egypt, he creates a device that determines the level of water in rivers, explained the essence of the sundial. Today's discovery is that when discovering America, Columbus used the map compiled by al-Fergani. This card is currently stored in Baghdad.

The name Abu Nasra al-Farabi (872-950) is associated with the highest achievements of Eastern philosophy. At the beginning of the tenth century, the pursuit of knowledge led him to the capital of the Arab caliphate, Baghdad. In Baghdad, he gets acquainted with various fields of knowledge, studies languages. For progressive ideas expressed in the book "The book of the views of the inhabitants of an ideal city," the scientist was persecuted and forced to leave Baghdad.

Farabi was a profound connoisseur of Hellenistic culture. He also writes comments on the philosophical works of Plato, Aristotle, reviews on scientific works on the motion of the celestial bodies of Ptalomey, on essays on the psychology of the soul of Alexander Afrodiz, on the medical works of Gallen and the works of Epicurus, Zenon, Euclid, Porfiry. For this contribution to science, Farabi was called the "Aristotle of the East." Farabi is the author of many works on music (The Big Book of Music), a logic in which, developing the achievements of Greek thinkers, he makes a worthy contribution to clarifying many problems. The merit of Farabi lies in the fact that he, more than anyone else, contributed to the separation of Aristotelian elements from the philosophical works of the Neoplatonic and neo-Pythagorean circles. His pen belongs, in particular, to the commentary on Aristotle's Metaphysics.

Farabi proves the objective existence of the material world and the possibility of man knowing it. Dividing the sciences into theoretical ones - logic, natural sciences, mathematics - and practical ones - ethics, politics, Farabi as a convinced enlightener proves that sensory cognition of a person is born and develops on the basis of data from the world of things, forms the basis of the external side of human cognition. But, besides her, Farabi claims, cognition has an inner side, i.e. imagination, illusion, conjecture - he connects this side with the activity of the mind.

The follower of Farabi is another great scientist and encyclopedist of the Middle Ages, Abu Ali ibn Sina (980-1037). Having worked diligently in various sciences, by the age of seventeen he had already become an authoritative doctor and scientist. Having successfully cured the ill emir Nukh ibn Mansur, Ibn Sina gets access to the famous Samanid book depository in Bukhara, which gives him the opportunity to deepen his medical and philosophical knowledge. At the same time, he writes his first philosophical work, Investigations on Mental Strength. The scientific heritage of Ibn Sina (Europeans called it Avicenna) is huge and covers all areas of human knowledge of that time. He has written over 450 works. Of these, 40 in medicine, 30 in natural sciences, 185 in philosophy, logic, psychology, geology, ethics, 3 in music, etc. About 240 of his works have survived.

In 1002, Ibn Sina arrived in Khorezm. Here he selflessly works at the thenfamous Mamun Academy in Urgench, meets and collaborates with Beruni. The scientific interests of Ibn Sina developed mainly in two directions: in medicine and philosophy. The philosophy of Ibn Sina, set forth in the Kitab ash-Shifo (Book of Healing), constitutes an entire era in the history of Eastern philosophy.

However, the world fame was created for him by his classic combined work on medicine "Canon fit - tib" ("Canon of medical science"). The book "Danishnam" ("Book of Knowledge") sets forth his naturally - scientific and philosophical views.

Abu Reyhan Beruni (973-1048). An outstanding encyclopedist scientist, striking in the variety of his scientific interests and the boldness of thought, is the author of more than 150 works on history, astronomy, mineralogy. Of these works, 30 have reached us.

In his more than 45 works on astronomy, Beruni, 500 years earlier, concludes that the center of the universe is not the earth, but the sun; he was the first to express the idea that the earth revolves around the sun, and not vice versa. In this regard, his scientific works Astronomy Kalidi (Astronomical Keys), Konuni Masudiy (Canons of Happiness), are priceless. At the age of 22, Beruni was the first in Central Asia to create an earth globe, later to construct an instrument for measuring astronomical bodies accurately, to determine the radius of the earth, 460 years before Columbus discovered America, Beruni predicted the existence of the American continent in his work. Beruni was also engaged in empirical studies of the natural properties of minerals and sought to find out the true causes of their origin (Mineralogy).

The main works of Beruni, such as Monuments of Past Generations, India, Mineralogy, Geodesy, have been published and translated into many languages and are included in the fund of the history of world science and culture.

2. The development of literature, architecture and religion in the IX-XV centuries.

Poetry reached a special peak during the Samanids. Her prominent representative was Rudaki Abdullah Jafar (end of the 9th century - 941). Rudaki was an incomparable master of Qasida and the author of several poems: "Camila and Dimna", Sinbad-name, "Rotation of the Sun", etc. and was famous not only as a poet, but also as a wonderful singer, who performed his works to the accompaniment of ore - an ancient instrument .Rudaki is considered to be the founder of Tajik poetry.

Among the great poets who wrote in Tajik was Dakiki. He began a new poetic direction, based mainly on folk traditions, folklore, decorated by folk storytellers in the form of a poetic story. Dakiki, who wrote at the end of the 10th century, began work on the Shahnameh, but died, and the Dakiki case was completed by Firdousi, who included 1008 Dakiki couplets in his poem Shahnameh.

Abdulkasim Firdousi (940-1030) is the author of the poem "Shahnameh" (Book of Kings) - a poetic narrated heroic history of the peoples of Iran and Central Asia. At the end of his life, he wrote the poem Yusuf and Zulaykho. At the court of the Samanids, much attention was paid to history and geography. Madaini, Belazuri, Tabari, Ibn Miskaveikh, Muhammad Narshahi ("History of Bukhara") and others were popular historians of that era.

The reign of the Karakhanids can be considered the time of the appearance of the Turkic literary language. In 1074, the first work on the history, language, literature and culture of Turkic peoples appeared, "Devon Lugati Turk" (Dictionary of Turkic language) by Mahmud Kashgari (lived and worked in the XI century). In the XI century. appears in the Turkic language poem Yusuf from Balasagun (Yusuf Khos Khojib) "Kudatgu bilig" (The science of how to be happy).

Imam Muhammad ibn Ismail al-Bukhari (810-870). He collected 600 thousand verses (hadiths) from the Koran, and 300 thousand of them he knew by heart. According to the knowledge of the hadiths and their interpretation, Imam Bukhari had no equal in the world.

Imam Bukhari left a rich legacy. He has written 20 works. The most valuable of them is “Al-Djamiy As-Sakhiykh” (Authentic Collection), consisting of 4 volumes. In its significance in Islam, this holy book is in second place after the Qur'an.

A prominent representative of Sufism and Turkic poetry is Ahmad Yassavi (unknown year of birth, year of death 1166/67) - the founder of the Yassavia movement, which indicates the path of spiritual perfection to believers. From the Yassavia movement in Movarounnahr (Transoxiana) in the 12th century two other directions appeared. The first is the religious order of the Naqshbandi and the second is the Bektashiev.

The worldview of Ahmad Yassawi is set forth in his famous poetic work Devoni Hikmat (Wisdom): a Sufi who seeks worldly goods is not a Sufi; A Sufi is one who endures misery and sorrow with prayer and cry. Famous scientist, commander, theologian, philosopher, poet Najmiddin Kubro (1145-1221). Poet Najmiddina Kubro owns ten works. In his famous work "Risolatut-turuk" he reveals the basics of his teachings. Here, the views of Kubro are closely intertwined with questions of religion and the universe. The beliefs of a person, his faith in God, humanity, abstinence, non-involvement in unseemly matters are the main idea of Kubro's teachings. In difficult years for the Motherland, Najmiddin Kubro proved himself to be a devoted son and a talented commander. In one of the heavy battles with the Mongols in 1221. he heroically dies at the age of 76. The life and work of Najmiddin Kubro is worthy of imitation and she will long remain in the grateful memory of compatriots.

3. Culture of the era of Amir Temur and Temurids in the XIV-XV centuries.

The reign of Ulugbek is called the era of the highest prosperity of the culture of Movarounnahr (Transoxiana). The cities of Samarkand and Herat become centers of development of spiritual and cultural life in the XIV - XV centuries. At the court of Ulugbek, famous scientists and thinkers worked - Rumi, Khorezmi, Masudi, Birzhondi.

In Movarounnahr (Transoxiana) of the 15th century a new flow of Sufism- “Naqshbandiya” arises. The founder of the Dervish order of Naqshbandi was the Bukhara worshiper Bahauddin Naqshbandi, a contemporary of Amir Temur. The purpose of life, according to the Sufis, was in unity with God, dissolution in him (tarik). The dervishes called for a return to the original purity of Islam. Sufism had a huge impact on all areas of the spiritual life of the Muslim East - philosophy, poetry, ethics and politics. In the activities of Ulugbek, reactionary forces saw a threat to their privileges and inspired the Naqshbandi order to fight it.

Ulugbek (Muhammad Taragai) (March 22, 1394 - 1449). The astronomical academy created by Ulugbek in Samarkand brought him world fame. The observatory collaborated with Ulugbek Kazyzade Rumi and GiyasuddinDzhamshid (died in 1429), who in 1427 compiled astronomical tables for Sultan Iskander, as well as the young astronomer Alauddin Ali ibn Muhammad, nicknamed Ali Kushchi, was a personal friend and Ulugbek’s assistant and so succeeded in astronomy that he was called "Ptolemy of his era." "Gurgan astronomical tables" is the main work of Ulugbek (1437), which describes the position of 1018 stars, characterized by a high degree of accuracy. Ulugbek ordered the construction of three madrassas in different cities of the country in Samarkand, Bukhara and Gijduvan, and created an excellent library. It housed 15,000 volumes of books, covering almost all branches of science.

The scientific and literary heritage of Ulugbek is small: his stellar tables are Zij-i-Gurgani, in mathematics - A Treatise on the Definition of the Sinus of the First Degree, in astronomy - Treatises of a Ulugbek, according to history - The History of the Four Uluses, in musical art - "A treatise on music science."

Alisher Navoi (1441-1501) is the founder of Uzbek poetry.

Since 1469, he lived at the court of Temurid Sultan Hussein Baykara, who appointed him "keeper of the seal", and later - the first vezir. The name of Navoi is inextricably linked with the decoration of Herat - the construction of not only beautiful palaces, mosques, madrassas, mausoleums, amazing architectural monuments, but also a number of publicly useful structures: baths, hospitals, houses, bridges, discounts on roads, etc. He is the author of about thirty collections of poems, poems and scientific treatises. Hamsa (Fivefold) - five poems: "Confusion of the Righteous", "Leili and Majnun", "Farhad and Shirin", "Seven Planets", "The Wall of Iskander" gained worldwide fame. He brilliantly proved that the richness, subtlety, and grace of the Turkic language make it possible to express any thoughts on it.

In his works, Navoi philosophically discusses the important problems of our time, the ways to solve them, advocates peace and justice, praises honesty, heroism, nobility, love and beauty, scourges injustice, tyranny, deceit, lies and hypocrisy.

Navoi’s lyric poetry collections “Char sofa” (Collection of sofas), “Khamsa” (Five poems), “Majbubal-Kulub” (Beloved of hearts), “Muhakimat al-Lugatayn” and other literary works are an invaluable contribution to the treasury of world culture and are wonderful monuments of the history of the Uzbek people.

The largest representative of Persian-Tajik literature was Nuriddin Abdurrahman Jami (1414-1492). Peru Jami owns about a hundred literary works. In history, he remained as the author of a large cycle of poems "Seven Thrones" (Haft avrang).

Under Alisher Navoi in Herat, the art of decorating books — calligraphy and miniature — reached exceptional perfection and prosperity. The genius of painting (miniature) was the artist Kamaliddin Behzad (1455-1536), who is called Raphael of the East. He painted not only beautiful portraits of Alisher Navoi, Sultan Hussein and Sheybani Khan, not only scenes of receptions at the courts of rulers, but also scenes from the life of the working people, miniatures of buildings of Samarkand and others.

In Central Asia in the XV century. a peculiar historical school has developed. The works of the historians Hafizi, Abru, Abdurazak Samarkandi, Mirhond and Khondemir became valuable historical documents of the era, which reflected the grandiose events that became crucial in the history of Central Asia.

LECTURE 4. MONGOL INVASION

Plan:

1. The conquest of Maverannahr and Khorezm by the Mongols. Establishment of the Mongol yoke.



2. Central Asia as part of the Chagatai ulus.

1. The conquest of Maverannahr and Khorezm by the Mongols. Establishment of the Mongol yoke.

In Mongolia, at the end of the 12th century and the beginning of the 13th century the process of the formation of the Mongol state took place, accompanied by a fierce class struggle. The unifier of the Mongolian tribes and the creator of the Mongolian state of the semi-nomadic type was Temuchin, who received after 1206 the name of Genghis Khan. Genghis Khan sought to seize the caravan routes from the Far East to the Mediterranean Sea. He paid special attention to the creation of the army. The Mongol army was distinguished not only by exceptional discipline, but also by great mobility, endurance in battles and campaigns, courage and courage.

In 1209, Genghis Khan captured the small country of Tangut, which lays northeast of China. From this raid, the Mongols took out rich booty and people who knew perfectly well northern China, which was then under the rule of the Tsen dynasty, and learned the ways there. The war with China lasted from 1211 to 1215. In 1211 Genghis Khan defeated the Chinese army and captured three cities without touching Beijing. In 1215 Genghis Khan reappeared in North China. This time he took Beijing, overthrowing the Qing dynasty, and annexed Northern China to the Mongol state. From this campaign, he took even more prey. However, perhaps the most important consequence of this campaign of Genghis Khan was that he met with the high military equipment of the Chinese in the siege of cities. He not only took out a large number of Chinese weapons, especially siege machines, but also people who knew how to make and operate them. Thanks to this, Genghis Khan was soon able to equip his army with the best weapons of his time.

Having consolidated the successes achieved in northern China, Genghis Khan once more defeated the state of Kuchluk, the leader of the Naiman tribe located in the territory of Semirechye and East Turkestan, in 1218-1219. After that, the Mongols opened the way to Central Asia.

From 1215 to 1218 between Khorezmshah Muhammad and Genghis Khan there were trade, diplomatic relations. The rulers sent to each other trade caravans with rich gifts, embassies. So, in 1218 a huge trade caravan from Genghis Khan headed by Umar Khoja al-Atrari arrived in Otrar (Khorezm), which was defeated by the order of the Khorezm Shah. These events, known as the "Otrar disaster," led to a breakdown of diplomatic relations between the two states and accelerated the Mongol invasion of Maverannahr. War has become inevitable.

At the high council convened by the Khorezmshah on the eve of the Mongol invasion, several battle plans were proposed. One (Shihabiddin al-Khivaki) contained a proposal to gather numerous troops on the banks of the Syr-Darya and attack the Mongols who were tired of a long campaign. However, Khorezmshah rejected this offer. A second plan for promoting the Mongols was proposed: to give the enemy the opportunity to enter Maverannahr, and then, using the knowledge of the area, break it (JalaliddinManguberdy). An option was also proposed, according to which it was supposed to leave Maverannahr to the enemy, and to occupy mountain passages and gorges themselves, to cut the Mongols as soon as they rush to these places. The plan was also discussed at the military council, according to which it was supposed to retreat towards Ghazna and organize resistance, and if not succeed, then move to India and wage war with the Mongols there. However, the Khorezmshah Alaluddin Muhammad rejected all the action plans proposed by the military council against the Mongols and decided to defend Maveranahr, but not to accept a cannon battle with the Mongols and to give each city the opportunity to defend themselves and fight the Mongols.

2. Central Asia as part of the Chagatai ulus. The first blow in September 1219, the Mongols inflicted on Otrar. The siege of the city lasted 5 months. During the siege, not only the besieged, but also the Mongols suffered heavy losses. The city was captured and destroyed by the Mongols, led by the sons of Genghis Khan - Chagatai and Ogedei.

To conquer Maverannahr, Genghis Khanon divided the main forces of the army into three parts: one, under the command of his eldest son, Jochi, he sent to conquer Jenda, lying north of Otrar; another - under the command of Ulak-Noyon and Suketu, Cher-Bi sent to capture Binakent and Khojent south of Otrar; he himself, along with his son Tuli and the famous commanders Jebe and Subedai, invaded Maveranahr and moved to Bukhara.

In February 1220, Bukhara was captured, in March - Samarkand. At the same time, the army of the Mongols under the command of Jochi, operating in the lower reaches of the Syr-Darya, captured Sygnak, Uzgent, Jend, Binakent, began a siege of Khojent (defense of the city, the feat of the ruler of KhojentTemur-Malik), which was captured in April 1220. The heroism of the defenders Khojent is one of the wonderful pages in the history of the Uzbek people. Thus, in a short time, by the summer of 1220, Genghis Khan managed to crush the powerful state of the Khorezmshahs without much effort.

Khorezmshah Aladdin Muhammad escaped from the persecution of the Mongols and after some time he reached an island on the Caspian Sea, where he soon became ill from grief and deprivation and died in December 1220.

Stubborn resistance to the troops of Genghis Khan was also provided by the son of Khorezmshah Muhammad - Jalaluddin. Together with Temur-Malik, who joined him, Jalaliddin inflicted a number of major defeats on the Mongolian troops.

Having subjected the surviving population of Bukhara, Samarkand and Khojent to severe torture, the invaders, after a shortstop, moved towards the Karshi steppe and Termez. Having completely destroyed Termez, they killed all its population. After such a bloody reprisal, Genghis Khan crossed the Amu Darya and entered the territory of presentday Northern Afghanistan, wherein at 1221 he conquered Balkh and completely destroyed it. At this time (1221), the sons of Chagatai, Ugadei and Jochi with a 100,000th Mongol army besieged the capital of the Khorezmshah state Gurganj (Urgench). The defenders of Gurganj for 6 months courageously fought with the Mongols. Having captured the city, the invaders killed the entire population, except for artisans, children and women, who were enslaved. In addition, embittered by the enormous losses they suffered, they decided to completely wipe the city from the face of the earth. To this end, they destroyed the dam on the banks of the Amu Darya and flooded the city with water.

At the beginning of next year, the son of Genghis Khan, Tuli captured Khorasan, where, among other cities, the ancient cultural center of Central Asia, Merv, was destroyed to the foundations. Only a few hundred artisans who were enslaved were saved from universal beating, the rest of the population died. Of the areas inhabited by Tajiks, only Badakhshan and some mountainous principalities of eastern Tajikistan adjacent to it, as well as some areas in Gur, protected by strong fortresses, were not conquered by the Mongolian troops.

A prominent place in the fight against the invaders belongs to Jallaluddin Manguberda, the son of Alauddin Muhammad. Jalaliddin managed to win a number of victories over the Mongols: first, near the city of Nasa, in Kandahar, near the Valiyan fortress, in the battle on the plain of Parvan, near Ghazna, where the 45 thousandths Mongol detachment was defeated. The successes of Jalaliddin inspired the inhabitants of Maverannahr, Khorasan to fight the Mongols . Anti-Mongol performances began in Merv, Herat, Samarkand, the upper reaches of Surkhandarya, etc. However, Jalaliddin was not able to stand at the head of the anti-Mongol movement, as strife began in the army, which led to its split. Later, the Mongols destroyed each of the warlords individually. The decisive battle took place on November 24, 1221 off the coast of the Indus, where Genghis Khan caught up with Jalaliddin. After losing the battle, Jalaliddin swam across the river and hid on the other side. His further life went on in Afghanistan, India, Iran, Azerbaijan and Kurdistan, where he organized resistance to the Mongols. In 1227, the rulers of Asia Minor, Syria, and Iran created an alliance against Jalaliddin. His troops were defeated. Jalaliddin himself died in 1231 in Kurdistan. So the powerful dynasty of Khorezmshahs ceased to exist.

LECTURE 5. AMIR TEMUR’S PERIOD

Plan:

1. Creation by Amir Temur of a centralized state.

2. Foreign policy and military campaigns of A. Temur. Inner life in his state.

3. The struggle after the death of Timur and the reign of Shahrukh

1. Creation by Amir Temur of a centralized state.

Amir Temur bin Taragai Bahadur was born on April 9, 1336 in the village of Khoja Ilgar near Shakhrisabz in the Taragay family of the Barlas tribe, apparently not very wealthy, but respected and closely associated with both the Maverannahr nobility and Mogulistan. So, at the age of 25, Temur became the owner of a small but rich district instead of the uncle Haji-Barlas who had fled.

The service of Temur at the Mongol Khan was short-lived. When Togluk-Temur sent his son Ilyas-Khoja as ruler to Maverannahr, Temur, dissatisfied with the position of his subordinate, did not want to serve him, broke up with him and became an independent ruler. Together with Emir Hussein, he spoke in 1364 against Ilyas Khoja. Ilyas Khoja, barely escaping captivity, quickly ran to the Ili River, pursued by the emirs to Tashkent. Maverannahr thus became free from the Mongols.

After the death of Togluk-Temur, Ilyas-Khoja, who was succeeding him as a khan of Mogulistan, expelled from Maverannahr, did not want to reconcile with his position and in 1365 with a large army went on a campaign against Maverannahr. The battle, which went down in history under the name “Dzhang-i-loy” (“Battle in the marshy area” or “Mud battle”), took place between the present Chinaz and Tashkent. Temur and Hussein were defeated due to inconsistency. Both emirs left the battlefield and, with the remnants of the army, first went towards Samarkand, and then south to the Amu Darya, crossing over which they took refuge in the Balkh region - the possessions of Hussein.

The departure of Hussein and Temur to Balkh opened the way for the enemy to Samarkand, which had no defensive walls or a citadel, was left without a garrison and military leaders. The only force that could defend the city was the sarbadars. Sarbadars spoke under the slogan: “It’s better to see our heads on the gallows than to die of fear!” (“Better to hang on the gallows than serve the Mongols!”), Hence their name “sarbadars” - “gallows”. When the news of the approach of the Mongols Ilyas-Khoji came to the inhabitants of the city, the Sarbadars called on the people to resist the Mongol army. Sarbadar leaders developed and successfully implemented the defense plan of their hometown. As a result of the Mongols, falling into a trap, they were forced to hastily leave, having lost, according to some reports, a thousand, and according to others - two thousand people and a huge number of horses. The siege of Samarkand, which had to be lifted due to an epidemic that hit the Mongolian cavalry and destroyed three-quarters of the horses, did not bring success either. The troops of Ilyas Khoja in a miserable form, without prey and ransom, mostly on foot, left first the vicinity of Samarkand, and then Maverannahr.

The victory of the sarbadars was complete, about a year the city was in their hands. They established their own rule in Samarkand, carried out some democratic reforms, and apparently abolished the jizya illegally levied on Muslims. The news of the victory of the Sarbadars over Ilyas-Khoja reached the emirs - Hussein and Temur, who in the spring of 1366. moved to Samarkand. Having gained confidence in the leaders of the sarbadars, they then treacherously lured them to their camp, seized and executed everyone except Maulana-zade, Killing the sarbadars and their leaders, Temur and Hussein again subjugated Samarkand. Hussein became the chief emir, and Temur his vassal and right hand. However, relations between the allies began to deteriorate rapidly. Both emirs dragged other Maverannah rulers into their feuds. For the next four years (1366–1370), a latent or a clear struggle for power waged between them. Their deadly confrontation ended with the victory of Temur. In 1370, having gathered a wellarmed army, he besieged Balkh and, after considerable effort and heavy losses, took control of the city. By his order, Balkh was looted and destroyed, the palace of Emir Hussein turned into rubble. Hussein was killed by the ruler of Huttalyan Kai Khosrov. To kill him by right of blood feud.

After the fall of Balkh on Kurultai, the commanders of the army (commanders of the Tumen and thousands) in 1370. Temur was proclaimed the sole ruler of Maverannahr. His main task was to overcome fragmentation and unite individual possessions into a strong and strong state. Temur quickly and without much difficulty united and subjugated the lands between the Amu Darya and the Syr Darya, as well as Ferghana and the Shash region. Then he proceeded to conquer Khorezm, which was captured as a result of five campaigns made by Amir Temur in 1372-1388.

Thus, by 1390, all the lands of Central Asia, with the exception of the Seven Rivers and the lower reaches of the Syr Darya, were under the rule of Amir Temur.

2. Foreign policy and military campaigns A. Temur. Inner life in his state.

Already in the first years of his reign, Temur began to combine state activity to unite Maverannahr with the organization of military campaigns, which had an aggressive, predatory character. These campaigns, which Temur conducted for more than twenty years (1381-1404), were accompanied by destruction and human casualties. But unlike many wars, the Temur wars ultimately had positive consequences. Let us turn to the facts.

The first stage in a series of crushing campaigns of Temur were Iran and Transcaucasia. In 1381 Temur made a trip to Herat and easily took it. Almost simultaneously with the fall of Herat, in 1381, the state of sarbadars ceased to exist independently. In 1383 Temur seized Seistan by force, also incorporating it into his state. By the mid-80s. XIV century all Khorasan already belonged to Temur. On this his movement deep into Iran did not stop. Temur made three more long trips to Iran: first “three-year” (since 1386), then “five-year” (since 1392) and, finally, “seven-year” (since 1399). These campaigns were successful and culminated in the conquest of all of Iran. Their goal was the conquest of foreign territories and obtaining rich booty. However, it should be borne in mind that as a result of Temur’s victories in these countries, internecine wars ceased and the economic and cultural ties so necessary for the people were restored.

Temur also conducted three major campaigns (in 1389, 1391 and 1394-1395) against his former henchman of the Golden Horde Tokhtamysh. Temur’s wars against Tokhtamysh are explained by deeper reasons than the desire to capture rich prey. First of all, they were dictated by the interests of uniting Central Asia into a strong state. Temur set himself the goal of achieving supremacy over the ways of world caravan trade (countries of Europe and Western Asia with the Far East). He sought to destroy the northern trading highway, passing through the territory of the Golden Horde, and to direct trade along the old route through Central Asia. In the years 1398-1399. Temur made a great trip to India. Having defeated the troops of the dekhliy sultan Nasiruddin Mahmud and capturing the famous city of Dehli (Delhi) and the surrounding areas, he returned with enormous booty to Maverannahr. In 1400, Temur entered into battle with the Turkish Sultan Bayazid I and the Egyptian Sultan Faraj, capturing Sivas in Asia Minor and Aleppo in Syria. In the decisive battle at Ankara in July 1402 between Temur and Bayazid I, the mighty Sultan of the Ottoman Empire was utterly defeated and captured. This victory saved the peoples of the Balkan countries from the yoke of the Anatolian Turks, and Europe from their invasion. For several years, Temur carefully prepared for a campaign in China and began it at the end of 1404, has come forward with a 200,000th army. The death of Temur, which followed on February 18, 1405. in Otrar, interrupted this campaign.

The victories of Temur in his military campaigns became possible thanks to the perfect mastery of military art. Military history calls him among the largest and most talented commanders of medieval Asia.

Temur’s military victories, especially the defeat of the Turkish Sultan Bayazid I, brought him fame in European countries. The rulers of the countries of East and West were interested in establishing political, cultural, trade and economic ties with the empire of Temur.

Speaking about the special merits of Temur in the development of trade, economic, political and cultural ties between many peoples and countries, it should be emphasized that he restored the ancient Great Silk Road, passing through the territory of Central Asia and connecting the countries of East and West.

Temur ruled the huge state through his sons, grandchildren, and close associates, appointing them vassal rulers. At the same time, he widely used the suyurgal system (remuneration from the ruler). Suyurgal meant the transfer to a hereditary possession and management of a certain territory (district, region or even the whole country) with the right to levy state taxes and taxes from its residents (rural and city) in whole or in part in favor of the owner of the suyurgal.

At the same time, the central power in the state of Temur was exercised by himself, with the help of force and fear, keeping the vassal rulers in obedience. Only Maverannahr, with the exception of Ferghana, Temur did not crush and held in his hands. He was the most powerful of all feudal lords. He made Samarkand the capital of the state and his possessions, reliably fortifying it with fortress walls, constructing a citadel and a palace.

The suyurgal system, however, contributed to the strengthening of local feudal rulers, the growth of their desire for independence and independence, and gradually, especially after the death of Temur, weakening central power, contributed to the collapse of his state.

What are the main directions of domestic politics of Amir Temur?

1) First of all, Temur cared about the economic recovery of his state.

2) An important subject of concern for Temur was the development of domestic and caravan trade.

3) Temur attached great importance to the construction, connected primarily with the rise of Samarkand. Some of Temur’s remarkable buildings have survived to our time: these are the mausoleums in the Shahi-Zinda group, the cathedral mosque, known as Bibi-hanym (1399-1404), the tomb of Gur-Emir, where Temur and some members of his dynasty, Temurids, are buried. and others.

4) An important area of Amir Temur’s domestic policy was the settlement (colonization) of Maverannahr, the replenishment of its labor resources, the great damage of which was inflicted by the Mongol conquest, resulting in enormous human sacrifice.

5) Strengthening the position of Islam in the state was one of the major directions of its state policy.

6) Temur patronized the development of science, literature, art.

Amir Tumur not only created a powerful centralized state, but also clearly defined its structure, gave it the laws set forth in the Code of Temur (other names: sayings of Temur, Memoirs of Temur) - a unique document of the era, a kind of medieval constitution. This is a historical work, which contains a biography of Temur, his views on the device and management of the state and the army. It contains many valuable instructions on the structure of the feudal state, army, and information on the history of the Chagatai ulus.

Being the sole ruler, Temur nevertheless considered it necessary to periodically hold the Kurultays, to which all the princes, nobles, chief officials, administrators, and military leaders were invited.

Important affairs of the government of Temur were concentrated in a council with the participation of the main clergy, known for their knowledge, the chief emirs, military leaders, wizards and others. There was also a permanent control apparatus - not numerous, but efficient. In addition to the main administration - the office (DivoniBuzruk), each fog had its own administration-office (sofa). Temur assigned an important place in state administration to the vezirs. In his opinion, they should be morally pure people and possess the following qualities: nobility and greatness, intelligence and insight, knowledge of the situation of troops and subjects, ability to deal with them, restraint, tolerance and peacefulness. As follows from the "Code", the vast state of Temur was ruled by only seven veziers:

1) a vezir of the kingdom and subjects, that is, a supreme vezir, 2) a vezir for affairs of the army, 3) a vezir for affairs of property, income and expenses, 4) a vezir for affairs of the court, 5) kazi-kalan - the supreme judge, 6) jalal al -Islam - a special royal overseer; 7) a vezir sofa-i-insha - was in charge of relations with other states. Various state officials also served in the State Council and other state institutions, in general, at the court of Temur.

The largest number of chapters in the Code is devoted to troops and soldiers. Temur paid much attention to the selection of cadres of military leaders. Taking care of his warriors, Temur established a salary for each of them, depending on his position and responsibilities. Temur paid much attention to the construction of the army, its training and equipping with weapons. The army of Temur in its organizational structure continued the traditions of Genghis Khan. It consisted of equestrian and foot units built according to the decimal principle. The army of Temur was a militia, assembled only before the start of the campaign. It also included artillery units of the time. In addition to the militia, the collection of which was entrusted to the emirs of usuls, regions and districts, the army of Temur included guards serving at the court, guard units, numerous combatants and a special ten-thousand-strong guard. The army reigned in the strictest order and iron discipline, unquestioning submission of soldiers to their commanders.

An important place in the "Code" and the practice of administering the state of Temur is occupied by issues of strengthening the rule of law and order.

3. The struggle after the death of Timur and the reign of Shahrukh

According to Timur's will, he was to be succeeded by Pir-Mohammad. But this Prince did not receive support, and Timur's grandson Khalil-Sultan was proclaimed as a ruler. He was opposed by Shahrukh, Timur's son. In 1405, the two contenders concluded a Treaty under which Khalil Sultan retained power over Transoxiana. The struggle between the two Timurids lasted for four years, but in 1409 Shahrukh won and took Samarkand. Having won, the new ruler appointed his son Ulugbek as the ruler of Samarkand, and his son Ibrahim as the ruler of Balkh. Other Timurids Jehangir and Ahmed ruled Hissar and Fergana. Shahrukh himself ruled the Empire in Herat. Under Shahrukh, the Timurids waged wars with Mughalistan and the young Uzbek state. Decline of the Timurid state in 1447, after the death of Shahrukh, Ulugbek became the new Emir of the Timurid state. At the beginning of his reign, he managed to repel the Uzbek attack on Transoxiana. As early as 1449, Ulugbek was opposed by his son Abdullatif, supported by the Sunni clergy. Ulugbek was defeated, surrendered and was killed.

Under the subsequent Timurids, the territory of the state was narrowed. The descendants of Tamerlane spent a lot of energy on internecine wars. In the 1450s and 1460s, Timur's great-grandson Abu-Seyid rose to prominence. He managed to subdue Central Asia, part of Afghanistan, and Eastern Iran in wars with the rulers of neighboring States and other Timurids. Abu Seyid died in 1469 during a campaign against Azerbaijan. After his death, other members of the family established themselves in the United lands and continued their civil strife. In the following decades, the Timurid territory began to shrink. Its Western possessions were ceded to the Safavid Persian power. In Central Asia, the Timurids were attacked by the Uzbeks. In 1500, the Uzbek ruler Sheibani Khan in a fight with the Emir of Ferghana Babur took Samarkand and killed many descendants of Timur. Babur retreated to Kabul, where he founded a new state. In 1510, after the death of Sheibani Khan in the fight against the Safavids, Babur recaptured Samarkand. Later, due to disagreements with his Persian allies, he had to leave the city. After that, Babur gave up trying to maintain power in Transoxiana, which became part of the Sheibanid state. Babur ruled in Kabul, and after following the example of his ancestor, he made a trip to India. He succeeded in defeating the Delhi Sultanate and establishing a new state in India, the Mughal Empire.

Timur was able to create the strongest state of his time. He did not succeed in establishing the same reliable system of succession to power, and there were no people of the same talents among his immediate heirs. The result was the rapid decline of the Timurid state. By the second half of the XV century, their state, divided into Shires, ceased to be a serious force in the region. Gradually its territories were reduced, until the Timurids were finally exterminated or deprived of power in Central Asia.

LECTURE 6. DIVISION OF TURKESTAN IN KHANATES

Question to be discussed:

1. The conquest of Central Asia by nomadic Uzbeks led by Sheybani Khan. The formation of the Bukhara, Khiva and Kokand khanates.

2. The political history of the Uzbek khanates. Political system and tax system.

3. Socio-economic and cultural life of the Central Asian khanates.

1. The conquest of Central Asia by nomadic Uzbeks led by Sheybani Khan.

The formation of the Bukhara, Khiva and Kokand khanates.

The result of constant feudal feuds and dynastic feuds between the Temurids was the weakening of the political power of the Temurid state. At the end of the XV century. a number of almost independent possessions arose on its territory (Ferghana, Hisar, Samarkand with Bukhara, Tashkent, Khorezm), whose rulers sought to rule on their own and did not want to submit to central authority. This paved the way for the conquest of Maverannahr by a more powerful adversary.

So at the turn of the XV-XVI centuries. nomadic Uzbeks, led by Muhammad Sheybani Khan, invaded the state of the Temurids, captured central Maverannahr, and then all other parts of the Temurid state. At the end of 1499, he began the conquest of Maverannahr, captured Bukhara, and at the beginning of 1500, Samarkand. To know the city, secretly writing off with Temurid Babur (the ruler of Andijan), she opened the gates of the capital to him and proclaimed sovereign. However, in an open battle on the bank of Zeravshan in April 1501. Babur was defeated and locked himself in Samarkand. However, it was not possible to defend Samarkand.

The capital city of Samarkand in 1501 was second and final in the hands of Sheybani Khan. After gaining a foothold in Tashkent in 1503, Sheybani Khan easily seized the Khosrov Shah’s possessions with a center in Hisar — southern Tajikistan, part of northern Afghanistan and southern Uzbekistan; in 1505, after a ten-month siege of Urgench, in 1506, Balkh, and in 1507, almost without resistance, the second capital of the Temurids, Herat. The conquest of the Caspian regions of Gurgan and Astrabad (1508) completed the conquest of lands previously subject to the Temurids. As a result, a vast state emerged, which was ruled by the Sheibanids dynasty for almost a hundred years (until 1601).

In 1510, Sheybani Khan opposed the Iranian Shah Ismail I, a decisive battle took place near Merv in December 1510. Sheybani Khan's army was defeated, and he was killed. The Khorezm and Khorasan lands conquered earlier, with the exception of Balkh, came under the rule of Ismail I Safavi for a short time.

The defeat and death of Sheybani Khan inspired the surviving Temurids to fight for the return of the possessions of their grandfathers and fathers. Taking advantage of the dynastic struggle among the Sheibanids for the throne, the Temurids captured Ferghana, and Babur, who had settled in Kabul before that, quickly captured Khisar, Kunduz, Kulyab and Badakhshan and the whole central Maverannahr in 1511. In the spring of 1512, the young and energetic Sheibanid sultan Ubaidulla opposed Babur. In the battle near Bukhara, he won a decisive victory over the army of Babur, many times superior in numbers to his detachment.

Babur fled to Hisar. He made his last attempt to conquer Maverannahr in the autumn of that year, when the 12-thousandth army of Shah Ismail, led by experienced commander Najmi Sani, came to his aid. After capturing Karshi and massively exterminating its inhabitants, the Shah’s troops advanced towards Bukhara and began the siege of Gijduvan. However, here on November 12, 1512, they were completely defeated by the sheybanidUbaidullah Sultan.

So finally established the rule of the Sheibanids in Central Asia. But the state created by Muhammad Sheybani Khan turned out to be fragile. With his death, central authority was greatly weakened. In an atmosphere of feudal fragmentation, civil strife, dynastic strife, Abdullah Khan II (1557-1598) came to power, who for more than twenty years had been fighting for the "gathering of lands" of the Sheybanid state, against the separatism of the specific owners. As a result, in 1573 he managed to subjugate Balkh, in 1574 - Hisar, in 1578 - Samarkand, in 1582 - Tashkent (after the seventh campaign), in 1584 - Badakhshan, in 1588 - Herat and then other cities of Western and Northern Khorasan, including the lands of modern Turkmenistan. The conquest of Khorezm took more time and energy, it took three campaigns to gain a foothold there in 1595 and achieved a certain centralization of state power, an end to internecine wars, which almost half a century exhausted and ruined the country, which created some favorable conditions for normalizing economic of life. His name is associated with the implementation of new irrigation canals, the construction and improvement of roads, the creation of conditions for the development of domestic and foreign trade, handicraft production, the implementation of monetary reform, etc.

Bukhara finally becomes the capital of the Sheybanids state under Abdullah Khan II. It has become the political, economic, administrative center of the country. The state itself (since the time of the strengthening of Abdullah Khan and the subordination of his power to the Central Asian cities) later became known as the BUKHARAN Khanate.

However, the death of Abdullah Khan II (1598) entailed the renewal of feudal civil strife, the intensification of separatism of specific rulers. His only son and heir, Abdulmumin, six months after taking the khan’s throne, was killed in a conspiracy. Since Abdullah Khan II in the struggle for consolidation of power destroyed almost all members of the ruling dynasty, after his death and the subsequent death of his son, there were no male descendants, and the Sheibanid dynasty was stopped.

In such an environment, a new Janid dynasty (also known as Ashtarkhanids) comes to power in the Bukhara Khanate, the founder of which is considered Jani Muhammad - the Sultan (Janibek-Sultan), but the second son of Janibek - Baki Muhammad (1601-1605) was proclaimed. The only domestic political success of the first Janids was the return of Balkh. All other attempts to stop internal strife and fight with nomads have not yielded significant results. The political situation in the state of Janids is clearly characterized by the fact that out of ten representatives of the ruling dynasty, only three ended their lives on the throne; four were killed and three died in exile.

The relative centralization of state power was observed during the reign of Imamkulikhan (1611-1642). He managed to expand the borders of his state: he recaptured Tashkent from the Kazakhs (1612-1613). Successfully he fought with other nomadic Karakalpaks and Kalmyks. The Imamkuli Khan was able to temporarily delay the development of feudal feuds. Sources even mention some irrigation works during his reign. At the court of the Imamkuli Khan lived the then famous poets and historians (Hafiz Tanysh; Abulgazi, the future Khiva khan). He, being a sufficiently educated man himself, enjoyed the support of certain religious circles.

However, the tendencies towards a strengthening of central authority that arose in the state of Janids during the reign of Imamkuli Khan under his successors did not receive further development. Moreover, the domestic political situation was further complicated by the continuous raids of the Khiva khans, who, thanks to the lack of strong supreme power and feudal strife in the Bukhara Khanate, managed to penetrate deep into the country.

Under the last representative of the Janid dynasty Abulfayz Khan (1711-1747), the central authority in the Bukhara Khanate finally lost its significance, and it split into separate areas. The rulers of Samarkand, Ferghana, Tashkent, Balkh, Badakhshan became completely independent rulers of their inheritance. The government of the country almost completely passed into the hands of the atalyk Muhammad Khakim-biya from the Mangyt tribe. Anarchy reigned in the affairs of state administration, which was used by the Iranian Shah Nadir, which had risen by that time (1736-1747). In 1740, the Bukhara Khanate turned into a vassal possession of the Shah of Iran, with the support and patronage of Nadir Shah, Atalyk Muhammad-Rahim became the actual head of state.

In 1747 Nodir Shah was killed, shortly afterwards Muhammad Rahim, clearing his way to the throne of Bukhara, killed Abdulfayz Khan and later became the sole ruler. So, in the Bukhara Khanate since the reign of Muhammad Rakhim-biya, the Mangyt dynasty was established, which lasted until 1920, and the khanate itself became known as the emirate.

In the XVIII century. in Central Asia there were circumstances, as a result of which another Central Asian khanate arose - KOKAND. The first ruler of Ferghana in 1710 was proclaimed Shahrukh-biy from the Uzbek tribe Ming ("thousand"). In 1721/1722 Shahrukh was killed as a result of strife between separate groups of emirs. Under Shahrukh, the territory of the state covered the lands of Northern Ferghana from Namangan to Shahidan and Pansadgazi (Pangaz).

But already under his successor - the son of Abdurahim-biy (1721 / 22-1733), the territory of the khanate began to expand. Abdurahim-biy annexed Khojent and Andijan to the lands subject to him, thereby laying the foundation for the “collection of lands” in the Ferghana Valley. He also captured Samarkand, Kattakurgan, Jizzakh and some other settlements, leaving his governors in the conquered cities. The successor of Abdurahimbiya was his brother Abdukarim (1733-1747 / 48), he moved to Kokand and rebuilt it. Probably, from this time Kokand became the capital of the state. After the death of Abdukarim in the Kokand khanate, the troubled time of palace conspiracies and murders began, and only in the second half of the XVIII century. begins, as in other Central Asian khanates, the struggle against the arbitrariness of the feudal lords, for the "collection of lands", the strengthening of state centralization.

The third state formation on the territory of Central Asia was the KHIVINSKY Khanate, the first to be isolated from the state of the Sheibanids. As you know, in 1505, Sheibani Khan, after a ten-month siege of Urgench, conquered Khorezm. However, shortly after the death of Sheybani Khan (1510), Khorezm fell under the rule of the Iranian Shah Ismail I Safavi. At the initiative of noble influential people, a descendant of JochiIlbars Khan was invited to Wazir in order to occupy the stand in Khorezm. In 1511, Ilbars Khan was enthroned. Subordinating Urgench, and then Khiva and Khazarasp, Ilbars Khan ultimately established himself in 1512 as head of state. Khorezm became an independent state, known in literature as the Khiva Khanate.

However, the state created by Ilbars Khan was not uniform from the very beginning. In essence, it was divided into several feudal possessions, ruled by members of the khan's house, constantly at war with each other. They, as a rule, did not recognize the power of the supreme ruler; each of them had his own militia and was always ready to defend independence, and, when the opportunity arises, attack his neighbor - relative.

Therefore, after the death of Ilbars Khan (1525), a fierce struggle for the throne unfolded between separate branches of the ruling dynasty, which was complicated by protests against the khanate of the Turkmen tribes, as well as attempts by the Bukhara Sheibanids to conquer Khorezm again. In the first half of the XVII century. feudal fragmentation in the Khiva Khanate was further strengthened. The Uzbek sultans, the leaders of the tribes, who in the first decades of the existence of the state turned into semi-independent rulers, eventually became completely independent of the khan’s power and, relying on the military power of the tribe, began to dictate their will to the ruling khan. The increased decentralization of state power was complicated by the interference of the Bukhara khans in Khiva affairs.

This circumstance was taken advantage of by the Iranian ruler Nadir Shah, who, having captured the Bukhara Khanate without difficulty, went to Khorezm in 1740 and subjugate the Khiva Khanate. This led to even greater intensification of internal strife, both during the years of Iranian rule (until 1747) and after the death of Nadir Shah. As a result, many cities of the Khanate fell into decay, famine was rampant everywhere, which was accompanied by an epidemic of plague (1768-1769). In such an environment, having won an internecine struggle with other Uzbek tribes, an Uzbek tribe of Kungrad was nominated in the Khiva khanate, from which representatives of the new ruling dynasty came out, who began the fight against feudal fragmentation, for centralizing state power, overcoming the economic and cultural decline of the Khiva khanate (existed before 1920).

2. The political history of the Uzbek khanates.

Political system and tax system.

From the middle of the 18th century in the Central Asian khanates, the process of "collecting lands" began. Attempts to overcome feudal fragmentation continued in the late XVIII - early XIX centuries.

Political system. Tax system. The similarity is observed not only in the political history of the Central Asian khanates, but also in their state structure. The form of states in Bukhara, Khiva and Kokand were feudal monarchies. At the head of the Bukhara Khanate was the emir, at the head of the Khiva and Kokand khanates - khans, endowed with unlimited power and exercising it with the help of a complex administrative apparatus.

The highest administrative power in Bukhara belonged to the Kushbegi, who was the senior vezir and at the same time the ruler of the Bukhara province (10 districts or mists). Hakims or beks obeyed him. The second most important person after kushbegi was kushbegi - and - payan (lower), who was in charge of the financial part. He was the head of all divabegi who were under the rulers of the most extensive vilayets (Chardzhuisky, Kerminsky, etc.). The commander of the garrison of Bukhara, who bore the rank of topchibashi - and lashkar (the commander of military artillery), was at the same time the commander of all military units of the khanate. Various secondary functions of a secondary nature were performed by employees of various ranks. Moreover, in the first half of the 19th century, the ranks more and more turned into honorary titles, losing contact with the performance of a certain range of duties.

Also, mainly administrative administration was organized in the Khiva and Kokand khanates. The chief dignitary of Khiva in the first half of the XIX century. there was kushbegi (formerly - inak), who received orders directly from the khan. He was in charge of the settled population of the entire southern half of the khanate. A mihtar followed to whom the sedentary population of the northern part of the khanate was subordinate. The rank of inaka, who was considered the highest rank after the khan's dignity and who earlier had the significance of the plenipotentiary, in the 19th century lost its significance in the same way as in Bukhara the former highest rank of atalyk.

The main dignitary of the Kokand Khanate was the Mingbashi with the rights of the great vezir and the commander-in-chief of the army, which corresponded in importance to the Kushbegi of the Bukhara Khanate. An important role in the administrative and political respect was played by the governor of Tashkent appointed directly by the khan (beclarbegi). Under the khan, a council functioned, which, in addition to himself, the Mingbashi, included also atalyk, atabek, dasturhanchi, risalachi, mehter, naib, udaychi, khoja-kalyan, kazi - kalyan, kazi - askar, shaikhulislam, as well as some other administrative persons . Some of them were constantly under the khan, being at the same time rulers of individual vilayets and cities, where they had their governors or proxies to collect taxes and taxes, which were then delivered to Kokand. The khan gave separate areas for his service to his close associates.

The political and spiritual life of all three khanates was greatly influenced by the Muslim clergy. Representatives of the spiritual nobility could occupy not only the highest spiritual or judicial posts, but also administrative posts, acting as rulers of regions, etc. In the Khiva khanate, the most prominent persons from the higher clergy had, like the secular feudal lords, their own squads. There were two categories of clerics. The first included the official clergy - Shaykhulislamy, casinos, rais, muftis, mudarris, imams, etc.

The highest judicial power in Bukhara was carried out by the Kazi-Kalyan (supreme judge), who was appointed by the emir and was the head of all other judges, who were also appointed by the emir. In the Khiva khanate, as well as in Bukhara, judges (kazii), who were subordinate to the chief judge of the capital (kazi - Kalyan), existed according to the cities. In the Kokand Khanate, the highest judicial power was in the hands of the kazis, appointed by the khan himself from among prominent clergymen, headed by kazikalyans. The next person after the supreme judge in terms of the importance of the position in all three khanates was rais (literally, the head), or mukhtasib (in Kokand), whose duties included monitoring the behavior of residents, their observance of Sharia regulations and the trade inspection (rais of all subordinated to Bukhara rais other cities of the Khanate). Police power was concentrated in the hands of Mirshabs, or Kurbashi (in the Kokand Khanate).

Troops of the Central Asian Khanates in the 18th - 19th centuries they were mainly equestrian, irregular, consisting mainly of nukers - a special service class, exempted from taxes and obliged in the event of war to be led by regional rulers with full arms and war horses. Regular infantry appeared in Bukhara only in the 30s. XIX century under the name of sarbases, and in the Kokand khanate - in the second half of the XIX century. In the Khiva Khanate in the XIX century. there was a horse and foot army, but the cavalry was 8-9 times larger.

The basis of the financial system of all Central Asian khanates was tax revenues to the state treasury. What types of taxes were most common in the Bukhara emirate, Khiva and Kokand khanates?

In the Bukhara Khanate, of all taxes, the most significant was the haraj, which was paid in kind, from the share of the harvest. Of the other taxes, the most important was zakat - the state property tax in the amount of 1/40 of the value of the taxable item. There was also a special tax - aminana, in the amount of 1.5% of the value of goods and property. In case of war with the population, as a rule, they collected an emergency tax (jul). Maintaining the irrigation system in good condition: repair of irrigation canals, their cleaning, maintenance of water supervision officials fell on the shoulders of the agricultural population.

The Khiva Khanate also had numerous permanent and emergency taxes and duties, which were imposed on different social strata of the population depending on the area, occupation, etc. These include: salgut (land lodging), mirabona (collection in favor of mirab), miltyk - saligi (cash collection from the population for the purchase of weapons for soldiers), Arab ala (mobilization of arb for state needs); begar, kazu, (conducting and cleaning the distribution network), kachu (mobilization of safety dams for the device), etc. There were special tolls for the crossing, etc.

In the Kokand Khanate, the tax system, basically similar to Bukhara, was particularly sophisticated. Haraj was one of the main taxes, as in other khanates. The tax on livestock, property in general, and on goods in particular (1/40 of the cost) was called zakat. He was universally recognized in Muslim countries. Bazaar fees from trading shops and artisans brought more income. If necessary, residents of the Khanate were obliged to provide horses, carts, workers for the construction or repair of fortresses, irrigation canals, cleaning stables, the construction of bridges, as well as participate in hostilities. One of the common duties was hashar - a public event related to the construction of canals, dams, the maintenance of their order and serviceability, with the construction of madrassas, mosques, etc.

The most burdensome was conscription. In the event of war, each man was obliged to serve, and he provided himself with food.

3. Socio-economic and cultural life of the Central Asian khanates.

Towards the end of the 18th century, due to some centralization of state power, more favorable conditions were created in the Central Asian khanates for the development of agriculture, handicraft production, domestic and foreign trade. The basis of the economy in the Bukhara emirate, the Khiva and Kokand khanates was irrigated and rainfed agriculture. In the khanates, the irrigation system began to be restored, new canals were built, due to which the area of irrigated lands increased.

The irrigation network in the Kokand Khanate increased especially noticeably, where until the 18th century. only small rivers (sais) and streams were used for irrigation.

On the whole, the entire process of agricultural production and tools has changed little over the centuries. Farmers grew various crops: wheat, rice, barley, millet, corn, mung bean, dzhugaru and others. A variety of vegetables, fruits, melons, and fine grape varieties were grown in khanates with great success, as well as industrial crops - cotton, tobacco, sesame, flax, dyeing plants. In agriculture by the middle of the XIX century. the specialization of certain areas in the production of various agricultural crops was clearly revealed. The main breeding area for rice, for example, was the Samarkand region (Miankal valley), tobacco - Karshi and Kattakurgan, madder and other dyeing enterprises - the Khiva Khanate, silkworm breeding - Namangan, Andijan and Kokand regions, the vicinity of Margelan, Khazarasp. The main areas of cotton growing were Bukhara, Ferghana Valley, Shakhrisabz, Yangi-Urgench and Kattakurgan. In the Kokand Khanate, for example, they also tried to cultivate American cotton.

In the areas of nomadic cattle breeding, sheep-fat tail and karakul sheep ("arabkui") were bred in large numbers. In general, by the 50s of the XIX century. in terms of agricultural development among the Central Asian khanates, the first place was occupied by Kokand. The Khiva khanate lagged not only from Ferghana, but also from the Bukhara emirate.

In the XVIII-XIX centuries. in Central Asian cities, craft production was widely developed. However, during this period, in many areas of Central Asia, the craft was still not completely separated from agriculture. In the summer, many artisans cultivated the land and ate the products of their gardens and fields. On the other hand, certain types of craft were widely developed in rural areas. As for the urban craft, having a long history of development, it was extremely specialized. There were specialties in the development of only one type of product, and even only one operation. At the same time, the craft was closely connected with trade - most often the artisan himself sold his goods. Only foreign trade operations were concentrated in the hands of merchants.

The leading branch of handicraft production in all Central Asian khanates was weaving, which developed not only in cities but also in rural areas. An excellent damask steel was made in Bukhara, from which excellent knives were made. One of the most important types of craft production was jewelry. Carpet-making was widespread (the famous Turkmen carpets were made in the Khiva khanate), pottery production (ceramics were widely known); in the Ferghana Valley, the production of porcelain was developed, many of which are currently stored in museums, in the Khiva khanate - wood and stone carvings; Bukhara and Khorezm embroiderers were famous for their art far beyond Central Asia.

One of the most important branches of craft production was the manufacture of paper. The most important centers of paper production were Bukhara, Samarkand, and then Kokand, although already in the beginning of the 18th century, having failed to compete with factory paper coming from Russia, the Central Asian paper business irrepressibly declined.

Arms production, the art of equipping horse equipment reached a high level; the manufacture of boats and water-lifting mechanisms (ligars), widespread, for example, in the Khiva khanate.

The list of craft industries and specialties could be continued (only in the Kokand Khanate, according to archival data, in the 19th century there were more than 100). On the whole, the development of craft production and its specialization, the emergence of industrial areas testified to important shifts in the development of the productive forces of the khanates. However, the Central Asian craft did not rise to the level of the machine industry. Only in the most developed sectors of the urban industry (weaving, arms manufacturing) were used machine tools, tools, technological methods born of centuries of experience in the development of handicraft production.

The territory of the Central Asian khanates was rich in minerals.

However, the development of the mining industry was hindered by many factors: the underdevelopment of productive forces, the dominance of feudal industrial relations, the absence of specialists, the prohibition measures of khans, who feared that the development of ore wealth could lead to predatory raids by neighboring states, etc.

The development of handicraft production, the growth of cities contributed to the revival of domestic and foreign trade. Internal trade in the khanates was based mainly on the long-existing division of labor between settled farmers, artisans of cities and villages, and nomadic herders. Domestic trade was mainly made up of food products, as well as products of artisans.

The Central Asian khanates conducted active foreign trade: the Bukhara emirate - with Persia, Afghanistan, India, Kashgar, China; Kokand Khanate - with Bukhara, East Turkestan, China, partially with Khiva, Afghanistan, India, Iran, Turkey; Khiva Khanate - with Iran, Turkey, China. The main foreign trade partner of the Central Asian khanates was Russia.

In the second half of the XVIII century. After a long period of stagnation and decline caused by the general political situation, some revival in cultural life is observed in the Central Asian khanates, which found expression in the emergence of new scientific works, including historical ones, the development of literature, the art of book miniature, architecture, music and theater.

But the true focus of the literary forces of that time was the Kokand Khanate, where a special Kokand literary milieu was formed (BoborakhimMashrab, Khoja NazarogluHuvaido, Mulla Shermuhammad Akmal, Mahmur, Gulkhani, Gazi, Khazyk, Madan, etc.).

OCCUPATION OF TURKESTAN BY THE RUSSIANS

Question to be discussed:

1. Background and stages of the conquest of Central Asia by tsarist Russia. The colonial policy of tsarism in Turkestan.

2. The national liberation struggle of the peoples of Turkestan against colonial oppression in the second half of the XIX century. The uprising of 1916 and its historical significance.

3. The formation and development of the ideology of Jadidism. Educational and political activities of the Jadids in Turkestan.

1. Background and stages of the conquest of Central Asia by tsarist Russia. The colonial policy of tsarism in Turkestan.

Regular ties of Moscow tsars with Central Asia, more precisely, with Khiva and Bukhara, began in the Sheibanids era. They began with the journey of the English merchant Jenkinson in 1558-1559. From 1565 until 1619, a number of embassies were sent to Moscow from Khiva and Bukhara in order to achieve free trade in the cities of the Russian state. In 1619, the first official embassy of the Bukhara Khan Imamkuli arrived in Moscow, received by Tsar Mikhail Fedorovich. In response, the Russian embassy was sent, headed by the nobleman Ivan Danilych Khokhlov, who visited Khiva, Bukhara and Samarkand and returned in 1621. Throughout the XVII century. There was a lively exchange of embassies, but the establishment of any regular relations on an official basis could not be achieved. A new stage in the development of relations between the Russian state and the Central Asian khanates begins with the accession of Peter I to the Russian throne. In 1700, the Khiva embassy from Khan Shah-Niyaz arrived to Peter. In 1717, Peter I equips Khiva expedition of Prince Bekovich-Cherkassky. Part of the detachment sent overland died in full force, and Prince Bekovich-Cherkassky himself died.

The conquest of Central Asia by tsarist Russia was due to a number of reasons.

1. One of the most important reasons was the establishment in 1764 of the complete domination of England over India. It was from this period that the confrontation of England and Russia in Central Asia began to be considered. Since the beginning of the 19th century, many English missions have visited Central Asian khanates: in 1824 - Murcroft, in 1831 - Burns, in 1843 - captain Abbott and others.

2. At that time, Russia lagged behind many advanced countries in terms of economic development, including England and the USA. So, in 1860 it lagged behind in the production of industrial goods: from France - by 7.2 times, from Germany - by 9 times, from England - by 18 times. In addition, the manufactured goods did not differ in high quality and low prices. Therefore, the path to European markets with Russian goods was closed, which in turn forced Russia to seek new markets for their sale and new sources of cheap raw materials.

3. The defeat of Russia in the Crimean War of 1855-1857. and the further weakening of its influence in the Balkans spurred Russia in its desire to realize its plans in Central Asia. On the other hand, in this war England participated on the side of Turkey, which prompted tsarism to strike back.

4. The civil war of 1864-1865. in the USA was the reason for shortages of American cotton to European markets, including Russian. By this time, the rapidly growing Russian textile industry was acquiring 100 million rubles of cotton abroad and America was its main supplier.

Russia sent its first blow to the Kokand Khanate. In 1847, the tsarist troops captured the mouth of the Syr Darya and built the Aral fortress here. In 1852, Russian troops led by Blumberg tried to seize the military fortress of Ak-mosque (Kyzyl-Orda), but failed. The following year, General Perovsky repeated this attempt. The siege of the fortress, where there were only 400 defenders, lasted almost a month (22 days). July 28, 1853 the fortress was occupied and renamed Fort Perovsky. In the same year (1853), the Kazalinsk front was founded.

At the same time, the advance of tsarist troops from Western Siberia from Semipalatinsk begins. During the years 1850-1854. the whole Zaili region was annexed to Russia in 1854. the Vernoye settlement (now Alma-Ata) was founded - the military and administrative center of this region.

In 1860, after stubborn resistance, Tokmak was taken, and then Pishpek. An important result of this expedition for Russia was the elimination of the influence of the Kokand khans on the tribes of nomadic Kyrgyz in the upper reaches of the Chu River and IssykKul Lake.

In May 1864, preparations for the campaign on the Kokand fortifications were completed. General July 4, after a two-hour battle, captured Aulie-Ata. Colonel Verevkin’s detachment took Turkestan on June 12, and was taken by assault on Chimkent on September 21. Chernyaev also made an attempt to capture Tashkent, but failed, having lost 78 people. killed, he retreated to Chimkent (from September 27 to October 4).

April 27, 1865 Chernyaev with 2,000 soldiers and 12 guns again came out of Chimkent to Tashkent. After the siege and assault on the city, he captures Tashkent on June 17. In the summer of 1865, a royal decree was issued on the city’s annexation to Russia, and on August 27, the inhabitants of Tashkent accepted Russian citizenship. With the capture of Tashkent, losses among its residents amounted to 12 thousand people.

On January 25, 1865, it was decided to form the Turkestan region as part of the Orenburg Governor General. Major General M.G. Chernyaev was appointed the first military governor of the Turkestan region. In March 1866, Major General D.I. Romanovsky was appointed to this post.

The tsarist troops in 1866 launched an offensive on the Bukhara emirate. In May 1866, a major battle took place in the tract Irzhar, in which the Bukhara troops suffered a major defeat. Following this, the Russian troops of Khojent and Nau fortress. After the Irjar battle, Romanovsky presented the emir with peace terms. The Emir of Bukhara agreed with these conditions, but requested that the clause on payment of indemnities be deleted from them. On September 13, Romanovsky at the negotiations demanded that the Bukhara ambassador impossible: to pay indemnity in a 10-day period in the amount of 100 thousand Bukhara tolls. On September 23, Russian troops invaded the borders of the Bukhara emirate and stormed the cities of Ura-Tyube, Jizzakh, Yangi-Kurgan.

On July 11, 1867, the Turkestan Governor General was formed from the conquered territories. The first governor-general was appointed Baron von Kaufmann. He was granted broad powers. He received the right to personally resolve all political, economic and border issues in the province, exchange embassies with neighboring countries, and conclude agreements with them, without agreement with the central government. Continuing the attack on the Emirate of Bukhara, May 1, 1868, Kaufman ordered to force Zerafshan and stormed the city of Samarkand. In pursuit of the emir, on May 2, tsarist troops took Urgut, a few days later Katta-Kurgan - the last major city on the roads to Bukhara. On June 2, a major battle took place between Bukhara and Katta-Kurgan on the Zirabulak Heights, in which the Bukharaites were defeated. On June 23, 1868, a peace treaty was concluded between the Russian Empire and Bukhara, according to which a part of the territory from Chinaz to Zirabulak with the conquered cities was seized from the Bukhara emirate and the Zeravshan district was formed on it, which became part of the Turkestan governor general. The Bukhara emir pledged to pay 500 thousand rubles of indemnity, to provide Russian merchants with the right to free trade in the emirate. In 1873, a new agreement was signed, according to which Bukhara lost the right to conduct an independent foreign policy, i.e. The Bukhara emirate has become a Russian protectorate.

In February 1873, a campaign began on the Khiva Khanate, which was headed by Kaufman himself. After the defeat of the Khiva troops and the capture of Khiva (May 29, 1873), he forced the Khiva khan to sign the Treaty of Handem (August 12, 1873). According to the agreement, the Khiva khan recognized himself as "the humble servant of the All-Russian Emperor." The entire right bank of the Amu Darya went to Russia (in 1874, the Amu Darya department was formed here). The Khiva khan was obliged to pay a huge indemnity (2 million 200 thousand rubles for 20 years) for military expenses. Russian merchants were exempted from paying zakat and received the right to transport their goods duty-free through Khiva possessions to all neighboring countries.

By this time, a popular uprising began under the leadership of Pulat Khan, Abdurahman Aftobachi against the khanate and colonial oppression (1873-1876) in the Kokand Khanate. After his suppression by Russian troops under the command of General Skobelev M.D. February 19, 1876 by royal decree announced the liquidation of the Kokand Khanate and the annexation of its territory to the Russian Empire. Instead of the abolished khanate, the Ferghana region was formed, General Skobelev M.D. was appointed the first military governor.

In total, more than 500 thousand inhabitants of Central Asia gave their lives in the fight against the conquerors.

The governance of Turkestan was created gradually. In 1865, a provisional regulation was issued on the management of the newly formed Turkestan region. Its purpose was "to establish calm and security in the new Russian possessions." Key management principles:

• merger of military and civilian power;

• concentration in the same institutions of administrative, judicial, economic and other functions. All power in the new area was concentrated in the hands of the military authorities:

• only general oversight of the local authority was entrusted to the administration the population;

• the administration did not make any attempts to interfere in the internal life of the population, land and legal relations.

In 1867, the "Draft Regulation on Management in the Syrdarya and Semirechensk Regions" was adopted with the aim of strengthening the colonial administration of the Turkestan Territory by giving broad powers to the Governor General. Features of the control system:

- “the inseparability of administrative and military power and its unification in common hands”;

- giving the Governor-General tremendous power.

The following “Regulation on the Administration of the Turkestan Territory” was approved in 1886. According to this “Regulation”, a colonial policy and a colonial regime were enshrined. The goal of the management system was proclaimed: "the construction of civil administration that is most appropriate for local conditions and needs of the population, which, while promoting the development of its welfare, would at the same time serve to firmly consolidate the region for Russia, reduce the treasury's expenses for its management and increase revenues." It affirmed “the inseparability of military and administrative power and its unification in the same hands”; regulated all aspects of the political and economic life of the local population in order to further strengthen the colonial regime.

On its basis, the tsarist authorities seized a large amount of land belonging to the nomadic population of the Turkestan Territory, and created a land fund for the distribution of land to Russian settlers. Taxes increased, a land tax was introduced in the amount of 10% of the gross income of peasants and a zemstvo tax in the amount of 35% of the total taxes. To carry out the measures stipulated by the Regulation, a large number of police chiefs, city officials, and clerical officials arrived in Turkestan, who, with their steep measures and neglect of national customs and traditions, deeply insulted the local population.

Tsarism underestimated the power and influence of Islam and worshipers in Turkestan. The tsarist government proceeded from the belief that the local population in Turkestan respected only power, and therefore, it was primarily concerned about maintaining a sense of fear and servility in it. Under KP Kaufman the post of Kazi-Kalyan was destroyed. The clergy was greatly displeased by the announcement of the liquidation of the waqf lands, and the abolition of zakat (1874), which, as you know, is one of the five pillars of Islam stipulated by the Koran.

The whole region, unlike the center of Russia, was subordinated not to the Ministry of Internal Affairs, but to the Minister of War. A strong military control apparatus was formed, which indicates the colonial position of the region.

Under the governor-general were his assistants and a council of 7-10 people (from military and civil officials of the region), the regions were controlled by military governors and regional boards.

A number of old institutions were preserved by tsarism in complete integrity or somewhat reformed. These institutions were considered as a means to preserve the economic, political and cultural backwardness of the region. One of these slightly updated institutions was the so-called people's court.

On the ground, the power of elected administrators and judges acted. "Popular election" was based on "buyback and bribery." Only male householders enjoyed the right to vote, only the wealthy who were able to bribe voters and higher authorities could be elected.

The tsarist system created wide scope for abuse of administration. In the field of water management, the tsarist administration acted in the interests of the Baysko-feudal elite, who seized all water resources into their own hands. Industrial policy was carried out in the interests of Russian capital.

The order of government of Turkestan created by tsarism was based on the oppression of local workers, on the complete disregard of their rights. The conquest of Central Asia by tsarist Russia contributed to its inclusion in the sphere of influence of the Russian national economy and familiarization with the world market. Capitalist relations, although slowly, began to embrace various branches of the economy, feudal foundations were being destroyed from within, and new methods of production were being introduced. New classes were forming in the country: the proletariat and the capitalist bourgeoisie. However, the development of capitalism in Turkestan took an ugly form in connection with the economic policy of the tsarist government.

The economic policy of the tsarist government in Central Asia reflected primarily the interests of the Russian bourgeoisie, and was aimed at turning the region into a source of raw materials and a market for products of Russian industry. The conductor of the policy of Russian capitalism in Central Asia were Russian commercial banks. The most profitable for investing bank capital in Central Asia was cotton business. Particularly intensively, capital began to penetrate into cotton growing since the 1890s.

In the colonial period in Turkestan, rapid growth in industrial construction was observed. So, from the time of the conquest of Central Asia by Russia until 1900, 171 enterprises were built, in 10 years (1900-1910) - 223, and in the next four years - 179 enterprises.

The peculiarity of Turkestan's industry consisted in its colonial nature, with its main branches entirely serving the export of products. Such industries were ginning, coconut drying, leather, silk-winding, etc. The export industries were entirely connected with agriculture.

Of great importance for the development of Central Asia were the railways built by the Russian authorities. The construction of railways to Central Asia was caused by economic and military-strategic considerations. In November 1880, work began on the construction of the Trans-Caspian railway, which was brought to Samarkand via Kzyl-Arvat and Askhabad, and on May 15, 1888 the first train came here. In 1900, the construction of the Orenburg-Tashkent railway began, and on July 1, 1905 the first train passed along it. Railways connected Central Asia with the central regions of Russia, making it an inextricable part of the all-Russian market. Central Asia now entered the world market - a necessary condition for any industrial development.

A clear expression of the economic and social development of Central Asia was the growth of cities. The population of eight cities (Tashkent, Kokand, Andijan, Dzharkent, Samarkand, Osh, Khojent and Verny) for 13 years from 1897 to 1910. increased from 440 thousand to 613 thousand, an increase of more than 40%. Moreover, the urban population grew almost twice as fast as the entire population.

In the first period, agriculture was dominated by food crops and the weak specialization of agricultural areas. The marketability of agricultural products, with the exception of sheep breeding, was small. Agriculture and water management were equipped with primitive equipment. The main branches of agriculture were agriculture and cattle breeding. Growing textile production in Russia has shown an increasing demand for cotton since the end of the 19th century. began to turn Turkestan into its cotton field, i.e. the main source of supply for cotton. There was an economic integration of the Russian and Central Asian economies. Cotton growing was the basis of this integration. For the period from 1888 to 1916 cotton sowing increased almost 10 times (from 68.5 thousand deciatins to 680 thousand 911 acres), and the gross yield of cotton increased by almost 7 (from 2.27 million pounds in 1879 to 14.9 million pounds) - in 1916). The main base of cotton growing was the Ferghana Valley, which supplied 85% of all cotton produced in Russian possessions. Turkestan ensured Russia's cotton independence.

One of the motives for the subjugation of Central Asia was the desire of tsarism to turn it into a colonization region for the resettlement of peasants from the central provinces of Russia. However, there was no free irrigated land, so the resettlement of Russian peasants was often accompanied by the forcible seizure of indigenous lands. By 1910, there were 124 Russian villages in the territory of Turkestan governorate-general relating to modern Uzbekistan (Syrdarya, Samarkand and Ferghana regions), where about 70 thousand people lived. Together with the urban population, the Russian population was more than 200 thousand people. Among them are railway, construction, factory workers, engineering and technical personnel, the commercial and industrial bourgeoisie, a small stratum of intelligentsia and educators.

Under the tsarist government, two types of religious schools were preserved: maktabs (primary schools) and madrassas (secondary and higher schools). Boys studied in them. There were also female schools, but girls from wealthy families studied in them. Programs and curricula were developed in the 12-13th centuries. The first time after the conquest of Central Asia, the tsarist authorities did not intervene in the public education system. Under Alexander III (1881-1894), the implementation of the Russification policy began, the weapon of which was the school. In 1884, Russian-native schools began to appear. Here, students studied Russian language and arithmetic half the time with Russian teachers, and the other half with a Muslim teacher, as in a traditional school.

In Central Asia, in the 90s, the first new-method schools appeared in the Ferghana Valley, these maktabs under the influence of modernity underwent reforms. The pedagogy of the new method maktabs set the tasks: 1) to give the young generation the knowledge needed in modern life; 2) apply forms of training more modern than in old Muslim maktabs. In new-method schools, geographical maps, globes, and other visual aids appeared; students sat at desks, corporal punishment was abolished, and others. In 1908 there were only 35 in Turkestan, and by 1917, there were already 92 new-type maktaba.

The old education system continued until 1917. In 1912 there were 7665 maktabs and madrassas.

In the second half of the 19th century, an important event took place in the cultural life of Uzbekistan: in 1868, printing appeared. In 1874, the Turkestan Public Library (now named after A. Navoi) was opened, which laid the first foundations of bibliographic work in the region, and conducted scientific research. In the period under review, science and knowledge began to revive and develop. Special schools were created, a chemical laboratory was opened in Tashkent, astronomical institutions, an observatory, museums and libraries were built. A great contribution to the development of modern sciences in Uzbekistan was made by Russian scientists: the geographer P.T. Semenov Tien-Shansky, geologists and anthropologists spouses L.P. and O.A. Fedchenko, geologist and geographer I.V. Mushketov, historians V.V. Bartold and V.L. Vyatkin and others.

The conquest of Central Asia by Russia was a violent colonial act, not much different from the colonial conquests of other countries. It was predatory in nature and established a colonial regime in Central Asia, which, however, differed in some features. Russia at the end of the 19th century turned into a “prison of peoples”, and Central Asia was part of it. The principle of "military-people's management", steadily enforced, meant that tsarism in fact established a military-bureaucratic control system in Turkestan that left a militarybureaucratic imprint on the colonial policy of tsarism as a whole.

2. The national liberation struggle of the peoples of Turkestan against colonial oppression in the second half of the XIX century. The uprising of 1916 and its historical significance. The Tashkent "cholera rebellion" of 1892. The cholera epidemic and the shy measures against it were only an external reason for the manifestation of deep domestic discontent accumulated among the population of Tashkent by the colonial policy of tsarism.

On June 20, residents of the old city of Tashkent began to gather in mosques and discuss a draft petition to the authorities on the abolition of shy anti-cholera events. Deputies were elected, signatures were collected. However, the appeal to the authorities did not take place, he was outstripped by the open speech of the population. On the night of June 24, a group of 500 people appeared from the Shaikhantaur part of the city, which was brought by Ishan Abdul-Kasym-Khoja and bazaar foreman Zia-Mohammed. The main slogan of the rebels was a protest against the tsarist administration and a change of city authorities.

On Vorontsovsky Boulevard (near the Urdinsky Bazaar), the city elder Ma-Yakub and the head of Tashkent, Colonel Putintsev, came out to meet the crowd. Clashes with the armed detachment of the colonial authorities began. The rebels perfectly understood who the true perpetrators of the oppression were: not a single doctor, not a single medical institution was attacked.

According to official figures, ten people were killed, but there is no exact data, as residents took away the dead and hid the wounded. The clash with the police at Anchor ended in stabbing. In the following days, 80 corpses were recovered from Anchor. After the uprising, all aksakals and kazi were removed from their posts. Colonel Putintsev was demoted to the position of county governor. Instead, Colonel Tveritinov became the head of the city. Senior elder was replaced by police officer Sedov. The police began to be replaced by Russian or local from other settlements.

As a result of the investigation of the participants in the uprising, 60 people were brought to trial. The military-surrounded court sentenced 8 people to death, 3 to exile, 17 people to prison companies. Later, the sentence was somewhat commuted - the death penalty was commuted to hard labor for various terms. However, despite the mitigation, the sentence on the Tashkent uprising of 1892 testified to the desire of tsarism to eradicate the mass popular movement in the colonial outskirts with brutal and merciless reprisals.

Andijan uprising. In 1898, one of the major national liberation movements of the indigenous population took place, known as the Andijan Uprising, which covered almost the entire Ferghana Valley. The main participants in the uprising were farmers and pastoralists of Ferghana villages and suburbs.

The reasons for the uprising were: the predatory policy of tsarism in the field of cotton production; a new land tax system introduced in the early 80s, as a result of which taxes increased by 2–3 times; resettlement policy of tsarism; ignoring the role and influence of Islam on the local population.

The uprising was led by Ishan Muhamad Ali Halfa Sabir Sufiev (abbreviated Madali), nicknamed Dukchi-ishan. The main slogans of the war, Madali proclaimed the liberation from colonial oppression under the flag of "Gazavat", the enthronement of his khan in the Ferghana. The nephew of Ishan, 14-year-old Abdulaziz, was nominated as a candidate for the khan’s throne.

On May 18, 1898, about 2,000 rebels attacked the Russian garrison in Andijan, were defeated and dispersed. Later, the city was cordoned off by the approaching troops, which crushed the rebellion. After its suppression, the investigation began. after the suppression of the uprising, 546 people were arrested, Madali-ishan and 45 of his associates were executed, the rest were sentenced to exile in Siberia and various terms of imprisonment.

The Andijan uprising of 1898 was of a national liberation character. It had progressive significance, contributed to the accumulation of political experience in the struggle, and in a certain form prepared the subsequent popular movements.

The uprising of 1916 On June 25, 1916, Tsar Nicholas II signed a decree "On attracting the male foreign population of the empire to work on the construction of defensive structures and military communications in the area of the army, as well as for any other work necessary for state defense." In accordance with the decree, the government decided to mobilize, first of all, the male population of the eastern suburbs aged 19 to 31 years.

The mobilization of the indigenous population in Turkestan began at the end of June 1916. A firm outfit of workers of 250,000 was established for Turkestan. Preparation for the mobilization was formal-bureaucratic in nature. The economic interests, life and customs of the local indigenous population were completely ignored. The mobilization of the most efficient part of the male population for military rear work deprived the Turkestan family of their breadwinners: husbands, brothers, fathers, sons.

In all regions of the region, lists of mobilized people began to be created at an accelerated pace. The mobilized promised return within 3 months and providing their families with everything necessary. But the local administration took advantage of this order for personal enrichment. Of course, the children of representatives of the local bourgeoisie and rural rich had the opportunity to pay off mobilization, while the only breadwinners of the families were forced to go to the rear jobs.

The unrest in the Turkestan Territory began on July 4, 1916 with a protest against mobilization for rear work in the city of Khojent with the participation of 3,000 people, which was attended by representatives of the urban poor, artisans, dehkans, tea-riders, and mardikors from the surrounding villages. The protesters dispersed the police, who tried to disperse the rally, with stones, after which she called for help in the person of the army, which, in turn, opened fire on the crowd. The result of the shelling: two dead and one wounded. Martial law was declared in the city of Khojent.

The news of the Khojent events spread all over Turkestan. By mid-July 1916, an uprising swept almost all the Uzbek and Tajik districts that were part of the Turkestan Governor General. Major unrest occurred in almost all cities (Tashkent, Kokand, Andijan, Margelan, Namangan, Jizzakh, Katta-Kurgan), in 11 volosts of the Tashkent district, in 29 volosts of the Ferghana region, in 24 volosts of the Samarkand region.

The imperial government, at the insistence of the Turkestan administration, from July 17, 1916 introduced martial law in Turkestan with the provision of emergency rights to the local administration. The use of mass repressions began in order to intimidate the indigenous population: the authorities took hostages, banned meetings, banned field work near the railway exclusion zone; they even tried to stop all movement of the indigenous population (prohibition of the sale of train tickets without the permission of the county authorities). Finally, an order of July 21, 1916 followed. : "All natives always respectfully greet the officers and ranks of all departments with a bow." However, neither punitive expeditions, nor mass repressions, nor the persuasion of "honorary" and "influential" people could eliminate the mass popular resistance to mobilization.

All attempts to start mobilization of the population ended in failure and led to new unrest and uprisings. Following the first wave (July 4-17), a new wave of popular uprisings arose (July 22-30): popular unrest occurred in the Tashkent district, Samarkand district, the Amudarya department and the Syr Darya region.

On July 30, 1916, at a meeting at the General Headquarters, it was decided to postpone the mobilization of the suburbs until September 15, 1916. This decision was framed in the form of a royal decree on the postponement of recruitment (July 30, 1916).

The first mobilization of the rear was clearly unsuccessful. The tsarist administration was forced in August 1916 to announce a new mobilization for military rear work on more favorable terms. By order of the Turkestan Governor-General No. 220, the total number of workers in the region was reduced from 250,000 to 20,070 people by reducing the number of workers in non-cotton regions and cities. The mobilization was supposed to begin on September 15 and last 3-4 months.

September 18, 1916 began sending the first echelons of workers mobilized for rear work. Mobilization continued until the February Revolution. In six months, the colonial administration managed to recruit 123,000 workers and transport 113,000 people to European Russia.

Uprising of 1916 in Turkestan was brutally suppressed by the beginning of 1917 The tsarist administration held accountable for more than 3,000 active participation in the 1916 uprising in Turkestan. More than 300 participants were sentenced to death by hanging (the sentence was approved for 51 convicts), hundreds of people were exiled and imprisoned for 10-20 years.

3. The formation and development of the ideology of Jadidism. Educational and political activities of the Jadids in Turkestan.

The Jadid movement that arose at the end of the 19th century united representatives of various sectors of society who differed from each other both in social affiliation and their views on individual problems. But common for the Jadids of Turkestan was that they acted as carriers of the ideas of independence, freedom and the struggle for a brighter future. By its nature, the Jadid movement was nationwide, democratic. The main tasks of the Jadid movement are: overcoming the socio-economic, political and cultural backwardness of Turkestan by reforming the conservative system of education and enlightenment of the masses; the creation of a national periodical with the aim of introducing the population of Turkestan to the achievements of world civilization, science, and technology.

Considering education as the only way to solve socio-economic, political and cultural problems, the revival and independence of the Turkestan Territory, its development along the path of progress and democracy, the Jadids initiated the reform of education - the creation of new-method schools, which began to appear in Turkestan in the 90s gg XIX century By 1891, the number of schools of the new type reached 63, and 4106 children were enrolled in them. They studied such subjects as arithmetic, geography, the basics of natural science.

If initially these subjects were studied according to textbooks published in Kazan and Orenburg, then over time the Jadids of Turkestan themselves began to publish textbooks and various books for reading. In particular, A. Shakuri published such books as “Rakhnomai Sanat” (Instruction for Children), “Havojiji Diniya” (Knowledge of Religion), Abdullah Avloni was the author of the textbooks “Adabiyet” (Literature), “Birinchi Muallim” (First Teacher) , one of the leaders of the Jadids of Turkestan, Munnavar Kari Abdurashidkhanov, was the author of such books as “Adibi Aval” (First Mentor), “Adibi Sani” (Second Mentor), etc. Peru Munavvar Kari also owns religious textbooks and a number of other educational benefits.

Mufti Mahmudhoja Behbudi, who is considered the father of the Turkestan jadids, was actively engaged in teaching, methodological and publishing activities. He was the author and published textbooks for new-method schools at his own expense - “Alifbo Maktabi Islomiya” (ABC of the Islamic School), “Madhali Jugrophia Umroni” (Introduction to General Geography), “Kitob ul-Atfol” (Book for Children), “Amalia Islomia "(Book of Islam), maps of Turkestan, Bukhara, Khiva. They were sold to schools at a 25% discount.

The educational activities of the Turkestan jadids played an important role in the formation of the national periodical press. Through newspapers published at their own expense, the Jadids promoted the advantages of the new method schools, advocated training national cadres, conducted active propaganda against ignorance and bigotry, old rites and traditions, and the implementation of reforms in the economic, political, and cultural life of colonial Turkestan.

During the period under review, they published the newspapers Tarakkiy (Progress), Khurshid (Luminary), Tuzhtor (Merchant), Shukhrat, (Glory), Samarkand, Sadoi Turkiston (Echo of Turkestan), Sadoi Fargona "(Echo of Ferghana) and the magazine" Oina "(Mirror).

The Jadids of Turkestan, especially their leaders, were alien to the feeling of hostility towards other peoples. They wrote with great admiration about the achievements of the Russian, Jewish, Armenian, German and other peoples of Europe in the fields of economics, politics, culture, science and technology. They called on their compatriots to study history, literature, cultural achievements, language, political and legal experience of the peoples of Europe, and advocated the adoption and adoption of European culture, the achievements of science and technology.



Another area of activity of Turkestan jadids was theatrical creativity. The Jadids immediately appreciated the theater as a sharp weapon of ideological struggle. Beginning in 1911, they regularly published articles in the periodical press, which proved the usefulness of the theater for spiritual enlightenment. In this direction, Behbudi, the leader of the Jadid movement in Turkestan, is developing the most active activity. His plays “Padarkush” and “Bakhtsiz kuev” were a huge success throughout Turkestan.

FORMATION OF THE SOVIET GOVERNMENT IN TURKESTAN. Questions to be discussed: 1. The Soviet Period 2. Soviet Uzbekistan 3. Uzbek literature. 1. The Soviet Period When Tsar Nicholas II was forced to abdicate as a result of the Russian Revolution of 1917, there were hopes among the intellectuals of Turkistan for greater freedoms. In October 1917 an independent government called the Kokand Autonomy was declared, although it was quashed by Russian authorities the following year. During the first years of the Soviet regime, however, the Enlighteners found it easy to spread a transnational Turkic culture and literature. Concerned with other problems, the Soviets initially did little to hinder the activities of Uzbek intellectuals in Turkistan, but they later used their control over the press to create obstacles. After the Soviets crushed the revolts of the Uzbek people and took full control of Turkistan, they increasingly suppressed native literature, culture, and education. 2. Soviet Uzbekistan. In the autumn of 1917, the Soviet power was proclaimed. Turkestan was granted the status of the Soviet Republic within the RSFSR. Nationalists, disagreed with this decision, went to the mountains, from where started a fierce guerrilla war for the sovereignty of their native land. From 1917 to 1921 in Central Asia there was a struggle between guerillas and troops of the Red Army, which ended with the victory of the Soviet Union. In 1924 five new republics within the USSR were established, including the Uzbek SSR, which existed until 1991. In the first years of the Soviet power in Uzbekistan many measures were directed to the liquidation of illiteracy and construction of schools. At the same time the traditional life style and culture were destroyed. In the 30-ies of the 20th century an active industrialization of Uzbekistan took place: large plants and fabrics of light and heavy industry were constructed, new cities were built near these plants, and old cities were reconstructed. During that period Uzbekistan suffered from Stalin’s political repressions: among the victims there were leading politicians and cultural figures of Uzbekistan. During the World War II of 1941-1945 the male population of the republics of the Soviet Union were taken to the front and the most important enterprises and people were evacuated to the republics of Central Asia, including Uzbekistan. During this period, Tashkent became a kind of evacuation center, which gave a shelter to refugees from the whole Soviet Union, and was called the City of Bread and the City of Friendship of Nations. In 1966 a heavy earthquake in Tashkent destroyed the major part of the old city. In this connection the city was rebuilt in the Soviet style by the architects, coming from all over the USSR. In 1977 the Tashkent metro was put into operation. It was the first metro in Central Asia. 3.Uzbek Literature. In spite of these difficulties, Uzbek literature was able to maintain its spirit. Fitrat, Cholpán, Qadiri, Elbek (Mashriq Yunus Oghli), and many other poets and writers published their best works during the 1920s and early 1930s, risking their lives to express the voice of the Uzbek nation as they turned their attention to critiquing the ideas and social practices of the Soviet regime. Fitrat was an outstanding scholar of the Jadid era, a theorist and an inspirer of the Jadid movement, a literary historian, and one of the early Uzbek dramatists. He came into contact with the reformist ideas of the Young Turks during his time at Istanbul University (1909–13), and, upon his return to Bukhara, he became active in the Young Bukharans, a group that likewise advocated political reform. Many of Fitrat’s plays— for example, Abu Muslim (1918), Ulūgh Beg (1919), Temurning saghanasi (1919; “Timur’s Mausoleum”), Oguz Khan (1919), Chinggis Khan (1920), and ʿAbul Fayz Khan (1924)—took the form of historical dramas that depicted actual figures from Central Asia’s early and medieval Islamic periods. Fitrat’s plays helped to raise national consciousness and feelings of patriotism among the Uzbek people. Fitrat, like many Central Asian writers of this period, also tried to unify the various Turkic languages of Central Asia in a literary language for all Central Asian peoples. He considered the broader historical region known as Turkistan to be a single, indivisible state with a common historical and cultural identity, and he opposed the imposition of the proletarian revolution exported from Russia. Cholpán was Central Asia’s most popular poet during the first half of the 20th century. He was also a dramatist and novelist and was the first to translate William Shakespeare’s plays into Uzbek. Three collections of his poems were published during his lifetime: Uyghonish (1922; “Awakening”), Buloqlar (1924; “Springs”), and Tong sirlari (1926; “Secrets of Dawn”). In addition, a number of Cholpán’s poems appeared in the collection Özbek yosh shoirlari (1922; “Young Uzbek Poets”). Cholpán also published a novel, Kecha wa kunduz (1935; “Night and Day”), as well as a number of plays and many short stories. Cholpán’s poetry became a source of lasting inspiration for later Uzbek writers, not least because of his innovative use of new forms of expression. He broke from the past by rejecting the mysticism that dominates Uzbek poems of the classical period, and his poems exhibit a simplified, straightforward language that is free of foreign borrowings. Cholpán also appealed strongly to Uzbek national identity. The poem “Bas endi!” (“That’s Enough!”) in Uyghonish, for instance, expresses the first awakenings of revolt against the Russian occupation: That’s enough! There’s finally a limit To all these insults, this humiliation! The edge that’s arrived at bit by bit Is only self-doubt and deprivation! … This last stone I hold in my hand I long to fling at my nemesis. This last tear that my eye contains, I long to shed for my lifelong aims. Qadiri was responsible for introducing realism to Central Asia. He did so through his historical novels, in which he adopted a style and method that, in echoing Sir Walter Scott’s, distinguished his work from that of Jurjī Zaydān, a Beirut-born novelist writing in Arabic who was then greatly in vogue. The central importance of Qadiri’s historical novels Otgän kunlär (1922; “Days Gone By”) and Mehrobdan chayon (1929; “Scorpion from the Altar”) lies in their sympathetic rendering of the lives and times of the Uzbek people prior to Russian annexation. Many other Central Asian novelists—including Mukhtar Auez-ulï (Auezov), perhaps the most prominent figure in 20th-century Kazakh literature—followed Qadiri’s example. Soviet rulers feared Fitrat, Cholpán, and Qadiri because of the appeal their views enjoyed among the Turkic-speaking population of the Soviet Union. The Soviet regime attempted to exploit their popularity by encouraging them to write in support of the Soviet system, but these efforts failed, and, during the purge trials (Great Purge) directed by Joseph Stalin during the late 1930s, many prominent Uzbek writers— including Fitrat, Cholpán, and Qadiri—were executed. Thousands of other writers, teachers, and scholars were also imprisoned, many of them associated with the Jadid movement, which the Soviets regarded as a dangerous expression of Pan-Turkism. The execution of many Uzbek writers had a chilling effect on literary circles. The decades after World War II saw the rise of authors who were dutiful but unimaginative servants of the Soviet regime, among them Kamil Yashin, Sharaf R. Rashidov, Nazir Safarov, Jumaniyaz Sharipov, Hamid Gulyam, Mirmuhsin, Ramz Babajan, Said Ahmad, Aybek, and Ibrahim Rahim. Making use of the techniques of Socialist Realism, Uzbek prose writers primarily produced novels about contemporary rural life. Many authors who wrote about rural life often falsified the reality of suffering experienced by farmers; otherwise their poems, short stories, plays, and novels would have never been published.

LECTURE 9. GAINING STATE INDEPENDENCE OF THE REPUBLIC OF UZBEKISTAN Plan: 1. Uzbekistan on the path to Independence. 2. The declaration of state Independence of the Republic of Uzbekistan and its historical significance. 3. Political reforms in Uzbekistan. Creation of the foundations of the rule of law and civil society. 1. Uzbekistan on the path to Independence. Uzbekistan was the first Soviet Socialist Republic (SSR) that announced its Independence and came out from the clutches of former Soviet Union on August 31, 1991. Other Central Asian SSRs followed Uzbekistan instantly. This phenomenon of disintegration and coming out from the clutches of former Soviet Union is called as “Uzbek way” by Russian anthropologists and historians. Almost all heads of states of newly independent states had been a part or heads of Soviet system in their respective SSR therefore they decided not to disintegrate from new Russia culturally and socially. Almost all newly born states did not go far away from Russian orbit though some of them wishes to stay little away from the gravity of New Russia. Uzbekistan celebrates its national Independence Day Sept.1. State independence of Uzbekistan was proclaimed August 31, 1991 at an extraordinary session of the Supreme Council of the Republic. The session of the Supreme Council adopted a statement on the state of Uzbekistan's independence. The relevant decision of the Supreme Council proclaimed Sept.1 as the Independence Day of Uzbekistan. The turn in the socio-political life of the republic began in the second half of 1989. On October 21, the Law "On the State Language" was adopted. The first session of the 12th convocation of the Supreme Council of Uzbekistan, held on March 24, 1990, made a very bold decision at that time and very important for the future of the republic - to establish a presidential government in Uzbekistan for the first time among the Union republics. At this session, I.A. Karimov was unanimously elected the first President of Uzbekistan. The new leadership of the republic took measures to provide social assistance to the poor population: increased pensions and cash benefits for single and large mothers, created new jobs, increased land for allocation for individual construction, introduced free breakfasts for primary school students, increased purchase prices for agricultural products, especially for raw cotton for machine and manual picking, increased wages of workers and pensions for all categories of pensioners, and others. At the same time, work began on the revival of spiritual and religious values, the rich cultural heritage of the peoples of Uzbekistan, which contributed to the improvement of the spiritual and psychological climate and strengthening the socio-political situation in the country. The “practice” of sending personnel from the center to Uzbekistan was stopped. The republic took control of the selection and rotation of leading cadres. This is another proof that Uzbekistan has embarked on a path of independence. On October 20, 1989, at the II session of the 2nd convocation of the Supreme Council of the Uzbek SSR, the Law "On Amendments and Additions to the Constitution (Basic Law) of Uzbekistan" was adopted. The Supreme Council of the Republic as the supreme authority was given the right to approve or appoint, and, if necessary, revoke leading personnel in the republic before the end of their term of office, including the Chairman of the Supreme Council, the Chairman of the Council of Ministers of Uzbekistan and others. The annual report of the government to the Supreme Council has become mandatory. The powers of the Supreme Council included issues such as budget control, verification of the work of ministries and departments, discussion of parliamentary orders. The leadership of Uzbekistan has begun to develop its own path of transition to the national economy market of the republic. A “Concept for the Formation of Economic Independence of Uzbekistan” was developed, and on its basis, “The Basic Principles of Improving and Transitioning to a Market Economy of the National Economy of Uzbekistan,” put up for public discussion on October 17, 1990. The firm position of the leadership of the republic on ensuring political and economic sovereignty of Uzbekistan has been repeatedly spoke in speeches of I. Karimov at plenums of the Central Committee of the CPSU (September 20, 1989) and the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Uzbekistan (March 23, 1990). At the second session of the Supreme Council of Uzbekistan (June 20, 1990), the “Declaration of Sovereignty” was adopted, which became the legal basis for gaining state independence of the Republic. It emphasized that the state sovereignty of Uzbekistan is the supremacy of the democratic state of Uzbekistan on all components of its territory and in all external relations; the state authority of Uzbekistan includes all issues of domestic and foreign policy; Uzbekistan determines its development path, its name, establishes its state symbolics: coat of arms, flag, anthem; The legislative power of Uzbekistan is developing laws necessary for the realization of the state sovereignty of the republic, and it determines the composition and structure of the political and economic system of Uzbekistan. The Supreme Council of Uzbekistan declared its determination to create a democratic rule of law, determined by a popular referendum, and guaranteed the representatives of all nations and nationalities living in Uzbekistan their legal political, economic, ethnic, cultural rights and the development of their native language. 2. The declaration of State Independence of the Republic of Uzbekistan and its historical significance. The First President of the Republic I.A. Karimov clearly defined the position of Uzbekistan in relation to the attempted coup in Moscow. On August 21, 1991, by decree of the President of Uzbekistan, all the decisions of the State Emergency Committee, contrary to the Constitution and laws of Uzbekistan, were declared illegal. On the basis of the Decree of the President of Uzbekistan I.A. Karimov of August 25, 1991, the Ministry of the Interior and the State Security Committee were taken under the jurisdiction of the republic. On August 31, 1991, the historical VI extraordinary session of the 12th convocation of the Supreme Council of Uzbekistan was convened, at which the Law "On the Foundations of State Independence of the Republic of Uzbekistan", "Statement of the Supreme Council on State Independence of the Republic of Uzbekistan" were adopted, in which state independence was solemnly proclaimed Of Uzbekistan and the creation of a free sovereign state - the Republic of Uzbekistan. The session decided to "designate September 1 as Independence Day of the Republic of Uzbekistan and, starting in 1991, declare this day a public holiday and a day of rest." Thus, the centuries-old hopes and dreams of our people have come true. After many years of struggle, the country freed itself from oppression and political dependence. Another sovereign state appeared on the political map of the world - the Republic of Uzbekistan. A new era has begun in the history of Uzbekistan - the era of independence. Uzbekistan has gained the opportunity to pursue an independent domestic and foreign policy, independently determine its fate. The people of Uzbekistan fully supported the decisions of the Supreme Council of the Republic, which was confirmed by a nationwide referendum on this issue. 9898707 people or 94 percent of voters participated in the referendum. For the decision to declare state independence of the Republic of Uzbekistan, 9718155 people voted or 98.2 percent of those participating in the referendum. The acquisition of state independence is an event of great historical significance. Firstly, the Uzbek people received the right to independently determine their fate, the people became the only source of state power. Secondly, the independence of Uzbekistan has opened up opportunities for building a just, democratic, humane society, and creating national statehood. Thirdly, thanks to independence, Uzbekistan got the opportunity to develop equal partnerships with all countries of the world on the basis of international law, take its rightful place in the international arena, become a full-fledged subject of international relations, integrate into the world community. Fourth, the conditions arose for radical changes in the economy, then for the transition to market relations, confirmed by international experience and practice. Ownership relations have fundamentally changed and the opportunity has arisen for the formation of a new class of owners in society. Fifthly, independence created the conditions for the spiritual revival of the people, the restoration of their true, true history, ancient culture, the return of historical traditions, spiritual and religious values to the people. The legal basis of each sovereign state is its Foundation Law - the Constitution. To develop a new Constitution, a commission was created under the chairmanship of President I.A. Karimova composed of 64 people. The draft Constitution of the Republic of Uzbekistan was published in the media on September 26, 1992 for popular discussion. In total, over 6 thousand proposals were made under the draft Constitution. On December 8, 1992, the 11th session of the 12th convocation of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Uzbekistan unanimously adopted the Constitution, which consists of 6 parts, 128 articles, the Constitution of a sovereign democratic state. The Constitution clearly states that the people of Uzbekistan are the only source of state power. The state conducts its activities, taking into account the interests of the people and the welfare of society. The state guarantees the rights and freedoms of citizens, their protection through the courts. Democracy is a fundamental principle of the Constitution. “Democracy in the Republic of Uzbekistan is based on universal principles, according to which a person, his life, freedom of honor and other inviolable rights are considered the highest value,” the Constitution emphasizes. The Constitution defines the structure of the highest bodies of state power, the principle of separation of powers - legislative, executive, and judicial - is legalized. According to the Constitution, the President is the head of state, the Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces of the country. Legislative power is exercised by the Oliy Majlis, executive power is exercised by the Cabinet of Ministers, and judicial power is exercised by the Constitutional, Supreme and Supreme Economic Courts. A separate chapter (XXI chapter) of the Constitution is devoted to local government bodies, where, along with strengthening the principles of self-government, the institution of the head of the local representative and executive authorities, the hakims, is being introduced. In towns, villages and auls, local government is executed in the form of self-government bodies. The bodies of such selfgovernment are meetings of citizens. Citizens elect a chairman and his advisers for a term of two and a half years. Thus, the adoption of the Constitution of the Republic of Uzbekistan is of great importance in the life of our country. It serves as the legal foundation for the implementation of fundamental reforms in our country and the basis for further improvement of legislation. The Constitution of sovereign Uzbekistan is a strategic program for the formation of a legal, democratic state. It is a document of great political, legal and international significance. At the same session, the "Declaration of the Supreme Council on the State Independence of the Republic of Uzbekistan" was adopted, which stated that "implementing the Declaration of Sovereignty, the Supreme Council of the Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic solemnly proclaims the state independence of Uzbekistan and the formation of an independent sovereign state - the Republic of Uzbekistan. The only source State power is the sovereign people of the Republic of Uzbekistan. The state power, independently determines its national - state and administrative - territorial system, the system of power and governance". Also at the same session, the Law of the Republic of Uzbekistan "On the Foundations of State Independence of the Republic of Uzbekistan" was adopted. An event of historical significance took place in the life of the Uzbek people and all peoples living in our republic - an event that marked the beginning of a new history of Ancient Uzbekistan. On November 18, 1991, the state flag of the Republic of Uzbekistan was established. On November 18, 1991, the Law of the Republic of Uzbekistan "On the Election of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan" was adopted. A referendum of the Republic of Uzbekistan was held on December 29, 1991 on the question: "Do you approve the state independence of the Republic of Uzbekistan proclaimed by the Supreme Council of the Republic of Uzbekistan?" - 98.2% voted for the approval of the state independence of the republic, against 1.7%. Thus, the referendum showed that the state independence of the Republic of Uzbekistan, proclaimed in August 1991, received popular approval. On December 29, 1991, nationwide elections of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan on an alternative basis were held. 94.2% of voters participated in the vote. 86% voted for I.A. Karimov, against 12.7%. For Madaminov Salaya (Muhammad Salih) - 12.3%, against 86.4%. Thus, by an overwhelming majority of votes, I.A. Karimov was popularly elected President of the Republic of Uzbekistan. On January 4, 1992, I.A. Karimov was inaugurated as the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan. On February 26, 1992, Uzbekistan signed the Final Act of the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe, joining the community of states that have committed themselves to building a peaceful, just international order, "thereby reaffirming their will and desire to join the pan-European process." On March 2, 1992, Uzbekistan was admitted to the United Nations (UN), which meant the republic’s entry into the international arena as an equal partner. In the first year, more than a hundred states recognized the independence of Uzbekistan, thereby expressing their willingness to cooperate with him and develop economic and cultural relations. On July 2, 1992, the Law of the Republic of Uzbekistan "On the State Emblem of the Republic of Uzbekistan" was adopted. On December 8, 1992, the Constitution of the Republic of Uzbekistan was adopted. On December 10, 1992, the National Anthem of the Republic of Uzbekistan was approved (music by Mutal Burkhanov, verses by Abdulla Aripov). Adoption of the Constitution of the Republic of Uzbekistan and approval of state symbols. The adoption of the Constitution of the Republic was an important political event in the life of the country. It is the main policy - a legal document, legislates the state sovereignty of the Republic of Uzbekistan, the basic principles of the state and social system, the Constitution fully embodied the principles and ideas enshrined in the "Declaration of Sovereignty" and the Law "On Basic State Independence of the Republic of Uzbekistan". The Constitutional Commission, when drafting the Constitution, relied on fundamental international legal documents, primarily the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the constitutional experience of other countries, and also took into account the experience of our ancestors in the field of state building, including the Timur Code. 3. The formation of the political system of the Republic of Uzbekistan. The implementation of the goals required a consistent formation of the political system of the state (the structure of the political system includes: political relations; political organizations / institutions /; political norms; political views, ideas, theories, political culture. Political institutions, in their turn, consist of government bodies, political parties, trade unions, cooperative, youth, religious, etc. organizations and associations). The system of state power began to be based on the democratic principle of separation of powers (legislative, executive, judicial). Each of them acts independently, at the same time, interacting with each other, which serves as a guarantee against excessive concentration of power in one body, a clear distribution of powers and responsibilities. The head of state and executive power in the Republic is the President, acting as a guarantor of the observance of the rights and freedoms of citizens, the Constitution and laws of Uzbekistan. We have a presidential form of government, as, for example, in the USA. Among the new powers of the President is the fact that he is the Supreme Commander-inChief of the Armed Forces of the Republic. Executive power is represented by the Cabinet of Ministers, headed by the President, and khokims of regions, districts, cities. The Cabinet of Ministers provides guidance for the effective functioning of the economy, social and spiritual spheres, the implementation of laws, decisions of the Oliy Majlis, decrees and orders of the President of the country.

LECTURE 10. HISTORICAL MONUMENTS AND PLACES OF PILGRIMAGE Plan: 1. Ancient and Historical Places of Uzbekistan. Tashkent. 2. Samarkand as one of the oldest cities in the world. 3. Bukhara - the "city museum". 4. Khiva is a real reserve city. 5. Margilan and Shakhrisabz 1. Ancient and Historical Places of Uzbekistan. Tashkent. The history of Uzbekistan includes such a great amount of ups and downs that it is hard to put them all together without missing something important. This land has seen so much, has cultivated many eminent men, who became famous with their heroic deeds, astonishing discoveries and works that went down in history. The civilization this land cradled is very ancient and grand, full of enchanting riddles and mysteries that won’t leave anyone indifferent. Historically the place where modern Uzbekistan situated was called Turkestan, which is best known as the precious heart of the whole Central Asia. Now the scientists and archeologists say that the area of Uzbekistan is one of the most ancient places that were inhabited by humans. Uzbekistan is the real treasury of the famous architectural monuments of Central Asia. Throughout its territory there are cities in which time itself has left its "autographs", most of which are in excellent condition, despite the turbulent history of this land. Tashkent is one of the largest ancient cities in Central Asia - the capital of the Republic of Uzbekistan. The first information about Tashkent as an urban settlement is contained in ancient Eastern chronicles of the 2nd century. BCE.; in Chinese sources it was called Uni; in the inscription of 262 BCE Persian king Shapur I on the "Kaaba of Zoroaster" Tashkent oasis was called Chach. Chach was a crossroads on the way of exporting gold, precious stones, spices and magnificent horses to other cities and states. Today, Tashkent, translated from Uzbek meaning "Stone City", is the capital of the modern Republic, which stores the evidence of the past, the memory of many events in the history of Uzbekistan, is one of the largest industrial centers in Central Asia, with a population of more than 2 million people. The capital of the country is Tashkent, located in the foothills of the Tien Shan, in the center of a flowering oasis in the valley of the Chirchik River. For many centuries Tashkent was the intersection of various trade routes, which formed the extremely diverse look of the city. The first information about ancient Tashkent appears in the eastern chronicles of the II century BCE. Caravans traveling along the Silk Road passed through the city of Shash (the ancient name of Tashkent). In the VIII-XI centuries. the city was called Binkent. The advantageous location predetermined the choice of the city as the capital of the republic today. The manuscripts claim that in ancient times there were beautiful palaces in the midst of green gardens, mosques and shady streets. During its existence, the city suffered both ups and downs, but always remained at the crossroads of international trade, and was also a center of culture and art. Many mosques, mausoleums (one of the best - the Mausoleum of Yunus Khan), minarets, there are functioning Kukeldash madrasahs (XV century, recently restored), Barak Khan madrasah and Abdul-Kasym-Eshon madrasah (XVI century), paintings in the mosque of Jami (XVI century), Mirza-Yusuf (XIX century) and Khayrabat-Eshon (XVIII-XIX century). There are also Orthodox churches, a convent, other churches, including even a Polish church - tolerance of local rulers was known far beyond the borders of the country. You can visit historical museums such as the Museum of Art of Uzbekistan, containing more than 4,000 exhibits (including artifacts from the Sogdian period, Buddhist statues over one thousand years old, and religious objects of Zoroastrianism), and the Museum of the History of Uzbekistan. The most beautiful museum of the city is the Museum of the History of the Timurids (Amir Temur Museum), located in the very center of the city and deserves to be visited with the wealth of its exposition. The old part of Tashkent, Eski Shahar, is also extremely interesting to visit. Despite the strong earthquakes constantly occurring in this seismically active area, many old buildings and streets are surprisingly well preserved. The large Chorsu market on the background of the Kukeldash madrasah is not only the largest and richest shopping center of the city, but also the embodiment of all the legends about the Ancient East. The so-called “Tashkent Chimes” is a beautiful building located in the center of Prince Rakhmanov’s residence (1869-90), and is a clock tower copying the Spasskaya Tower of the Moscow Kremlin - a monument of the years when Uzbekistan was part of the Russian Empire. Today, the capital of Uzbekistan is the largest cultural center not only in the country, but throughout Central Asia. The Conservatory, 9 theaters (including the worldfamous Navoi Opera and Ballet Theater), concert and exhibition halls, stadiums, swimming pools, libraries, parks, flowering gardens and fountains (a rare phenomenon in these arid places, also performed with great architectural and engineering excellence), will not leave anyone indifferent. Tashkent Television Tower is the tallest building in Central Asia (height - 375 meters). Historical and architectural monuments of Tashkent: • Kukeldash Madrasah (14th century)., • Mausoleum of Kaffal-Shashi (15th century)., • The architectural ensemble of the Hazrat Imam (16th century)., • Madrasah Abul Kasym (19th century)., • Barak Madrasah - Khan (16th century)., • Zhuma mosque (19th century)., • Amir Temur Museum - a masterpiece of modern architecture, • Amir Temur Square, • Mustakillik Square, • Peoples' Friendship Square, • Monument of Courage, • Hasti Imom Square, • Tilla Sheikh Mosque, • Hadra Square, • Mausoleum of Sufi Ota. 2. Samarkand is one of the oldest cities in the world. Known from the middle of the 1st millennium BCE like Markand, is mentioned in the chronicles of the era of Alexander the Great as the legendary Sogdian Afrasiab, and in the time of Genghis Khan the city already acquired its modern name. In the era of the Iron Khromts Timur and his grandson Ulugbek, the city was referred to only as the Great Samarkand. In the XIV-XV centuries. the city entered a period of unprecedented prosperity - a citadel and fortress walls were erected, wide streets were built, grandiose architectural ensembles - ElRegistan, Shahi-Zinda, the Gur-Emir and Bibi-Khanum mausoleums were erected, and around the perimeter the city was surrounded by a giant ring of 13 colossal parks and gardens. Samarkand amazes with the decoration of its monument buildings, it is here that the art of glazed cladding reached its highest point - there is not the slightest part of the surface of buildings without decor. And such an unbridled abundance of multicolor ornamental paintings, gilding and glazed cladding, does not know any architecture of the world, either before or after. A vivid example is the Tilla-Kari Madrasah (XVII century), which was even called "Gilded" thanks to the interior of the domed hall, painted "kundal". Such solid gilding of such huge surfaces was not even known by the famous masters of Timur. The main attraction of the city is one of the most beautiful squares in the world of Registan (El-Registan, XV-XVII centuries), surrounded by so many magnificent ancient buildings, minarets and mausoleums that the square itself seems like a gigantic exhibition hall of history. The meeting of the sunrise is especially impressive at it, when deep shadows create the most fantastic combinations of shapes and show the most invisible at first glance features of the pattern of filigree stone carving that adorns the walls and portals surrounding the area of buildings. In the southern part of the fortress Afrasiab stretches the unique necropolis of Shahi Zinda, a cemetery street formed by mosques and mausoleums of XI-XV centuries standing on both sides. Closer to the city center rises the gigantic ruins of the BibiKhanym mosque, erected by order of Timur, as the largest building in the East. Its ancient dome was compared with the vault of heaven, and the portal arch - with the Milky Way. Nearby is also the mausoleum of Timur himself and his descendants - GurEmir, striking with its perfect proportions and proportionality of forms resembling a giant blue tulip. The panels of its internal walls are made of yellow-green marble, painted with blue paint and decorated with gilding so that the effect of flickering and airiness of the entire internal volume of the tomb is created in the dome space. The history of Samarkand totals about 2750 years, and architectural monuments dating back to the reign of the Timurid dynasty are as important as the architectural masterpieces of ancient Egypt, China, India, Greece and Rome. Historical and architectural monuments of Samarkand • The ancient settlement of Afrosiab (8th century BCE) • Ulugbek Observatory (1428-1429), • The architectural ensemble of Shahi Zinda. • Hazrat Khizr Mosque (mid-19th century) • The Bibi Khanum Mosque (1399-1404). • Ulugbek Madrasah (1417-1420) • Sher-Dor Madrasah (1619-1635 / 36). • Tilla-Corey Madrasah (1647-1659 / 60). • Chorsu Bazaar (late 18th century) • Mausoleum of Rukhabad (1380s). • Mausoleum of Ak-Saray (1470). • Mausoleum of Gur Emir (1404). • Mosque Namozgoh (17th century.). • Mausoleum of Ishrat Khona (1464). • The ensemble Khozha Akhror (15-20 century). • Mausoleum of Chupon Ata (1430-440). • Cemetery of Khoja Abdu Darun (15-19th centuries) 3. Bukhara - the "city museum". Bukhara is one of the oldest cities in Central Asia; an old legend says that the light of grace descends from all the Muslim cities from the sky, and only above Bukhara it rises. This amazing city did not go beyond its city fortress wall, built in the 16th century, and contained more than 200 madrassas and many bazaars, on which, without exaggeration, you could buy absolutely everything!! Walking along the Old Bukhara, founded in the first centuries BC, literally falls on the monuments of ancient civilizations. The city acquired its modern appearance during the Sheibanids and Ashtarkhanids dynasties in the 16th -17th centuries, when most of its amazing mosques and madrassas, caravanserais and baths, fortress walls and gates, as well as large architectural ensembles and tombs were built. The walls of the ancient citadel, more than 140 architectural monuments of the Muslim era (Kalyan minaret (XII century), Kukeldash and Ulugbek madrasah (XI-XVI centuries), Lyabi-Khauz (XVI-XVII centuries), Ismail Samani mausoleum (preserved) IX-X centuries.) And others), amazing quarters and narrow streets of the old city. The pearl of the city is a small mausoleum of the Sassanid dynasty, which recently celebrated its millennium. From a distance, this extremely proportional tomb looks like a carved golden casket crowned with a low dome. Near many tourists, literally, “eyes are on their foreheads” from surprise — the entire mausoleum is built of ordinary burnt brick, but the art with which the masonry was made and the bizarre carving (brick) creates such a play of light and shadow that the whole appearance of the mausoleum is filled with air and perfect grace. The architectural symbol of Bukhara, the Great Minaret Kalyan, built in 1127, and considered one of the highest in Asia, is also made in a similar technique. A stunning panorama of ancient Bukhara opens from the circular gallery at the lantern of the minaret - the famous Poy-Kalyan Square (formed by the Great Minaret, Kalyan Mosque and Miri-Arab Madrasah, built in 1536), Chashma-Agrob (1380), Arch Fortress (XVIII -XX centuries.), A unique mosque of Magoki-Attari, the mausoleum of Buyan-Kuli-khan with beautiful terracotta wall decoration, an amazing pile of domes of the Toki-Zargaron market and many other beautiful architectural monuments. Labi House is the center of another majestic monument of Bukhara. "House" is a pond, and probably you should not talk about the role that ponds played in the life of this city, lying on the edge of sultry deserts. Here is the Labi House - a rectangular pool with cut corners, framed by three monumental madrasahs of the XVI-XVII centuries, was once the focus of the city’s public life. Bukhara - the "city museum", has more than 140 architectural monuments of the Middle Ages. Such ensembles as Poi-Kalyan, Kos Madras, the mausoleum of Ismail Samani, the Kalyan minaret and others built 2300 years ago have attracted much attention to this day. Famous poets like Narshakhi, Rudaki and Dakiki, the learned Avicenna and others played an important role in the development of Bukhara. Historical and architectural monuments of Bukhara • Ark (11-20vv). • Bol-House Ensemble (early 18-20th centuries). • Samani Mausoleum (9-10th century). • Mazar Chashmoi-Ayub (1380 or 1384/85). • Madrasah of Abdullah Khan (1596/98). • Madara Khan Madrasah (1556/57). • Baland Mosque (early 16th century). • Ensemble Gaukushon (Mosque, Minaret, Madrasah), (16 century). • Honaka Zainutdin Khoji (1555). • Ensemble Poy-Kalon (12-14 centuries). • Lyabi-House ensemble (16-17 centuries). • Kukeldash Madrasah (1568/69). • Hanaka Nodir Divanbegi (1620). • Ulugbek Madrasah (1417). • Madrassah Abdulaziz Hon (1652). • Bol House Mosque (1712). • Mausoleum of Sayfiddin Boharziy (second half of the 13th century -14th century). • Mausoleum of Buen Kuli Khan (second half of the 14th till 16th centuries) • Namazgoh Mosque (12-16 centuries). • Hanaka Fayzabad (1598/99). • Madrassah of Chor Minor (1807). • Palace of the Bukhara Emir Sitorai Mokhi Hoss (late 19th early 20th century). • Chor-Bakr - The burial place of the Sheikh Zhubayri family (1560/63). 4. Khiva is a real reserve city. Legend has it that it was founded by Shem himself, the son of the legendary Noah. Once one of the main centers of the Great Silk Road, in the XVI century. It was the capital of the Timurid dynasty and served as the main slave market and center of the Khanate for the next three centuries, until it became part of the Russian Empire. It is useless to describe the city with words; it must be seen. More than a hundred monuments of various eras and peoples have survived here - the ancient city wall, the Kuna-Ark citadel, Ichkhon-Kala - the inner city surrounded by the wall, the Tash-Khauli palace, the Rabad Dishan-Kala, the minarets of the Islam Khoja, Muhammad Amin Khan and Kalta-Minor, the Juma mosque with 218 columns, the mausoleum of Mahmoud Pahlavi and many other unique structures. Morning and evening are the best times to visit Khiva. The mystical city of Khiva managed to preserve the exotic image of the eastern city in the ancient part of Ichan-Kala, where numerous architectural monuments are located. Historical and architectural monuments of Khiva • Ichan Kala: Said Bai Mosque and Madrasah (late 18th century - early 19th century); • near the gates of Palvon Darvoz. • Madrasah Allakulikhan (1834/35). • Kutlug-Murad-inak Madrasah (1804/12). • Tim and Caravanserai of Allakulikhan (19th century). • Madrasah of Abdullah Khan (1865). • Mosque and Chambers of Anush Khan (1657). • Tash-Khauli (the palace of Allakulikhan) (1830/36). • Oak Mosque (1832/42). • Juma Mosque and Minaret (1788/89). • Mausoleum of Said Alauddin (14th century). • Madrasah Muhammad Amin Khan (1851/52). • Minaret of Kalta Minor (1855). • Kunya-Ark (1868/88). • Minaret of Tura-Murat-Tur (1888). • Madrasah Muhammad Amin Khan (1871). • Shirgaziz Khan Madrasah (1718/20). • Bagland Mosque (19th century). • Madrasah of Arabhana (1838). 5.Margilan and Shakhrisabz. Margilan is one of the oldest cities in Central Asia. The city is located in the southeast of the Ferghana Valley, on the caravan route - commonly called the Great Silk Road, which connected Europe with East Asia. Margilan is a city of great scientists, cultural figures, craftsmen, and at the same time a vital center of the valley's trade. As one of the oldest cities in the world, Margilan in 2007 by the decision of UNESCO celebrated its two millennium. Margilan in ancient and Middle Ages was a major center of international trade. Both in trade, economic and cultural relations, he could successfully compete with Bukhara, Samarkand, Urgench and other famous cities. Margilan is a city of great scientists, scientists and cultural figures, craftsmen. Due to this, silk fabrics, satin, gold and silver jewelry, and craftsmanship were highly appreciated in the states of Eurasia and it had a decisive consequence for historical and cultural development, familiarization with great civilizations. According to historical materials and archaeological research, the city of Margilan arose two thousand years ago. The development of agriculture, crafts and the growth of the city led to a revival of both domestic and international trade. Data from written sources and especially the results of archaeological excavations give a versatile view of the development of productive forces and trade. Historical sources emphasize two types of goods that invariably featured in trade operations conducted on the Great Silk Road. This is a wonderful silk, abra cloth and beautiful horses. The population of Margilan has long been engaged in the manufacture of silk fabrics, which is why it gained worldwide fame for its city. Experienced craftsmen received thin shiny threads from silkworm cocoons and made beautiful silk fabrics from them. From time immemorial Margilan has been famous and famous for its artistic crafts, primarily the art of weavers of cotton and silk (buz, alacha, bekasab), but also abra fabrics: shoyi, satin, han-atlas, adras. The most beautiful objects of Margilan’s traditional cultures that have come down to us are large silk embroideries, known as Suzanne, skullcaps - hats, gold and silver jewelry. Shakhrisabz is a small town only 90 km away in the South of Samarkand, the former "home residence" of the Timurids, in the early Middle Ages was called Kesh. This is the hometown of Timur the Great, and at one time it was likely that even Samarkand itself was “pushed into the shadows” of Shakhrisabz. Quite a few historical monuments have been preserved, and they are all unique or of enormous historical value - the Timur Ak-Saray Palace, in addition to the giant 40-meter gate, is famous for its magnificent filigree blue, white and gold mosaics, and this is only a small, surviving part of the palace, you can only try imagine all the splendor that probably was the rest of this summer residence. Dorussadat ("Place of Power") is also beautiful, which may have even overshadowed the palace itself with its size and decoration. Other sights are represented by the grave of Timur, the giant mosque Kok-Gumbaz and the Crypt of Timur, which contains two unidentified burials of persons clearly of the royal family, but not by the name of the tomb. Kokand is famous for its House-Museum of H.N. Khamza, the Madrasah-Mir Madrasah (late 18th century), the architectural ensemble Dakhmai-Shokhon (1825) and the magnificent palace of Khudoyar Khan (1871). Termez is a city on the very border with Afghanistan, on the Amu Darya River, which arose in the 19th century. on the site of the village of Pattagissar and the Russian border post. The remains of the fortress walls, the Buddhist cult cave complex KaraTepe, the remains of the feudal city of the 9th-12th centuries, the mazar of Hakim atTermezi (11th-15th centuries), the ensemble of the Sultan-Saadat mausoleums (11th-17th centuries) and Muslim buildings are interesting different eras. In the mountains surrounding the city, there are many ancient mines, adits and cave cities, many of which are still not truly explored. The Chimgan Alpine Recreation Area, just three hours by bus to the north-east of Tashkent, is a popular center for winter sports; by natural conditions, Chimgan was considered one of the best vacation spots in the entire vast territory of the Soviet Union. There are great places for hiking and trekking in the Angren River Valley, the canyon of the Angren Upper Stream is especially spectacular. There are also good walking, horse riding and safari routes in the areas of Shahimardan and Pamir-Alai to the south of the Ferghana Valley, which almost all end in picturesque places of Kyrgyzstan. Uzbekistan - its ancient monuments, rich nature and rapid modern development - attracts the attention of the whole world today. For many centuries, this country was at the intersection of the routes of the Great Silk Road, on which merchants, geographers, missionaries, and then tourists traveled. The amazing interweaving of history, traditions and cultures of the peoples inhabiting present-day Uzbekistan with the history of the Great Silk Road is striking. The role of the main cities here was played by Samarkand, Bukhara, Khiva and Shakhrisabz, where cultural and spiritual values have long been concentrated, where serious scientific centers and schools arose, architecture, crafts, and applied art were improved. Creativity and achievements in various fields of knowledge of the great scientists, thinkers and poets who lived here have become a significant contribution to the development of world civilization. Among them are Abu Ali ibn Sino and al-Khwarizmi, Mirzo Ulugbek, Bahouddin Naqshband, al-Bukhari and at-Termezi, Abu Rayhon Beruni, Alisher Navoi and many others. The treasury of history, where the monuments of ancient cultures of different eras are concentrated, is rightly called Uzbekistan. The Ichan-Kala complex in Khiva, the historical centers of Bukhara, Shakhrisabz and Samarkand are included in the UNESCO World Heritage List. Many of the unique monuments and architectural structures available in these cities are well preserved to this day and are values of universal significance. Great and beautiful monuments of Samarkand. In this city you can feel the breath of history itself. It is kept and ancient ruins, and still adorn the city building madrassas, mausoleums and minarets. In 1370, Amir Temur turned Samarkand into the capital of his great state, stretching from Mongolia and Siberia to Syria and India. From his campaigns, he brought here skilled architects and craftsmen, whose creations have survived for centuries. And the legendary Samarkand Registan Square is still considered one of the main architectural attractions of all of Central Asia. Since ancient times, the center of a densely populated oasis was Bukhara. Archaeologists note that the city all the time grew in one place - both in breadth and in height. In a 20-meter thick earth, they found the ruins of dwellings, public buildings, defensive structures belonging to different periods of the city’s history. In total, there are more than 140 monuments of ancient architecture in Bukhara. Over the whole city its bright symbol reigns - the Kalyan minaret. Everyone who saw the "Great Minaret", built in 1127, will keep in memory the feeling of its greatness and pristine beauty. Having been in Bukhara, you will be impressed for a long time by the Ark fortress and many other antiquities that literally surround you at every step. Artisan chasers right before their eyes will reproduce ancient patterns on copper and silver, jewelers will make copies of the unique jewelry worn by beauties who lived millennia ago. One involuntarily asks the question - how many centuries this city has absorbed, how many samples of the material culture of the past are buried in it? The only fully preserved city of the time of the Great Silk Road is Khiva. Time here seems to recede for centuries. Therefore, it is no coincidence that the glory of "an open-air museum" was entrenched in this city. In the narrow streets of Khiva, where legends of antiquity seem to have frozen in stone and wood, you can easily imagine the life of past generations, which will not happen again, but left us its customs, traditions and covenants. Most of the architectural monuments of Khiva Ichan-Kala date back to the end of the 18th - the first half of the 19th centuries. But excavations on its territory showed that under them lie much more ancient layers dating back to the 3rd and even earlier centuries BCE. Ichan Kala is surrounded by a powerful wall with a length of more than 2100 meters with several gates. And the silhouette of the huge Islam Hodge minaret clearly stands out above the city. Shakhrisabz is the birthplace of Amir Temur, where everything is somehow connected with his name. Having created the vast state of Movarounnahr, becoming an unlimited ruler - the Emir, Temur made Samarkand his capital. But he always remembered and cared for his hometown. In essence, Shakhrisabz was the second capital of the empire. Many beautiful buildings are concentrated here. At the behest of the emir, the best architects, builders, and masters of architectural decor were sent here. Together with local craftsmen, they erected magnificent buildings, thus embodying the experience and traditions of different countries. Ancient monuments located on the territory of present-day Uzbekistan are included in the register of values of world civilization. To them, located along the Great Silk Road, the attention of the widest public is traditionally great - both specialists studying the East and the international relations of antiquity, as well as ordinary people seeking to know the unknown. The capital of modern Uzbekistan is Tashkent, one of the largest cities in Central Asia, which is called the "Star of the East" and the "Ambassador of the World." These names are surprisingly harmoniously combined with the very essence of the city, which for more than twenty centuries has symbolically illuminated the life of its citizens and the way of travelers to the light of peace and goodness. Tashkent is rich in archaeological sites. Not a single city in Central Asia has been explored by scientists like the capital of Uzbekistan. If ten years ago there were 39 archaeological sites in the city, now there are already over 240 of them. In different historical eras, it bore different names - Uni, Chach, Shash, Binkent. Its modern name first appeared in the 11th century in the works of Beruni and Mahmud Kashgari. The architectural appearance of old Tashkent was formed over the centuries, both under the influence of many-sided oriental culture, and due to natural factors. The search for protection from the hot climate, earthquakes led to construction finds. Interesting types of housing were created with covered double-light courtyards, sliding Keshgarch shutters. Residential buildings with a labyrinth of narrow, cramped streets made up an environment in which mosques, madrassas and mazars stood out for their size and architecture. Today, Tashkent is a large industrial center, which employs about 300 industrial enterprises that produce almost everything that a modern person needs - from airplanes and tractors to televisions and children's toys. Antiquities here are adjacent to high-rise buildings of glass and metal, multi-tiered viaducts, parks, museums, fountains - Tashkent is quickly becoming a modern developed international metropolis. The manysided history of Uzbekistan is clearly reflected in its geographical position. An example of this is the city of Termez, located in the very south of the country. It arose at the end of the nineteenth century and had the appearance of a typical semi-Asian-semi-European city, it was one-story, with government buildings made of burnt bricks and damp houses, with east flat roofs and in the west - with windows onto the street, in the green gardens, with invariable acacias, elms and plane trees along sidewalks. Today Termez is a modern city, the center of the Surkhandarya region. Years of research by scientists have discovered that this peaceful, calm city has a long and rich history. It was in the Surkhandarya region that the most famous sites of primitive man were found in Central Asia. Subsequently, the territory was part of many empires - Alexander the Great, Bactria, Genghis Khan, Amir Temur - sharing their fate with them. Archaeologists find here unique traces of their power. Based on the right bank of the Jeykhun-Amu Darya River, in a convenient location for crossing, at the intersection of caravan routes of the Great Silk Road, five kilometers northwest of modern Termez, Old Termez has for centuries developed as one of the leading cities of those historical times. Then it was destroyed as a result of enemy raids and civil strife. The “Pearl" of Central Asia - such a name was firmly established behind the rich and picturesque Ferghana Valley, in the history and culture of which it has always played a significant role. This is a truly unique corner of the East. In ancient times, the valley was the center of various civilizations, reminiscent of the traces of ancient fortifications and medieval monuments. Today, the Ferghana Valley is one of the most flourishing regions of the country. Amazing nature enchants with a variety of colors. Syrdarya flows along the northern border of the valley, formed by the confluence of the Karadarya and Naryn rivers. Their waters are fed by large main canals - the Big, Northern and Southern, which arose as a result of nation-wide construction projects of the twentieth century. The Ferghana Valley - a large flowering oasis with the most fertile lands in Central Asia and a wonderful climate, where the cities of Fergana, Kokand, Andijan, Namangan are located - is rightly called the Golden Valley. Uzbekistan also includes one Autonomous Republic - Karakalpakstan, which is a sovereign state. Geographically, most of its territory is occupied by the Kyzylkum desert, the Ustyurt plateau, the Amu Darya river delta and the south of the Aral Sea. The oldest settlements here arose in the Stone Age. Karakalpaks belong to the Central Asian racial groups with a strong Mongoloid impurity. Previously, they led a semi-settled lifestyle, were engaged in agriculture, cattle breeding and fishing, mainly lived in yurts. Despite the fact that only the older generation preserves the primordial customs today, the signs of ancient national traditions are clearly felt in the decoration of houses, clothes, food, and original applied art. The capital of Karakalpakstan Nukus is a modern beautiful city, the center of the economic and cultural life of the republic. Everyone who has visited here will certainly visit the Karakalpak State Museum of Art, bearing the name of its creator, the famous artist Igor Savitsky, which contains not only works of painters, but also numerous works of ancient craftsmen found in the region that testify to the continuity of cultures. Karakalpakstan is truly a living connection of times. Beautiful and alluring, full of unexpected meetings and discoveries, he is ready to share his legends and secrets. Today, Uzbekistan is a country where a thousand-year antiquity and modern civilization are harmoniously combined. The organic connection of time is felt everywhere. Ancient monuments, low old city buildings made of unbaked brick are adjacent to the multi-storey building compositions directed upwards created by unique architects of the twentieth century. The traditions of the people are carefully preserved - in culture, folklore, and national cuisine. Crafts have evolved here from century to century, leaving as a legacy the unique creations of unknown masters, striking a wealth of imagination, and their secrets, which are passed down from generation to generation as the greatest value. In modern Uzbekistan, they carefully treat traditional cultural values, the state supports the revival of crafts, which affects their development. Far beyond the borders of the country, Uzbek ceramics, chasing, wood carving, gold embroidery, carpets, lacquer painting, and jewelry are famous. No less unique intangible heritage. This was recognized by UNESCO, which included, for example, the song folk art of the Baysun district of the Surkhandarya region of Uzbekistan in its list as a cultural object to be protected by the world community. Ritual songs and musical compositions, which are performed at all holidays and in other regions of the country, amaze with singing and rhythms inherent in the East. In Uzbekistan, the institution of the family is still strong, which remains the most important life value. It has one of the lowest rates of divorce in the world. Uzbek families, as a rule, are large, especially in rural areas, where women mainly do household work, combining folk crafts with it - spinning, embroidery, and carpet weaving. The products of their hands are an indispensable attribute of every home, which is lovingly decorated with them. In general, a sedentary lifestyle has developed a respectful attitude towards housing. Yards and even streets near houses are kept in amazing cleanliness. Along with European-style clothing, modern Uzbeks also have national, especially on holidays. For men, this is a striped, girdled with a beautiful scarf (sash) quilted robe, on the head - a skullcap. Women wear bright casual dresses made of national fabrics - Hanatlas, Bekasam, Kalami. Dishes of the national Uzbek cuisine are also distinguished not only by practicality, but also by special craftsmanship. The unique Uzbek pilaf, fragrant transparent shurpa, juicy manti made from dough and meat, aromatic shashlik smelling of smoke and spices are famous all over the world. Dastarkhan is unthinkable without greens, vegetables, fruits, sun-melted melons and bunches of grapes. Decorate it and sweets melting in your mouth, cooked according to grandmother's recipes, nuts, almonds. The favorite drink of the Uzbeks is green tea, which quenches thirst in the hottest heat. Truly, Uzbekistan is an amazing region of original national culture, where antiquity is carefully preserved and at the same time a society is built with a modern economy and developed sciences, art.

LECTURE 11. MUSEUMS OF THE REPUBLIC OF UZBEKISTAN Plan: 1. General Information About Museums. 2. Museums of Uzbekistan. 1. General information about museums. No doubt, the best way to learn about Uzbekistan, to familiarize oneself with its history and traditions and to understand the mentality of its people is to visit the country's diverse museums. The first public museum in Uzbekistan was opened in Tashkent in 1876. Later, museums of regional studies were organized in the cities of Samarkand and Fergana, in 1896 and 1899, respectively. Though being quite miscellaneous and often casual, the museums’ exhibits could nevertheless provide some information on the local history, nature and society and contribute to the local people’s cultural and educational development. Currently, there are 444 museums of various kinds functioning in Uzbekistan, 156 of which are national. Most of them are museums of history and regional studies and memorial museums dedicated to outstanding persons that left imprints on the country’s history or contributed to the development of the regional culture. In the years of Independence 20 new museums have been opened in Uzbekistan, including several major themed ones, such as the State Museum of History of the Timurids (1996), Museum of Olympic Glory (1996) and State Museum of History of Uzbekistan (1992). The museums contain over 2.5 million exhibits in their exhibition halls and storerooms, including numerous archaeological, ethnographic and numismatic items, artefacts of material culture and decorative and applied arts, manuscripts and other written materials and articles reflecting the history of independent Uzbekistan. There are 3 museum-preserves in the country – those in Samarkand, Bukhara and Khiva. Uzbekistan’s largest and most important museums are the State Museum of History of Uzbekistan, State Museum of Arts of Uzbekistan, State Museum of Applied Arts of Uzbekistan, State Museum of History of the Timurids, State Art Museum of the Republic of Karakalpakstan and State Museum of Nature of Uzbekistan. Presently, there are 110 different museums in Uzbekistan, 98 of them, including branches of the state museums are under the supervision of the Ministry of Culture and Sports of the Republic of Uzbekistan. The largest number of museums is located in Tashkent, the capital of Uzbekistan. Other interesting Uzbekistan museums are located in major tourist cities, such as Samarkand, Bukhara and Khiva. State Museum of Art named after I.V. Savitsky, located in Nukus, the capital and administrative center of the Republic of Karakalpakstan, is one of the most famous museums in Central Asia. The art galleries and craft centers that promulgate the Uzbek modern and classic art as well as folk crafts are gaining ever increasing popularity in Uzbekistan. Tashkent with about a dozen major art galleries, hosts regular exhibitions of fine art to display folk pieces of virtu, antiques and other items that compose the cultural heritage of Uzbekistan. Art studios and galleries, opened in other major cities of Uzbekistan such as Samarkand, Bukhara, Khiva, are enjoying great success both among Uzbekistan tourists and residents. The craft centers or centers of Uzbek arts and crafts showcase hereditary artisans’ workshops, whose hand-made pottery as well as silk carpets and suzanne, jewelry and accessories, forged products and costumes make up the original national wealth of the Uzbek people. There you can not only buy the thing you like, but also attend a master class where you will be shown a process of creating unique gift items in ethnic style found only for the Central Asian region. 2. Museums of Uzbekistan. Tashkent is not only an official capital but also the cultural center of Uzbekistan. The largest number of cultural and educational institutions, including theaters, libraries, and, of course, museums is located in Tashkent. Cultural heritage of the city and the country as a whole are on display at over dozen public Tashkent museums and their branches, as well as galleries, craft centers and small memorial museums. The most famous Tashkent museums in Uzbekistan are the Museum of History, State Museum of Art, the Museum of Applied Arts and many others that have existed for over several decades. The exposition at museums, art centers and art galleries that have appeared recently in Tashkent - at the turn of 20th -21st centuries, such as Amir Timur Museum, Center of National Arts, the Palace of Youth Creativity, Center of applied arts in Abul-Kasim madrasah and others, are far not less interesting. Amir Temur museum, Tashkent Museum of Applied Art, Tashkent Museum of Geology, Tashkent Along with large museums, there is over dozen small memorial museums dedicated to the memory of famous people who lived and worked in Tashkent. Most of those memorial museums were established in the late 1980s. All of them are also included in the system of the Ministry of Culture and Sports of the Republic of Uzbekistan. Samarkand. Out of dozen of museums located in Samarkand Afrosiyob Museum of Foundation of Samarkand, International Museum of Peace and Solidarity, Memorial Museum of Mirzo Ulugbek located next to the observatory of the outstanding scholar, are the most popular. Most museums are located in the heart of the city, and it is easy to visit all of them at once when you are in Samarkand. Samarkand is one of the most ancient cities of the world. The earliest reference to Samarkand is found in the evidences of contemporaries and participants of Alexander the Great’s conquests: back in 329 BC the city was known to them as Marakanda. Numerous archaeological finds made in Samarkand indicate that people have been living here for thousands of years BC. In Samarkand museums you will find ancient artifacts: old coins, jewelry, household items, ceramics, frescoes, and even primitive tools, which are the essence of a number of collections of museums in Samarkand. The only one in CIS International Museum of Solidarity and Peace with its unique exhibits - the wishes of peace and personal photos of celebrities, Memorial Museum of Uzbek poet Sadriddin Ayni, Regional Museum of Local Lore, etc are also located here. Significant place in the cultural life of the city is occupied by different art galleries and craft centers, displaying the works of modern masters of the East. Their exhibitions showcase paintings, sculptures, items of wood, clay and metal, many of which can be bought right there. The arts centers and art galleries of Samarkand are as interesting as the traditional museums. Bukhara museums. Museums of Bukhara are mostly in the architectural monuments of the city and it is not surprising, because Bukhara itself is a museum city with over 140 preserved medieval mosques, madrasahs, palaces and mausoleums. The largest museum of Bukhara is the Bukhara State Architectural and Art Museum, located in the Ark fortress. Its numerous branches and exposition occupied the most famous attractions in Bukhara: Lyabi-Hauz, Sitorai Mokhi-Khosa Palace, Chashma-Ayub, and other places visited by residents and tourists. There is also Memorial Museum of Fayzulla Khodjaev, a famous political figure of Bukhara in the beginning of the 20th century, and in Gijduvan, a small town of Bukhara region, there is a museum workshop producing original Gijduvan ceramics. Museums in Andijan. Modern Andijan is a major industrial city of Uzbekistan, located in the southeast of blossoming Fergana Valley. Since ancient times the city has been one of the craft centers of the region. Pottery, ceramics, gold embroidery, copper engraving and painting prospered here, craft products from Andijan were famous all over the Silk Road. Over 60,000 exhibits at Andijan Museum of Local Lore tell about the history, life, culture and folk crafts in Ferghana Valley. In Andijan, a home of great military leader, poet and founder of the Mongol Empire in India - Zahiriddin Muhammad Babur, has Zahiriddin Babur Memorial House, showcasing the exhibits relating to his life and work. And also here is the Museum of Literature and Art, a small collection of which displays paintings, sculpture and graphics of modern Andijan masters. Termez Archaeological Museum. Termez is one of the most ancient cities of Central Asia. Unique architectural monuments of the Kushan period, particularly Airatam Buddhist temple complex, one of the architectural gems of Central Asia of the Kushan period, are located in Termez. Numerous excavations there have revealed ancient archaeological findings of the Greco-Bactrian, Kushan periods of the Central Asian history, which, after numerous examinations, have been deposited with the Museum of History of Uzbekistan and Termez Archeological Museum. The opening of the museum held on 2 April 2002 commemorated the 2500th anniversary of Termez. In contrast with the History Museum, this museum has a narrow specialization. Most of the artifacts are either archaeological remains or items in some way related to archeology. This museum is unique in the whole Central Asia. Termez Archaeological Museum fund lists over 27,000 exhibits. They include household pieces: dishes, utensils and many other things; weapons, both ancient and medieval, coins and stamps of rulers, etc. Also, there is a huge collection of paintings and antique sculptures. These are not only sculptures of Greco-Bactrian period, but also Buddhist statues discovered in ruined monasteries of the Kushan period. In the main halls of the museum all exhibits are collected and arranged by period, starting from the Stone Age to the times of khanates. All the exhibits are well systematized and cataloged, so that any visitor can easily find the object of interest. The museum’s fund also includes written sources: books, correspondence of rulers, economical documents. All these artifacts are stored in the museum’s library of about 16,000 books and documents. Basically, all the literature is in Arabic and Persian, dating back to the period of the Middle Ages. Termez Archaeological Museum is one of the few museums offering its visitors to take a look at such variety of exhibits from the ancient period in Central Asia. Many of the finds are unique. Museum visitors will enjoy a journey to the world of archeology. Karakalpakstan Museums. Only few Museums in the Republic of Uzbekistan can boast of such a unique collection of paintings by Russian artists as The Karakalpakstan State Museum of Art named after I.V. Savitsky ("Savitsky Museum"). First of all, we should say about Igor Savitsky, the Moscow artist. Igor Savitsky arrived in Nukus in 1950s, and in 1966 he was appointed the director of the Museum. Then he got an opportunity to purchase works of art. Originally, he was engaged in archaeological research and ethnography of Karakalpaks, later he became interested in the acquiring works of contemporary art, which were forbidden by existing political regime. Risking to be listed to the category of "public enemy", Savitsky collected forbidden works of the artists, which later got the name of avant-garde. As a result, he collected avant-garde works of 50.000 units and post-avangard period of Soviet art. Nukus was located far from the official centers and therefore Savitsky succeeded in hiding his collection. The Savitsky Museum's collection possesses over 90,000 exhibits, including a collection of Russian avant-garde artists, the art of ancient Khorezm, complemented by excellent copies of some exhibits of Louvre in Paris. The Karakalpakstan State Museum of Art named after I.V. Savitsky does not yield to even the world-famous Russian Museum in St. Petersburg and the Tretyakov Gallery in Moscow. According to experts and the world press, collection of the museum is the best art collections in the Asian region and has the world's second-largest collection of Russian avant-garde. British newspaper The Guardian called the museum "one of the outstanding museums in the world." Al Gore and President Jacques Chirac called this museum: "One of the best museums in the world". Collection, stored in the Savitsky Museum, admired ambassadors, both former and present, of many leading world powers - Britain, France, Germany, Japan, as well as advisers and Cultural Attache of these countries, representatives of UNESCO, the United States. Ecological Museum of Muynak. Museum of the Aral Sea. The Muynak Regional Studies Museum also known as Ecological Museum of Muynak can be called one of the most unique museums in Uzbekistan. This museum, modest by metropolitan standards, with less than two hundred exhibits, tells the visitors a tragic story of the bygone era, when things were humming in this region and the Aral Sea was so large and affluent that it was called as sea. The museum of the Aral Sea has collected paintings of Soviet artists, old photographs, specimens of flora and fauna, canned goods, produced by the local cannery, household items and articles of arts and crafts of the peoples who lived on the Aral Sea shores, and other artifacts to form a single picture of the past and present of the Aral Sea as a whole. Muynak Regional Studies Museum of the Republic of Karakalpakstan. The Muynak Museum was founded in 1984 in the Uchsai home of culture in Muynak district. In 1998 its exhibition was moved into the regional home of culture, and in 2013 the reconstructed museum was opened with a solemn ceremony. A special place in the museum's collection is given to the pictures of the Karakalpak artists Faim Madgazin and Rafael Matevosian who depicted the Aral Sea in the period from 1950 to 1980 on their canvases, eloquently titled “The Sea is Gone “, “Ships in the Sands” , “Aground”, “Hope” and other no less interesting documentary chronicles of the Aral Sea, demonstrated to every interested visitor. Kokand. Kokand Regional Museum - center of Khudoyar-Khan Palace. Kokand once being a capital of the Khanate of Kokand is a large trade, industrial and cultural center of the Fergana Valley. The city’s history dated back to ancient days: a thousand years ago, this region was inhabited with primitive people, and in the X century there appeared the city of Kokand which in the XIX century became one of the most powerful ones in the whole Central Asian region. Today one can get familiar with the history of Kokand in the Regional Studies Museum housed in the Khudoyar-Khan’s Palace. In 1876 Kokand was seized by Russian Empire’s troops, and the Khan’s palace was occupied by a Russian garrison. A half century later, when the Khanate of Kokand filed as a history and the region became a part of the Soviet Union, the building of the Khudoyar Khan’s Palace was used to hold an agricultural exhibition. One year later it was decided to found a museum of local lore there. The Palace which was a witness of the most important historical events became an embodiment of the Kokand history. Right at the Palace entry the visitors are getting familiar with rich traditions of Kokand architecture and decoration: painted minarets, carved doors, ganch patterns on the ceiling, etc. The Museum itself is accommodated in several palace rooms and consists of six departments of: History, Contemporary History, Art, Nature, Scientific and Educational Work, and Museum Funds. The Museum exposition strikes with variety of different items of the local history. Step by step one can trace the whole history of Kokand from early days, represented by different archeological finds in a form of crocks, bifaces, stone tools, to everyday items of the end of the XIX century. Clothing, weapons, books, dishware as a part of the Kokand residents’ life can be seen there. The exhibits from other countries, mainly gifts to the Khan, once presented to him by foreign ambassadors, deserve a special attention. In its yard there are two canons preserved from the days of the Palace siege by Russian troops. A separate room houses court-style furniture, made by local craftsmen or brought to the Khan from remote countries. The adjacent room presents stuffed animals, once inhabited the Kokand outskirts. The Museum funds contain over 30,000 exhibits so to describe the whole abundance of the Kokand Museum of Local Lore is not possible – one must see it with one’s own eyes. Today the Museum keeps on replenishing its exposition; its staff carries out scientific and research work. Besides, the Museum in conjunction with public organizations holds regular exhibitions, seminars, meetings, contests and festivals for schoolchildren and students. About 70,000 people in total, among whom a great deal of foreign tourists visit the Kokand Museum of Local Lore every year. Shahrisabz. The Shahrisabz Museum of History and Material Culture is a museum in Shahrisabz, Uzbekistan. It was founded in 1996 on the 660th anniversary of Amir Timur's birth and contains archaeological, ethnographic, and numismatic collections. Museum structure The museum building is located in the complex of madrasah Chubin built in XIV-XVI ages and invested by UNESCO into the list of "Common to all mankind cultural wealth". At that time there were more than 40 madrasahs and mosques in the town where religious and universal sciences were taught as registered in the written sources of Amir Temur and the Timurids’ epoch. In this regard architectural structures of madrasah were convenient to use as a museum. The attitude to historical culture fundamentally changed in the Kashkadaria region since the first years of Republic of Uzbekistan. In 1996 in Shakhrisabz the Museum of Historicy of material culture of Amir Temur was opened. In 1996 as a result of the archeological excavations in connection with 660 year anniversary of Amir Temur, more than 6,500 items of unique mosaic, a majolica, ceramic, copper, iron and wooden carved products were collected, they made the greatest collection of museum. Architectural monuments in Shakhrisabz Constantly operating exhibition "Amir Temur is the main architect of Shakhrisabz city" is organized in the museum. Written sources and the archeological finds telling about a youth of Amir Temur, his contribution to the history of Shakhrisabz, his constructions of architectural monuments when he was governor are shone here. Archeological expedition for the purpose of definition of historical age of Shakhrisabz was organized at the initiative of museum administration. Archeological researches in Sangirtepa and Uzunkir proceeded within three years. Scientists of the University of Edinburgh, Scotland and workers of the Hermitage of Russian Federation took part in them. Archeological expedition defined formation of the ancient city of Kesh- Shakhrisabz begun 2700 years ago, the museum was filled up more than 8500 archeological finds they were the basis for the organization of constantly operating exhibition named as "Shakhrisabz is a coeval of Avesta". Eighteen architectural monuments of Temurid's epoch in Shakhrisabz are entered in "Universal heritage" of UNESCO list. In core, formation and definitions of the legal status of a museum, gathering more than 13000 exhibits, definition of scientific orientation directions passed in 1996- 2002 fundamental exhibitions were organized. During 2002-2010 the museum carried out interesting international contacts, increased the professional qualification of workers. Scientific relations with museums of Japan, Borodo-3 University of France, the Russian Hermitage, the Museum of ceramics of Italy, museums of Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Germany, cultural centers "Dashi-Art" of Kazakhstan was established. The museum started to be equipped with modern technologies. Many workers of a museum are trained in Japan, France and Arabian Republic of Egypt. The exhibition of works Saudi Arabia artists, Days of culture of people of Germany were spent in the halls of museum during this period: cooperation with Cultural center "Dashi-Art" was organized. Cultural center "Dashi-Art" is a cycle of seminars on the theme: "Organization of not conventional exhibitions in modern museums and attraction of new technologies".

LECTURE 12. THE GOVERNMENTAL STRUCTURE OF THE REPUBLIC OF UZBEKISTAN Plan: 1. Constitution of Uzbekistan. 2. Parliament. 3. Oliy Majlis. 4. Branches of government. 1. Constitution of Uzbekistan. According to the Constitution of the Republic of Uzbekistan, Uzbekistan is a sovereign democratic republic. The state expresses the will of the people, serves its interests. State bodies and officials are responsible to society and citizens. The people are the only source of state power. State power in the Republic of Uzbekistan is exercised in the interests of the people and exclusively by bodies authorized by the Constitution of the Republic of Uzbekistan and legislation adopted on its basis. The appropriation of powers of state authorities, the suspension or termination of the activities of authorities in a manner not prescribed by the Constitution, the creation of new and parallel structures of power are unconstitutional and entail liability under the law. On behalf of the people of Uzbekistan, only the Oliy Majlis and the President of the Republic elected by him can speak. No part of the society, political party, public association, movement or individual can speak on behalf of the people of Uzbekistan. Uzbekistan is a sovereign democratic Republic; the form of government is presidential. The Constitution of 1992 is in force (as amended and supplemented 1993, April 2003). The structure of Uzbekistan includes the Republic of Karakalpakstan, 12 regionsviloyats (Andijan, Bukhara, Jizzakh, Kashkadarya, Novoiy, Namangan, Samarkand, Surkhandarya, Syrdarya, Tashkent, Ferghana, Khorezm), 162 districts (fog), 120 cities, in t. hours Tashkent is a city of republican subordination, 113 settlements, 1461 rural gatherings. CONSTITUTION OF THE REPUBLIC OF UZBEKISTAN The Constitution of the Republic of Uzbekistan was adopted on December 8, 1992. On April 24, 2003 some amendments and addenda were introduced into it. It has been worked out based on the experience of developed countries. Thus, it appeared to have reflected the will and spirit of the people of this land, its public consciousness and level of culture. Constitution has imbibed fundamental ideas and principles of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Constitution of 1992 consists of 6 sections that include 26 chapters, and 128 articles. Its distinctive feature is that, that it has ensured the accountability of state bodies and authorities before public, that is, the priority of interests of each citizen has been legally maintained and further guaranteed. The citizenship of the Republic of Uzbekistan, no matter how it is obtained, is fully equivalent for all. It allows for each person to fully participate in economic, political, legal, and cultural spheres of life in the country. Moreover, it obliges with some duties. Naturally, the state is obliged to protect the interests and freedoms of Uzbek citizens on its territory and abroad. The citizens of Uzbekistan regardless of their origin, race, nationality, and other, are equal. Constitution guarantees respect towards language, customs and traditions of all nationalities and peoples who are the citizens of Uzbekistan. The structure of state power People govern the state directly or through their elected representatives. Participation by people in the state administration is defined by the Constitution of the Republic of Uzbekistan, and secured by special laws. In this regard, the referendum is an important political event. It is, in other words - voting by the people, is held on the most important issues of state and society, for instance, while adopting the laws of the Republic of Uzbekistan, and other resolutions, or amending them. The way of holding referenda is defined by the Law of the Republic of Uzbekistan "On referendum of the Republic of Uzbekistan" of November 18, 1991. Decisions, taken as a result of referenda bear the supreme legal power on the territory of Uzbekistan, and may be amended or canceled only by way of referenda. Elections to Kengashs (Councils) of people's deputies, national discussion of the most important issues, meetings of voters, early recall of people's deputies, and others are examples of how people may directly participate in the state administration. Certain laws also define rules of their holding. People administer the state through deputies whom they elect to Oliy Majlis (national parliament) of the Republic of Uzbekistan, Kengashs (Councils) of people's deputies of viloyats (provinces), tumans(districts), and towns. Only those elected to the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan and the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan can act on behalf of the people. The main principle of the state power is state sovereignty. The state sovereignty means full independence in carrying out domestic and foreign policies. According to Article 15 of Constitution, the absolute supremacy of Constitution and laws of the Republic of Uzbekistan are recognized. The state, its bodies, officials, public organizations, and citizens act in line with Constitution and laws. The separation of the state power is another fundamental principle. According to Article 11, the state power in Uzbekistan is separated to legislative, executive and judicial branches. The Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan is a legislative branch of power. It consists of two chambers - the Legislative chamber (Lower House) and the Senate (Upper House). The President of the Republic of Uzbekistan is a head of the state as well as executive branch of power. President stands as a guarantor of citizen's rights and liberties, Constitution, and laws of the Republic of Uzbekistan. Judiciary is independent from legislative and executive branches, political parties, and other public organizations. It consists of Constitutional, Supreme, and Supreme Economic Courts of the Republic of Uzbekistan, the Supreme, and Economic Courts of the Republic of Karakalpakstan, elected for a five-year term, military and economic courts of provinces, city of Tashkent, districts and towns, appointed for the same term. On its state structure, the Republic of Uzbekistan is a unitary state. The Article 70, the Section IV of Constitution on the administrative-territorial division, stipulates that the sovereign Republic of Karakalpakstan is a part of the Republic of Uzbekistan. The Article 71 provides that Republic of Karakalpakstan has its own Constitution. The laws of the Republic of Uzbekistan are binding on the entire territory of the Republic of Karakalpakstan (Article 72). The relations between the Republic of Uzbekistan and the Republic of Karakalpakstan are regulated with treaties and agreements reached within the framework of the Constitution of the Republic of Uzbekistan. 2. Parliament. The formation of legal statehood is a complex and lengthy process, associated with overcoming many difficulties. Among the problems of the establishment of the rule of law in Uzbekistan, issues related to state institutions operating on the principles of parliamentarism occupy an important place, because by the beginning of the 21st century, the indisputable truth had finally been established - there cannot be a full-fledged democracy in the country without an authorized parliament. It is no accident that citizens associate ideas about democracy with their real opportunity to participate in government, and through parliament, to influence the legislative process. The history of parliament as such is estimated at centuries. And throughout all the changing eras, the role of the parliament has been consistently changing, its essence is enriched with new ideas, principles, experience of organization and activity. The ideas of parliamentarism, having arisen at the turn of the first millennium in Rome, England and Spain and embodied in the form of public gatherings, then went through several stages of practical formation before they gained the status of a state forum. Thus, parliament as an institution of the state has gone a long history. The main trend in the development of parliamentarism is that parliaments are in the focus of public life. Of course, each state in its own way decides on the structure and functioning of the parliament, but this does not exclude the presence of common features that are taken into account in parliamentary practice. In this regard, it is extremely important to ensure the study of the experience of the formation and development of parliamentary institutions, an understanding of their role and place in the past, to trace the evolution of their nature and essence in the present, to outline future development prospects. The formation of the highest legislative body of Uzbekistan has its own specific features, due to the historical past. National specificity involves various forms and methods of state building. The chosen concrete form of such construction is a synthesis of the universal with the national historical, specific. It is not for nothing that the knowledge of any social phenomenon presupposes, first of all, the determination of how it arose in the specific conditions of a certain historical era, what main stages went through its development, how it changed in the course of this development, what is the tendency of its movement in the future. These provisions are fundamental to the consideration of any social phenomena, including such an important institution as parliament. Moreover, as practice shows, the formation of parliamentarism is a complex, sometimes painful process. It shows the features of the historical moment, the social and state life of each particular country, national traditions, legal culture and the political will of the people. And, of course, the development of social practice, the course of historical development cannot but lead to a change in the theoretical concepts of the country's legislative body. Legislative power is an essential component of state power. Its improvement is associated with the historical evolution of the entire system of state power. Therefore, a comprehensive analysis of the problems of the formation and development of higher legislative bodies is fundamental for the theory and practice of state building, for the future parliamentarism in Uzbekistan. Meanwhile, to determine the future, it is necessary to carefully, objectively study the past. President of the Republic of Uzbekistan I.A. Karimov noted: "The nation must be protected, and for this it is necessary to study its true history, to preserve and preserve it." Consequently, the historical approach is an integral element of political and legal analysis, without which it is impossible to give an adequate interpretation of political reality. Unicameral Parliament 1991-2004 and the transition to a bicameral parliamentary system with the acquisition of state independence by Uzbekistan on September 1, 1991, a qualitatively new stage in the development of the national parliament began as one of the most important institutions of state power. The recent history of national parliamentarism is generally recognized as being divided into three main periods. 3.Oliy majlis. The supreme state representative body shall be the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan that exercises legislative power. The Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan shall consist of two chambers — the Legislative Chamber (the lower chamber) and the Senate (the upper chamber). The term of powers of the Legislative chamber and the Senate of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan — five years. The Legislative Chamber The Legislative Chamber is the lower chamber of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan. The Legislative Chamber of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan shall consist of one hundred twenty deputies elected by territorial constituencies on a multiparty basis. The Senate of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan (the upper chamber). The Senate of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan shall be the chamber of territorial representation and consist of members of the Senate (senators). Members of the Senate of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan shall be elected in equal quantity — in six persons — from the Republic of Karakalpakstan, regions and the city of Tashkent by secret ballot at relevant joint sessions of deputies of Zhokarghy Kenes of the Republic of Karakalpakstan, representative bodies of state authority of regions, districts, cities and towns from among these deputies. Sixteen members of the Senate of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan shall be appointed by the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan from among the most authoritative citizens with large practical experience and special merits in the sphere of science, art, literature, manufacture and other spheres of state and public activity. Lower Chamber The Legislative Chamber consists of 150 deputies elected in accordance with the law. The main person in the Legislative Chamber is the Speaker of the Legislative Chamber of the Oliy Majlis. Now this position is occupied by the newly elected Nurdinjon Ismoilov - the new speaker of the Legislative Chamber of the Parliament of Uzbekistan is Nurdinjon Ismoilov. The deputies of the lower (legislative) chamber in the first convocation - 120 (elected in direct general elections), in the next two - 150, of which 135 were elected in direct general elections, 15 seats were reserved for the Ecological Movement of Uzbekistan. The procedure for the activities of the Legislative Chamber is determined by the Constitution of the Republic of Uzbekistan, the Law "On the Legislative Chamber of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan" and other legislative acts. In the elections of 2014-2015, the seats were distributed as follows: Liberal Democratic Party of Uzbekistan - 52 seats Milliy Tiklanish Democratic Party - 36 seats People's Democratic Party of Uzbekistan - 27 seats Social Democratic Party Adolat - 20 seats Ecological Movement of Uzbekistan - 15 places Upper chamber The Senate is a chamber of territorial representation and consists of 100 senators. Members of the Senate of the Oliy Majlis are elected in equal numbers - 6 people each - from the Republic of Karakalpakstan, regions and the city of Tashkent by secret ballot at the respective joint meetings of deputies of the Zhokarga Kenes of the Republic of Karakalpakstan, representative bodies of state power of regions, districts and cities from among these deputies. The 16 members of the Senate of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan are appointed by the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan from among the most respected citizens with great practical experience and special merits in the field of science, art, literature, production and other areas of state and public activity. A deputy of the Legislative Chamber, as well as a member of the Senate, may be a citizen of the Republic of Uzbekistan who has reached 25 years of election day. 4.Branches of the Government. The system of state power of the Republic of Uzbekistan is based on the principle of separation of powers into legislative, executive and judicial. Executive branch The President of the Republic of Uzbekistan is the head of state and executive power in the Republic of Uzbekistan. A citizen of the Republic of Uzbekistan not younger than thirty-five years old, fluent in the state language, permanently residing in the territory of Uzbekistan for at least 10 years immediately before the election may be elected President of the Republic of Uzbekistan. One and the same person cannot be the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan for more than two consecutive terms. Executive power is exercised by the Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Uzbekistan. The Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Uzbekistan consists of the Prime Minister of the Republic of Uzbekistan, his deputies, ministers, chairmen of state committees. The Cabinet of Ministers includes the head of government of the Republic of Karakalpakstan. The composition of the Cabinet of Ministers is formed by the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan. The candidacy of the Prime Minister of the Republic of Uzbekistan is considered and approved by the chambers of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan on the proposal of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan. Members of the Cabinet of Ministers are approved by the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan on the proposal of the Prime Minister of the Republic of Uzbekistan. The Cabinet of Ministers provides guidance on the effective functioning of the economy, social and spiritual spheres, implementation of the laws of the Republic of Uzbekistan, decisions of the Oliy Majlis, decrees, resolutions and orders of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan. The Prime Minister of the Republic of Uzbekistan organizes and manages the activities of the Cabinet of Ministers, bears personal responsibility for the effectiveness of his work, presides over meetings of the Cabinet of Ministers, signs his decisions, on behalf of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan represents the Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Uzbekistan in international relations, and performs other functions provided for by laws Republic of Uzbekistan, decrees, decrees and orders of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan. The Cabinet of Ministers in its activities is responsible to the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan and the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan. Legislature The highest state representative body is the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan, which exercises legislative power. The Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan consists of two chambers - the Legislative Chamber (lower house) and the Senate (upper house). The term of office of the Legislative Chamber and Senate of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan is five years. The Legislative Chamber of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan consists of one hundred and twenty deputies elected on a multi-party basis in territorial constituencies. The Senate of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan is a chamber of territorial representation and consists of members of the Senate (senators). Judicial branch The judiciary in the Republic of Uzbekistan operates independently of the legislative and executive authorities, political parties, and other public associations. The judicial system in the Republic of Uzbekistan consists of the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Uzbekistan, the Supreme Court of the Republic of Uzbekistan, the Supreme Economic Court of the Republic of Uzbekistan, the Supreme Courts of the Republic of Karakalpakstan in civil and criminal cases, the Commercial Court of the Republic of Karakalpakstan, elected for a term of five years, regional, Tashkent city courts in civil and criminal cases, inter-district, district, city courts for civil and criminal cases, military and economic courts assigned to this same term. Emergency courts are not allowed. The Constitutional Court of the Republic of Uzbekistan considers cases on the constitutionality of acts of the legislative and executive authorities. The Supreme Court of the Republic of Uzbekistan is the highest judicial authority in the field of civil, criminal and administrative court proceedings. The Supreme Council of the last convocation, which can be called the parliament of the transitional period, adopted the Constitution of the Republic of Uzbekistan, which became the legal basis for the creation of fundamentally new bodies of state administration, the construction of a fair democratic society with a socially oriented market economy. The Parliament adopted a number of laws aimed at strengthening the sovereignty of the young state: “On the Foundations of State Independence of the Republic of Uzbekistan”, “On the Election of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan”, “On the State Emblem of the Republic of Uzbekistan”, “On the State Anthem of the Republic of Uzbekistan”, “On the State Language of the Republic Uzbekistan ”,“ On elections to the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan.

LECTURE 13. EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM OF THE REPUBLIC OF UZBEKISTAN Plan: 1. Principles and general objectives of education 2. Structure and organization of the education system 1. Principles and general objectives of education. The main goal of the State educational policy is to educate a healthy generation, both physically and mentally. The new educational policy is determined by the following main principles and goals: • achieving a humanistic and democratic character of education and training; • priority to human values and to national and cultural traditions; • separation of educational institutions from the influence of political parties and movements; • scientific and secular character of the State education system; • continuity of the education system; • development of vocational and professional education in accordance with changing economic needs; • provision of compulsory general (basic) education, technical and vocational secondary education; • free choice of the type of specialized secondary education (academic lyceums and vocational colleges); • universal provision of compulsory education within the framework of State educational standards; • unity and differentiation of training programmes; • free choice of educational programmes based on merit and ability, and incentives to intelligence and talent. Laws and other basic regulations concerning education Immediately after independence, the Government passed the Law on Education in July 1992 to provide the legal basis for the sector and to set off the most urgent reforms needed to adapt the education system to the demands of a transition economy. The 1992 Law laid down several principles such as: children's right to education and protection; the right of workers to individual leave for training purposes; the financial autonomy of institutions including the possibility to conclude contracts with companies; and the right to establish private schools. In addition, this Law provided for the development of new curricula and textbooks, certification and accreditation of educational institutions as well as the establishment of specializations and types of educational institutions attuned to market needs. Greater emphasis was placed on the Uzbek language, history and literature as well as on foreign languages, business, economics and vocational-technical education. The duration of compulsory and free basic education was reduced from eleven to nine years due to financial constraints. The impetus of the new Education Law, which was adopted by Parliament in 1997, can be seen in various measures. New kindergartens and educational institutions have been established and experimental programs for teaching foreign languages, arts and computer science to young children have been started. A new curriculum has been introduced for general basic education schools and new textbooks have been developed. New types of educational institutions have been established based on market requirements, including business schools, banking colleges and academic lyceums. Extra-budgetary means of financing educational institutions have been devised. Specialized foundations have been established for talented students and high-level scientists to study in prestigious universities abroad (UMID Foundation, USTOZ or Teacher Foundation, KAMOLOT or Youth Foundation). A new testing system has been introduced at the national level as a means to monitor the quality of education. Several regional higher education institutions have been upgraded to university status. Special programs have been developed for the rural areas. International and scientific links are being expanded to support the modernization of education. In August 1997, the Government adopted the National Programme for Personnel Training (NP) which provides a coherent framework for the reform being undertaken, and further guides the educational development of the country well into the Twenty-first century. Central to the NP is the development of a unified and continuous education and training system and the mandate for the State to provide twelve years of compulsory education according to a '4+5+3' pattern. The last three years of education will be provided in two types of specialized secondary education institutions, namely academic lyceums for the top 10% of grade 9 graduates, and professional colleges for the rest. These new institutions will be organized within higher education establishments and managed by the Ministry of Higher and Specialized Secondary Education. The selection of students will be based on competitive tests, individual attitudes, interests in the chosen specialties and the socioeconomic characteristics of the regions where they reside. As stipulated Article 41 of the Constitution (1992), everyone shall have the right to education and the State shall guarantee free secondary education. The Law on Education was revised in 2007, reaffirming the commitment to providing free compulsory education for all children. General basic education (primary and secondary, grades 1 to 9) is compulsory and provided free in public institutions. Administration and management of the education system The country is administratively divided into twelve provinces, the city of Tashkent and the Republic of Karakalpakstan. The provinces and the Republic of Karakalpakstan are subdivided into 163 districts and eighteen municipalities. Each province has a mayor (khokim) who is appointed by the President. Within the regions there are 1,421 rural areas constituting 12,391 settlements (kishlaks). The basic unit of local government is the neighborhood organization (makhalla) which is the state's channel for targeting special assistance to low-income families. The Republic of Karakalpakstan has its own President and Parliament. The Social Sector Department of the Cabinet of Ministers is mainly responsible for setting education policies and quality standards. The overall management of the education system is shared by the Ministry of Public Education (MPE) and the Ministry of Higher and Secondary Vocational Education (MHE). Under the National Programme, the Ministry of Public Education is responsible for preschool, general, special education, extra-curricular institutions, and teacher training, while the MHE administers specialized secondary and tertiary education, including vocational education. Specialist training institutes run by other ministries (i.e. Agriculture, Communication, Railway, Tourism, Water Resources, etc.) are under the authority of both MPE and MHE. The Ministry of Labour and Social Security oversees some programmes aimed at professional training and raising the level of employees' professional skills. The Republic Testing Centre, an autonomous agency, prepares and administers tests at the end of the general and specialized secondary education cycles to certify student qualifications for the higher levels of education. The day-to-day management of general education (primary and secondary) is the responsibility of the Province and District Education Boards. 2. Structure and organization of the education system Currently, the formal education system follows a '4+5+2' pattern, that is four years of primary and five years of general education, which are compulsory, and two years of free upper secondary education or vocational education. The eleven-year programme is being replaced by a twelve-year compulsory education programme providing three years of senior secondary education in either academic lyceums or technical and vocational schools. Uzbekistan: structure of the education system 30 Doctoral degree 24 labour market 29 23 28 22 27 Post graduate studies (Doctoral candidate) 21 26 20 25 19 24 Higher professional education (Master's degree, certified specialist) 18 23 17 22 Higher professional education (Bachelor's degree) 16 21 15 20 Specialized secondary education (Diploma) 14 19 13 18 Specialized secondary education (Certificate of compete Secondary education) Academic Lyceum /Professional college 12 compuls ory education 17 11 16 10 15 General Secondary education 9 14 8 13 7 12 6 11 5 10 Primary education 4 9 3 8 2 7 1 6 Pre-school and upbringing 5 4 3 Age level of education Grade Preschool education Preschool education is for children aged 3-6/7 years and is provided in kindergartens and family-based institutions. Preschool education is not compulsory. Primary education General (basic) education is provided in several types of basic education schools: - schools with only primary education (grades 1-4); - schools which offer partial (grades 1-9) and complete (grades 1-11) secondary education; - adult education centers, and specialized schools and boarding schools for students with disabilities. General education is also available in new types of institutions (gymnasia and lyceums), some of them attached to higher education institutions. General basic education (grades 1 to 9) is compulsory and the admission age is 6/7. Secondary education General basic education is followed by two or three years of upper secondary education or vocational and technical (VTE) education. This is provided at two levels: the first level offers six months to three years of basic vocational training; the second level generally offers two years of training (post-secondary level) in over 300 specializations leading to the Diploma of Specialized Secondary Education. Higher education Higher education is provided in universities and higher education institutions. Access to the four-year bachelor's degree programme is subject to State test-based selection. An additional two years are required for a master's degree and another six years for a full doctoral degree. The school year begins in September and ends at the end of May. It is divided into four terms separated by three periods of holidays: in autumn (eight days), winter (twelve days) and spring (ten days). The school year consists of 33 six-day working weeks (198 working days) in grade 1, and 34 six-day weeks (204 working days) in grades 2 to 11. At the university level, the academic year begins in September and ends in June. It is divided into two semesters, each comprising 17 weeks. Students have summer holidays, New Year holidays and national holidays. Examinations take place at the end of each semester. Courses are held from Monday to Saturday (included). The educational process Within the framework of the National Programme of School Education the relevant agencies elaborated new and improved national education standards (NES) and curricula. Since the 2004/05 academic year these new improved NES and modernized curricula have been piloted initially in 29 experimental centers. In addition, for all subjects, the authorities organized experimental classes in various regions. Well-known scientists and leading specialists in teaching methods, along with teachers specializing in innovative teaching methods, were attracted from different regions of the Republic to the work carried out at these centers. At the first stage of the NES and curricula testing 31 subjects were developed in the light of this experience and in the new instruction languages. The second stage of the experimental work aimed at improving the NES and curricula continued during the 2005/06 academic year with 81 subjects organized by subject and languages of instruction in 45 experimental classes. It should be noted that among the subjects tested were 26 subjects for schools with instruction in Russian and other minority languages. The results of the experimental centers were approved by the board of the Ministry of Public Education and recommended for the general schools nationally. During the 2005/06 school year pilots of these new NES and curricula were launched in an additional 50 subjects compared to the 2004/05 school year. During the 2006/07 academic year the third stage of this piloting was launched. In 2007/08, 53 subjects at 54 experimental centers were being tested out. The introduction of the national education standards into the educational process has produced positive results. (UNDP, 2008). Pre-primary education Pre-school centers have been mostly organized by State enterprises in the past, but with the privatization of sponsoring firms some of these centers have been closed, thus reducing the enrolment ratio from about 30% of the target group in 1992 to 16.1% in 1996. Nurseries and kindergartens are maintained by the Ministry of Education, local municipalities and private companies. Nurseries cater to children aged 1-3, while kindergartens cater to children aged 4-6/7. Recently, new types of institutions have been introduced such as the home-based daycare centers and schools where kindergarten and primary classes are combined. Quality standards in these centers, however, are uneven. For instance, only 20% of all preschool teachers have higher education. Preschool education aims at moulding a healthy and intelligent personality and preparing children for a systematic educational process. It is addressed to children under the age of 7 years in public and private institutions, and in families too. Makhalya (local communities), public and charity bodies actively participate in the delivering of preschool services. In kindergartens children learn some elementary notions of arithmetic and, since September 1995, a programme has been introduced to teach reading and writing in all kindergartens. Home kindergartens, as non-traditional educational establishments, have appeared in recent years. These establishments are basically located in rural areas. Early childhood educational centers organized within the Pupils' Centers (Youth Centre in School), local authority committees, schools and other public establishments represent a new form of work with preschool children. Preschool establishments play an important role. Children in kindergartens receive medical services, preventive medical treatments, as well as three to five meals per day, depending on the time they pass in the establishment. One of the basic tasks of preschool education is the introduction to the educational process and the balanced development of children. According to the educational programme for kindergartens, this process consists of: games; acquaintance with nature; moral education; physical training; arts and music; speech training; practical activities; elementary mathematics; and introduction to reading and writing. Children with mild handicaps receive special classes. Psycho-diagnosis, psycho-correction, speech, sight, hearing and motion corrections are provided in special education establishments in addition to the main educational programme. There are different categories of pedagogical, medical and technical personnel working in early childhood establishments, such as the head of the establishment, methodologists (who provide methodological supervision on the activities of nursery school teachers concerning the implementation of the educational programme), nursery school teachers, psychologists, musicians, doctors, nurses, etc. Preschool institutions have an option either to choose for their activity any curriculum from the set of curricula approved by the Ministry of Public Education (MPE), or to elaborate their own curricula based on the model one which should then be approved by the MPE. (UNDP, 2008). According to national estimates, in 2005 there were 6,495 preschool institutions (of which about 3,800 in rural areas) with some 565,000 children enrolled. Preschool institutions included: 1,386 kindergartens, 4,893 day-care centers, 40-day nurseries, and 177 school-kindergartens (e.g. schools providing preschool and primary education). UNDP reports that in 2006 the number of preschool institutions was 6,413 (including 12 private kindergartens) and the total enrolment was about 562,000 children, representing 18.8% of the children of the respective age. Non-traditional forms of preschool education are being developed, such as home-based and small kindergartens, various centers for the early development of children at pre-school age, and Sunday schools. The number of non-traditional preschools was 13,744 in 2006, with an enrolment of some 123,600 children. (UNDP, 2008). On the basis of the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) 2006, nearly 20% of children aged 36-59 months were attending preschool in 2006. Urban-rural and regional differentials are significant-the figure is as high as 35% in urban areas, compared to 14% in rural areas. Among children aged 36-59 months, attendance at preschool is more prevalent in Tashkent city (53%), and lowest in the Southern region (7%). No gender differential exists, but differentials by socioeconomic status are significant. Forty-six percent of children living in rich households attend pre-school, while the figure drops to 5% in poor households. Overall, 34% of children aged 6 and 26% of children aged 7 attending the first grade of primary school had been attending preschool the previous year. The proportion among boys was slightly higher (29%) than girls (24%), while almost one-third of children in urban areas (33%) had attended preschool the previous year compared to 24% among children living in rural areas. Regional differentials were also very significant; first graders in Tashkent city were four times more likely (66%) to have attended preschool then their counterparts in the Central-Eastern region (15%). General basic education (primary and secondary education) As mentioned, there are several types of basic education schools: schools with only primary education (grades 1 to 4); schools which offer partial (grades 1 to 9) and complete (grades 1 to 11) secondary education; adult education centers; and specialized schools and boarding schools for students with disabilities. General (basic) education is also available in new types of institutions (gymnasia and lyceums), some of them attached to higher education institutions and considered to be of better quality. Academic lyceums and vocational colleges are centrally managed. The nine-year general (basic) education programme is compulsory and free. The aim of general secondary education is as follows: formation of knowledge and skills in accordance with the national education standards; adaptation of children to society and development of independent thinking; formation of a harmoniously developed personality, citizen of his/her motherland; and instilling a feeling of devotion to the principles of independence and democracy. Upon completion of primary schooling (grades 1-4) children should have acquired reading, writing and calculating skills. Pupils are introduced to theoretical thinking and the skills of self-control. They acquire knowledge in standards of speech, basics of personal hygiene, healthy life-style and behavior in society. The quality and content of subjects at primary school are flexible in respect to different types of schools and learning conditions. Primary and secondary education are closely interrelated in terms of both organization and content. Each general school provides teaching at both stages of the general secondary education. General secondary education is the logical continuation of primary education, though it has a different content and incorporates different methods of teaching. Secondary education ensures the formation of the students' personality, their preferences, interests and ability to make choices in society. Secondary school students have a systematic knowledge in the basics of the sciences. During their studies they become broad-minded and develop abilities in creative thinking. Through sharing knowledge on the spiritual and cultural heritage of the nation, teachers inculcate a responsible attitude towards the surrounding world. Secondary school provides students with more opportunities for independent study. The structure of secondary education content includes both compulsory and optional subjects. The compulsory component is determined by the national educational standards which sets the minimum requirement for each educational level. This is guaranteed by the general secondary educational establishments. This component is set taking into account the needs of society as well as the interests and needs of the individual. The optional component is determined on the basis of the student's needs and abilities, available facilities, staffing, and the requirements of social and economic development of the particular area where the school is located. The volume of this additional study load is determined by norms fixed by the Ministry of Public Education (MPE). Teaching is based on the Basic Study Plan and syllabuses of general secondary education approved by the MPE. The list of subjects, syllabuses, and length of time are determined by the national education standards of general secondary education as well as by the Basic Study Plan. General secondary education is provided on a full-time basis. At the end of the studies graduates receive State certificates and those who have the best results receive certificates with excellence. (UNDP, 2008). Schools teaching in the Uzbek language predominate (over 8,800 schools in 2006/07). In 760 school’s instruction is provided in Russian and other languages (Russian-Uzbek, Russian-Karakalpak, and others). Out of these, in 93 schools children are taught only in Russian. A total of 522 schools were teaching in Kazakh, 258 in Tajik, 383 in Karakalpak, 48 in Turkmen, and 61 in Kyrgyz. In the same year, over 27% of students studied in 2-3 shifts. (Ibid.). Primary education is universal and the dropout rate is negligible. A limited incidence of dropouts exists after grade 4. Upon successful completion of a general (basic) education, students receive the State certificate specifying the marks received in each discipline. Two or three additional years of study at the upper secondary level are necessary to receive the Certificate of Complete Secondary Education. A network of specialized secondary vocational institutions was formed in 1997/98. It included fifteen academic lyceums with about 1,800 students enrolled and twenty vocational colleges with an enrolment of about 3,900 students. The introduction of a compulsory 12-year education system offers to grade 9 graduates the possibility to choose between studying at academic lyceums or vocational colleges in accordance with their abilities. Since the general curricula of lyceums and colleges are equivalent, all graduates have the right to continue their education onto the next stage. According to the Asian Development Bank, in 2005 there were 9,748 basic education schools in the country with 451,567 teachers. About 82% of the schools were in rural areas; 22% were in remote rural areas. Some 6.0 million students were enrolled in basic education: 2.3 million in grades 1-4, 3.2 million in grades 5-9, and 0.5 million in grades 10 and 11. The net enrolment rate in grades 1 to 9 was estimated at 98%, with no significant gender differentials. As of January 2007, there were 1,055 new secondary specialized vocational educational establishments, including 99 academic lyceums and 953 vocational colleges. Of these vocational colleges, 296 were housed in newly constructed buildings and 628 were housed in the buildings of former vocational schools having undergone major reconstruction including equipping them with modern teaching materials and laboratories. Secondary specialized vocational educational establishments enrolled 1,075,000 students, out of which 1,021,900 students (164,400 after the grade 11) enrolled in 953 vocational colleges and 53,100 students enrolled in 99 academic lyceums. The secondary specialized vocational education network covers 62.8% of the graduates of general schools. Study at these vocational colleges and academic lyceums is organized according to the Classifier of directions, specialties and professions of secondary specialized vocational education along with qualification requirements for junior specialists. The Classifier currently in force includes 348 specialties and 840 professions. Training is currently provided in 268 specialties which cover 712 professions. During the period 1998-2006, 277 branch educational standards and 3,503 curricula on general vocational and special subjects for vocational colleges, five branch standards, 11 study plans and 69 curricula for in-depth general preparation according to the specialties of academic lyceums were designed, piloted in experimental classes, discussed at seminars and conferences, approved and introduced. During the 2006/07 school year, 268 new typical study plans, characterized by mobility, flexibility and fast adaptation to the needs of labour market, were approved and introduced. Modernized study plans take into consideration all forms and types of studies, the organization of the independent work of students, as well as some hours allocated for educational establishments to make their own choices. According to national data, in 2006/07 there were 9,733 schools in the country (of which 7,705 in rural areas), categorized as follows: 170 primary schools (grades 1 to 4); 3,817 schools offering grades 1 to 9; 5,700 schools offering grades 1 to 11; and 86 special education and boarding schools. The total enrolment was 5,687,858 students (of whom 48.8% were girls), according to the following breakdown: 2,167,158 pupils in grades 1-4 (of whom 49% were girls); 3,101,652 students in grades 5-9 (48.8% girls); and 419,048 students in grades 10 and 11. The total number of teachers was 450,327 (of whom 68.1% were female teachers), of whom: 308,560 teachers with higher education (or 68.5% of teachers); 20,847 with incomplete higher education; and 120,920 teachers with secondary education. The total enrolment in special education schools was 19,116 students. In 2005, the gross enrolment ratio was estimated at 97% for primary education (grades 1-4) and at 97.6% for grades 5-9; the net enrolment ratio was estimated at 95.8% and 96.8% respectively. The survival rate to grade 5 and the transition rate to secondary were almost universal. On the basis of the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS), overall 96% of children of primary school age were attending primary or secondary school in 2006. Only less than 4% of the children were not attending school. At the national level and according to background characteristics, there is very little difference between male and female primary school attendance as well as overall attendance. A low percentage of the children of secondary school age were not attending secondary school (7%). Of these only a small portion were attending primary school. There is no differentiation by sex; the net attendance ratio was 94% for boys and 92% for girls. Of all children starting grade 1, nearly all of them will eventually reach grade 5. Notice that this number includes children that repeat grades and that eventually move up to reach grade 5. There is very little or no variation according to the background characteristics in the full attendance of children during the first five grades of school regardless of their sex, region, residence, mother's education, or socioeconomic status. At the time of the survey (2006), 97% of the children of primary completion age (11 years) were attending the last grade of primary education. All of the children who successfully completed the last grade of primary school were found to be attending the first grade of secondary school at the time of the survey. Again, there was also no significant variation by background variables.

LECTURE 14. CUSTOMS AND TRADITIONS OF THE REPUBLIC OF UZBEKISTAN Plan: 1. Uzbekistan culture: Ancient heritage 2. Uzbek fine art 3. Uzbek literature 4. Uzbek music: traditions, genres, instruments 5. Uzbek handicrafts and applied art 6. National holidays 7. Uzbek hospitality 1. Uzbekistan Culture: Ancient Heritage. The culture of Uzbekistan is vibrant and unique—it was formed over thousands of years, incorporating the traditions and customs of the peoples who at various times inhabited the territory of modern Uzbekistan. The ancient Persians, Greeks, Arabs, Chinese, Russians, and nomadic Turkic tribes have all contributed to Uzbek culture, which is considered the epitome of Central Asian, crossroads cultures. The traditions reflecting the multinational nature of Uzbekistan are omnipresent in its music, dance, painting, applied arts, language, cuisine, and clothing. Each region of Uzbekistan has its own unique shades as well, which are most clearly manifested in national dress and local dialects. To get acquainted with such richness and diversity, one must travel around the whole country, but the festivals of Uzbekistan are a great events for those who want to see the whole palette of culture in this country in one place. The festivals attract creative souls from all regions of the country, and here that you can see the full assortment of Uzbek dances, music, applied arts, etc. 2. Uzbek Fine Art. Oriental craftsmen always were renowned for own peculiar fine talent, which is shown in full in decoration and adornments of magnificent palaces, mausoleums and other religious buildings. As a rule, general fine art works include ornament, patterns and calligraphy. Islamic traditions forbid to image people and animals, therefore craftsmen started developing more abstract directions, bringing them to perfection. Later a new direction appeared in Uzbekistan fine art. It was the miniature, small bright colorful pictures lacquered, which decorated palaces and rich houses. Uzbekistan fine art was in unbelievable flourishing during the general cultural boom in 14-15th centuries, the epoch of Timurid Dynasty. Ancient Samarkand mausoleums preserved details of wonderful landscape paintings. Some palaces of Amir Temur were decorated with scenic pictures of Tamerlane, his wives, sons and associates and scenes of rich feasts. The great medieval artist was the inimitable master of oriental miniature Kamoliddin Behzod. The next rise of Uzbekistan fine art dates back to the 19th century. The miniature art reaches its highest flourishing. It is glorified by Akhmad Donish (1827-1897), Abdulkhalik - Makhmum and others. Uzbekistan fine art of 20th century developed under the influence Russian painters Itinerants. Their outstanding works furthered the development of oriental school of portraits and landscapes, development of realism genre in painting art. You can get acquainted with the works of modern masters by visiting the Gallery of Fine Arts, the most modern exhibition hall in Tashkent. The Art Museum, whose Grand Duke Nikolai Konstantinovich Romanov’ s collection of pictures of European painting lay the foundation of the richest expositions, as well as many other art galleries and museums of Uzbekistan. The judges of art must visit the Savitsky Art Museum in Nukus, displaying over 90,000 exhibits including a collection of Russian avant-garde, fine arts of Uzbekistan, arts and crafts of Karakalpakstan and art of Ancient Khorezm. 3. Uzbek Literature At the development basis of modern Uzbek literature is rich folklore – speakings or oral folk arts. The people wrote and handed down heroic epics, whose characters were heroes, presented in the images of evil forces, who were fighting against their oppressors and enslavers. This is the way how epics of Uzbek folklore, such as “Koroghlu” and “Alpamysh” were created. Alpamysh, which tells the story of courage and bravery of the Uzbek warriors, survived centuries and became a real monument of oriental literature. Another genius of people’s art is a cycle of latifas – tales and legends about Effendi – Hodja Nasreddin, a deft, witty dodger, who gives lesson to the greedy rich and the powers that be with his mischievous pranks. The XI century featured a host of works, based on religious norms of Islamic morality They are the insightful poem “Kugadau Bilig” (“Knowledge of Grace” or “The Science of Happiness”) (1069) by Yusuf Khas Khadjib Balasaguni (Yusuf Balasagun), the poem “Hibat al-Haqa'iq” (“The Gift of the Truth”) by Akhmad Yugnaki, and, of course, “Dictionary of Turkic Dialects” (1072-74), compiled by Makhmud Kashgari. The golden age of Uzbek literature fell on the historical epoch of Amir Timur and his dynasty. Its popularity is attributed to the fact that the works become more secular and free from excessive religiosity. It is that period, when the great oriental poet, philosopher and politician Alisher Navoi, who is considered to be a classic of Uzbek literature and founder of the Uzbek language, was flourishing. His immortal works – “Chordevon” and “Khamsa” are included in the thesaurus of world literature and translated into hundreds of the world’s languages. The last of the Timurid dynasty, the founder of the Great Mogul state in India, which existed for two centuries, Zahiriddin Mukhammad Babur was not only a talented ruler and commander, but also notable as an outstanding poet of the time. His epic poem “Baburnama” which describes his biography, and history of the peoples of Central Asia, Afghanistan and India, became a chef-d'oeuvre of Uzbek literature, valuable historical and literary monument of the time. Uzbek literature of the XVIII-XIX centuries is lyric and mainly devoted to love. During this period were flourishing such poets as Nadira Uvaisi, Mashrab, Khorezmi and so on. At the end of the XIX and beginning of the XX centuries, after the annexation of Turkestan to the Russian Empire began a new modern period of Uzbek literature; which was presented by outstanding persons such as poet Mukimi and writer, poet and satirist Furqat. The Soviet era gave us such talents as poet and playwright Hamza Hakimzade Niazi, poet and writer Sadriddin Ayni, the first Uzbek novelist Abdullah Kadiri, writer and philosopher Fitrat - both of them were repressed under Stalin. Their literary traditions were continued by Oybek, Gafur Gulam, Abdulla Kahhar Khamid Alimjhan, Uygun and others. 4. Uzbek Music: Traditions, Genres, Instruments. Music connects the cultures of the world and is a window into the ethos of any country. Likewise, Uzbek music is one of the keys to understanding Uzbek culture. Traditional Uzbek music has ancient origins; during archeological excavations in Samarkand and Termez, frescoes depicting musical instruments similar to modern string and wind instruments of Uzbekistan were discovered. Traditional musical works were often centered on folklore or built around the poems by famous Uzbek poets such as Alisher Navoi, Jami, Mukimi and others—cultural connections and traditions truly run deep. UNESCO even included Shashmaqam, a unique genre of music from Uzbekistan and Tajikistan, on its list of Masterpieces of Oral and Intangible Cultural Heritage of Mankind. Shashmaqam translates as six maqom or “modes”. Each of the six modes has its own order, rhythm, and value, and the result is a uniquely Uzbek sound. This style of music is performed by a group of singers and musicians and uses the traditional stringed dutar, gijak, and tanbur as well as the doira (drum) as instruments. Shashmaqam schools can be found around Uzbekistan and Tajikistan. Uzbek folk music more generally is often associated with dutar and bakhshi. Dutar is a simple instrument with two silk strings and bakhshi is a musician playing this instrument while singing folk songs. Uzbek festive music is performed on a karnay (wind instrument), surnay (flute) and doira, the sounds of which can be heard for hundreds of meters, inviting locals and tourists alike to join in the celebration. In the 19th-20th centuries, after Uzbekistan became part of the Russian Empire and Soviet Union, a school devoted to classical music opened in Uzbekistan. Uzbek folk motifs permeated the classical music creating a unique, Eastern flavor. After independence, Uzbek pop music came about in a similar way, and native genres saw a revival. In Uzbekistan today, guests can hear modern Uzbek pop music, folk music, Uzbek neoclassicism, as well as shashmaqam and lazgi. Live music is heard during holiday festivals, weddings, at the Tashkent Conservatory, and at folklore shows like the one at Nadir Divan-Begi Madrasa. Additionally, there is a bi-annual music festival in Samarkand called “Sharq Taronalari”. Here, the national music from countries around the world is performed. 5. Uzbek Handicrafts and Applied Art The applied art of Uzbekistan is original and exclusive creative work of national craftsmen and masters, passing their skills from generation to generation. Putting their hearts and souls into works, for many centuries, they have created unique pieces and articles: housewares, house adornment, inimitable fabrics for dressy dresses, colorful tableware. The works of Fergana, Samarkand, Bukhara, Khiva and other masters have been historically notable outside the country and still continue to stir interest of lovers of the beautiful from all over the world. Many schools of suzané embroidery and ceramics, skullcaps of different type and purpose, national pichak-knives for every occasion, silk and woolen carpets, silk and chasing – the wonderful works, produced by local masters for centuries, make a unique exoticism of Uzbekistan. Sui generis centers and schools of folk arts and crafts were formed in the territory of Uzbekistan for centuries. Each region has its own direction. Chust, Namangan region, is widely known for its skullcaps and knives; Rishtan, Fergana region, turquoise ceramics; ancient Margilan, satin with iridescent play of colors; sacred Bukhara, gold embroidery. Uzbekistan has been developing arts and crafts from century to century, handing down the unique works of famous and unknown artists, which strike with the wealth of artistic imagination and perfection of shapes. 6. National holidays Navruz Holiday Navruz (also called Noruz, Nowruz, Nowrooz, and Nawruz) is one of the most treasured holidays in Uzbekistan. Sometimes known as Persian New Year, Navruz is a chance to celebrate nature, to welcome a new year, and to enjoy flavorful food with friends, neighbors, and family. The most famous of Navruz dish is sumalak, made from germinated grains and stirred for a whole day by the women of the neighborhood. Navruz originated in Khorasan, in northeastern Iran, about 3000 years ago. Navruz is celebrated on the spring equinox, which is usually March 21. Also known as Nowruz, the holiday is celebrated across Western Asia and Central Asia, all the way to the Black Sea and the Balkans. Though many people celebrate Navruz as a secular holiday, it is a religious holiday for Zoroastrians. The holiday celebrates the day in the spring when day and night are equal, and is the start of a new year. Traditionally, people forgive their enemies, make amends, help the poor, and cleanse their houses and consciences for a good start to a new year. Sumalak (also known as samanu) is one of the main attractions on Navruz. Sumalak is made from germinated wheat, and takes a whole night to cook. Women from the mahalla (neighborhood) gather around the pot to sing and stir, so that the sumalak doesn’t burn. In the morning, the warm sumalak is handed out to neighbors, relatives and friends. With the first taste of sumalak, you should make a wish. Tables are laid with plenty of food, including samsa and plov, plus nishalda, a sweet dessert of whipped egg whites, and sugar. People pay visits and welcome guests, using Navruz as a time to share what they have with others. Horse games and sporting competitions are also popular, as are fairs with traditional dishes and souvenirs. Independence Day of Uzbekistan The 1st of September, 1991, is the birthday of new independent republic of Uzbekistan. It is the first and most important public holiday of the country. The whole country celebrates the anniversary of Independence in wide, bright and funny way. Each region (there are 12 regions in Uzbekistan) prepare various festive programs. Wherever you find yourself this day, you will find a fascinating sight: performances of original folk groups, excitable sports events, various shows and noisy craft fairs. And of course what a holiday is without treats? Festive pilaf is served in the centre of a large table, which gathers members of a family, colleagues, neighbors, friends... The capital of Uzbekistan is preparing to the celebration in advance, because the festive show, which takes place on the main square of the country, the Independence Square, is so spectacular and grandiose that it just takes one’s breath away. Hundreds of extras, dozens of musical and dance groups, the most interesting pop and movie stars participate in it. And in the evening the square is lit up with grandiose fireworks. Memory and Honor Day Memory and Honor Day: holiday of blessed memory of fallen heroes On the 9th of May Uzbekistan observes the Memorial Day, the holiday of warm sadness, reverent respect, pride and profound gratitude. Uzbekistan has made an invaluable contribution to the victory against fascism. Thousands of Uzbek people worked on the home front, the republic accepted refugees, evacuated enterprises, secured the rear. During the World War II Uzbekistan lost more than 450 thousand people. And on May 9, all residents of the country, as well as millions of people around the world congratulate their veterans: festive concerts, feasts, charity events, awards with prizes are held in all cities. In Tashkent, the center of festivities is the Independence Square, where the Alley of Fame and Memory is located. There are granite steles on both sides of the alley, on which the names of all Uzbeks, killed in the fronts of the World War II are engraved. And as eternally mourning for their sons as eternally mourning for their sons, the Grieving Mother “stiffened” in bronze, symbolizing the motherland. Kurban Hayit in Uzbekistan Eid al-Adha - Kurban Hayit in Uzbekistan Kurban Hayit (Eid al-Adha) is one of the biggest holidays in the Islamic world. It marks the end of the Hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca). Kurban Hayit is celebrated 70 days after the end of another major holiday - Ramadan Hayit. Since 1991, the religious holiday of Kurban Hayit in Uzbekistan has been declared as a public holiday and is widely celebrated in the country. Preparations for both Ramadan Hayit and Kurban Hayit (Eid al-Adha) begin the day before Hayit and this day is called “Arafa”. On the day of Arafa traditional pastry: “kush-tili”, “bugirsok” – fancy pastry balls, “orama”, “chak-chak” – straws and nuts in sugar and others are prepared by every Uzbekistan family. In the evening every family cooks festive plov, which neighbors usually pass to each other. Plov is served in kosa (big ceramic bowl) and decorated with pastry on top. Kurban Hayit, as in other countries, starts with a morning Hayit-namaz (prayer). After Hayit namaz the sacrifice is done. In most cases in Uzbekistan sheep is sacrificed, rarely -cows, and quite rarely - camels. After the sacrifices made it is obligatory to divide the meat into three parts: a precondition - at least one third should be distributed to people in need and not more than a one third should be left to the family. Even Kurban Hayit is a holiday, there is a rule to visit the cemeteries of relatives these days.Therefore, a few days before the holiday "mazar"s are tidied up. This was always supervised by mahalla’s (residential quarters) residents local gathering. Each mahalla has its own area in mazar. Many local ancient traditions are intertwined with the religious ones; this becomes particularly prominent in the days of Ramadan Hayit and Kurban Hayit. Children enjoy the holidays most of all - there is a range of toys and sweets, which are produced and sold only in the days of Hayits: wooden and tin rattles, tin fifes and clay whistles, candy canes of various shapes and sweet big balls "bodirok" (popcorn) and variety of kazinaki (sunflower seeds, peanut and other varieties of seeds and nuts brittles). Kurban Hayit lasts for three days. At this time people visit their old relatives and neighbors. At homes where there is a "kelin" (newly wedded wife) guests are welcomed, ‘kelin’ meets the guests, doing "kelin-salom" (ritual easy half-bow). Her head and face are covered with a translucent bride veil. These days in Uzbek "mahalla” you can see flocks of kids, mostly little girls who go from house to house in a crowd, admiring well-dressed newly married wives and are treated with sweets. 7. Uzbek Hospitality Hospitality is one of Uzbekistan features. Hospitality in Uzbek families is appreciated higher than the wealth of a table and prosperity of the family. Not to receive a guest means to disgrace the family, kin and makhalla. Hosts welcome esteemed guests at the gate. As a rule, men shake hands to each other and show their interest in each-other's health, business and other things. It is appropriate to greet women with slight bow, attaching right hand over the heart. Then guests are invited inside and to the most honorable seats at the table, or dastarkhan in Uzbek. By the ancient custom men and women should seat at the separate tables, but this custom is preserved in whole only in suburbs. The head of the family himself seats guests round the table, and the most honored guests are seated away from the entrance. Any meal begins and ends with tea drinking. At the beginning the table is served with sweets, baked goods, dried fruits, nuts, fruits and vegetables, then it is served with snacks and at the end – with pilaf or other festal dish. The host of the house pours the tea. The traditional element of hospitality is the peculiar small amount of tea to be poured: the more honored guest, the less amount of tea is in his cup. This custom is explained in such way: the more guest asks the host for more, the better. It is the sign of respect to the house. If tea is remained in the bottom of the piala, the host pours it out and again fills piala with tea.

LECTURE 15. MINERAL RESOURCES, ECONOMY AND AGRICULTURE OF UZBEKISTAN Plan: 1. Organization and Structure of Agriculture in Uzbekistan 2. Crops in Uzbekistan 3. Mineral resources of Uzbekistan 1. Organization and Structure of Agriculture in Uzbekistan. Mike Edwards wrote in National Geographic, “Agriculture is Uzbekistan's biggest employer, and cotton is king, as it was in Soviet days, when irrigation canals were stitched across the arid landscape and ground-water became polluted with agrochemicals. State farms, also Soviet relics, have not been abolished, and the government still tells farmers what to plant: cotton. The system enriches the state at the expense of the peasants, for the crop must be sold to the state at a fraction of its value. Land use: agricultural land: 62.6 percent; arable land 10.1 percent; permanent crops 0.8; percent; permanent pasture 51.7 percent; forest: 7.7 percent; other: 29.7 percent (2011 est.). Irrigated land: 41,980 square kilometers (2005); Total renewable water resources: 48.87 cubic kilometers (2011). Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural) total: 56 cubic kilometers a year (7 percent/3 percent/90 percent); per capita: 2,113 cubic meters a year (2005). Agriculture and industries processing agricultural products (primarily those related to cotton and foods) have consistently contributed about 35 percent of Uzbekistan's gross domestic product. However, expansion of the sector has been hindered by state control of agricultural markets, equipment shortages, and the ban on private land ownership. Privately worked plots contribute an estimated 75 percent of non-wheat food output. Uzbekistan is the world's fourth-largest producer and second-largest exporter of cotton, which in 2005 accounted for approximately 20 percent of the country's exports after reaching 39 percent in the late 1990s. In recent years, Uzbekistan has switched some farmland from cotton to grains (mainly rice and wheat) in an effort to reduce food imports. Officially reported wheat harvests have increased every year since 1998, while the rice harvest decreased substantially in 2005. Other significant agricultural products are silk, fruits and vegetables, cow’s milk, and beef. Virtually all agriculture requires intensive irrigation. Cattle, goats, and sheep are the most frequently raised livestock. Uzbekistan has the advantages of a warm climate, a long growing season, and plentiful sources of water for irrigation. In the Soviet period, those conditions offered high and reliable yields of crops with specialized requirements. Soviet agricultural policy applied Uzbekistan's favorable conditions mainly to cotton cultivation. As Uzbekistan became a net exporter of cotton and a narrow range of other agricultural products, however, it required large-scale imports of grain and other foods that were not grown in sufficient quantities in domestic fields. Water for irrigation can come from wells, rivers, canals, lakes, ponds and reservoirs. Often dams are built to supply water for irrigation. Water used in irrigation often times originates from sources miles away. The water often flows from the source in a single canal which in turn divides into smaller canals that lead to the fields There may be thousands of fields, each averaging from a few acres to many dozen acres in size, or huge swaths of agricultural land. Irrigation with canals is very inefficient. Lots of water is lost to evaporation, run offs and absorption into the soil before it reaches crops. Governments are often to blame for these practices because they subsidize water so heavily that farmers have little incentive to save it. Poorly-drained irrigated land leaves behind salt deposits as water evaporates. In many places, fields that once grew bountiful crops of grains are now encrusted in salt. More than a quarter of the world's irrigated land has become so salty that many crops will no longer grow there. To make the land productive again the fields have to be flooded four times to clear away the salt. Irrigation also causes large amounts of salts, fertilizers and pesticides to be flushed into rivers and streams. Short supplies of water can result in increased in disease as untreated sewage water is used in irrigation. The drilling of wells for irrigation, farming and animal herding can trigger an unhealthy cycle. Drilling wells causes the water table to drop. After a while the water may become too salty for crops and animals or too expensive to pump resulting in the sinking of more wells, which causes the water table to drop further. Aral Sea and Irrigation The main culprit behind the drying up of the Aral Sea has been irrigation projects in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan and to a lesser degree Kazakhstan used mainly used to nourish millions of acres of cotton fields (90 percent of the former Soviet Union's production). The water from these projects was supplied by Central Asia's two largest rivers—the Amu Darya and Syr Darya, which have traditionally flowed into the Aral Sea, supplying it with the vast majority of its water. Water drained from the Amu Darya and Syr Darya doubled but cotton production only increased by 20 percent. Much of the water was lost due to waste. The canals were not lined or covered. Much of the water evaporated or drained into the soil before it reached the crops. What is even worse is that cotton-growing policy was launched about the same time synthetic fibers began hitting world markets. Cotton production never brought in as much money as it was supposed to most of it ended in Moscow not Central Asia. In some places such as around the village Dzhalagash in Kazakhstan rice was grown in areas that receives only 15 centimeters of rain a year. More than 2.8 billion liters of water—enough to fill 13,000 Olympic-size swimming pools—was necessary to supply water for 100 hectares of rice paddies. The situation exist because the water was ludicrously cheap—only 65 center per swimming pool. Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan each produced almost 65,000 hectares of rice. The Kara-kum Canal is the world's longest irrigation canal. It stretches 1,350 kilometers (745 miles) from Haun-Khan to Ashkhabad and brings water from the AmuDarya to the inhabited areas in southern Turkmenistan. Draining the Amu-Darya, it runs most of the length of Turkmenistan and is used to supply water for cotton farms. It has contributed to large cotton harvests and the shrinking of the Aral Sea. The canal leaks a lot of the water it carries and is badly in need of reconstruction. From the air its looks like a thin ribbon fringed by kilometers-wide bands of weeds. The Turkmenistan government admits that 28 percent of the water disappears before it reaches it destination. Scientist think the figure is close to 60 percent. While irrigation doubled cotton production it drained 55 million cubic kilometers of water a year, claiming three quarters of the flow of the Amu Darya and Syr Darya. With so much water diverted the rivers were only trickles when they arrived at the Aral Sea. Unable to counteract evaporation the lake has simply been getting smaller and smaller. Initially the irrigation boosted agricultural productivity. But later over-watering and leaks left some farmland to salty to support crops and the use and reuse of water made the water saltier and loaded it with pesticides and sewage. By some estimates irrigation of the Aral Sea has caused agricultural productivity in Central Asia to decline by one quarter. Yet demand for water exceed the flow of the two rivers that flow into the Aral Sea by more than 25 percent. The inefficient use of water now means that as the Aral Sea shrinks so to does the land used by farmers. One farmer who talked to the New York Times said that his entire crop — grown on 32 hectares of state-owned farmland that he oversaw — was lost in 2000 because of a lack of water. In 2001 he grew only four hectares of cotton. In 2002 he raised six hectares of cotton and sunflowers. 2. Crops in Uzbekistan Major crops: cotton, rice, wheat, rye, fruit. Major crops for domestic consumption: wheat, rice, fruit. Major crops for export: cotton. Uzbekistan produces more than one million tons of fruits and vegetables. The world's first pears, apples and apricots evolved from wild plants found in Central Asia. In recent years, Uzbekistan has switched some farmland from cotton to grains (mainly rice and wheat) in an effort to reduce food imports. Officially reported wheat harvests have increased every year since 1998, while the rice harvest decreased substantially in 2005. Other significant agricultural products are silk, fruits and vegetables, cow’s milk, and beef. Virtually all agriculture requires intensive irrigation. Cattle, goats, and sheep are the most frequently raised livestock. The world's first pears, apples and apricots evolved from wild plants found in Central Asia. Melons are very popular in Central Asia. They are sweet and delicious and are full of water and act as natural canteens. Melons are often served as a dessert or snack with tea. Markets are often filled with huge piles of them. Melons are often given as a gift and a gesture of welcome and farewell. In light of increasing water shortages in Central Asia and the end of the Soviet distribution system that guaranteed food imports, government leaders have aimed to reduce cotton cultivation in favor of grain and other food plants to feed an increasingly impoverished population. In fact, between 1987 and 1991 land planted to cotton decreased by 16 percent, mainly in favor of grains and fruits and vegetables. But Uzbekistan's short-term needs for hard currency make dramatic declines in cotton cultivation unrealistic. Likewise, Uzbekistan's entire existing agricultural infrastructure- -irrigation systems, configuration of fields, allocation and type of farm machinery, and other characteristics--is geared toward cotton production; shifting to other crops would require a massive overhaul of the agricultural system and a risk that policy makers have not wished to take in the early years of independence. Under these circumstances, continued commitment to cotton is seen as a good base for longer-term development and diversification. In 1991 Uzbekistan's main agricultural products, aside from cotton, were grains (primarily wheat, oats, corn, barley, and rice), fodder crops, and fruits and vegetables (primarily potatoes, tomatoes, grapes, and apples). That year 41 percent of cultivated land was devoted to cotton, 32 percent to grains, 11 percent to fruits, 4 percent to vegetables, and 12 percent to other crops. In the early 1990s, Uzbekistan produced the largest volume of fruits and vegetables among the nations of the former Soviet Union. 3. Mineral resources of Uzbekistan Since its independence in 1991, the country has been making efforts to expand its agricultural sector and simultaneously develop its petroleum and mineral reserves and hence increase its production in order to stabilize its financial sector. Uzbekistan is the fifth-largest producer of cotton and the second-largest exporter of cotton in the world. Besides cotton, the country also exports gold, natural gas and hydrocarbons. The global increase in prices over the past years for cotton, gold and natural gas brought about a positive impact on the country’s GDP. Uzbekistan’s GDP as of 2011 was $96.46 billion. Uzbekistan’s mineral resources include petroleum, natural gas, gold, silver, uranium, molybdenum, tungsten, coal, copper, zinc and lead. Uranium, copper and gold are the country’s chief minerals. The country has mineral reserves amounting to more than 1800 in number. In 2010, the country’s mining sector was affected due to decrease in the production of minerals. This decrease was mainly because of insufficient foreign investments, lack of infrastructure and remote location. Metals In 2010, the Almalyk mining and metallurgical complex (Almalyk GMK ) was the only copper production company in Uzbekistan. The mining of copper in Uzbekistan takes place in the Sary-Cheku and Kalmakyr deposits. Besides mining of copper, the Almalyk GMK is also involved in the mining and processing of lead-zincbarite ores obtained from the Uch-Kulach deposit in Jizzax Viloyati. In 2010, about 20% of gold and 90% of silver was produced by Uzbekistan’s Almalyk GMK. The Navoi mining and metallurgical complex and the Almalyk GMK were the chief gold producers in Uzbekistan in 2010. The Muruntau gold deposit in Central Qizilqum is known for its low extraction costs and superior quality ores. The Tamdybulak gold deposit, in the north of Muruntau, is another significant gold deposit in the country. In 2010, the chief gold reserves in Uzbekistan totaled to about 5,300 Mt. Fossil Fuels Uzbekistan had 171 discovered natural gas and oil fields as of 2010. The country’s vast hydrocarbon resources prevented its dependence on energy supply from foreign sources. Gas condensate was produced by 17 of the country’s natural gas and oil fields and oil was produced by 51 of Uzbekistan’s natural gas and oil fields. Since 2003, the country experienced a major decline in its production of oil due to lack of upgraded production equipment that lead to a depletion of some of the country’s oil producing fields. This decrease in oil production is expected to continue until 2013. In 2010, Uzbekistan had 52 natural gas fields located at 12 of the country’s chief deposits that were located in the Central Ustyurt plateau and on the Uzbek side of the Amu Darya basin. Almost 80% of the gas produced in Uzbekistan is utilized by the country’s heating and electricity production sectors. In 2010, about 24% of gas produced in Uzbekistan was exported to Tajikistan, Russia, Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan. The monopoly rights for carrying out mining and extraction operations of uranium were owned by the Navoi mining and metallurgical complex. The mineral base at the Navoi GMK comprised 20 uranium deposits. In 2010, the Boztaus plateau had uranium reserves that amounted to 5,500 t. Uranium exploration in this plateau was carried out by the Chinese company, Uz-China Uran. Investment News from the mining sector highlights Oxus Gold’s claim against the Uzbek government for the confiscation of the company’s investments in the Khandiza deposit and the Amantaytau Goldfields. Despite such negative reports the country still hopes to increase its mineral production capacity by increasing the output of gold, uranium and hydrocarbons within the next 10 years. As part of this plan the country also expects to upgrade its infrastructure and production facilities in its mining and mineral sectors and expand its pipelines. Uzbekistan has also made efforts to modernize the Navoi and Almalyk GMKs and speed up its gold and copper production operations. The government intends to develop joint ventures with Russian and Asian companies as part of their initiatives to improve the country’s mineral and mining sectors. With these developments, Uzbekistan hopes to bring about major changes and improvements in its mining and mineral sectors that will likely repair the country’s economic instability.

LECTURE 16. SPORTS AND MASS MEDIA IN UZBEKISTAN Plan: 1. Sport facilities and achievements 2. Mass Media in Uzbekistan 1. Sport facilities and achievements. Many new places provided stadiums, sports, complexes, pools, sports clubs as well as private fitness clubs cater to a great demand for physical exercise. "Sportsman" is a widely used term. Uzbekistan has produced Olympic champions in kickboxing, boxing, wrestling, gymnastics, chess, who brought home medals from Atlanta, Sydney, and Lillehammer. Dilshod Aripov - world champion wrestling Mahamadkodir Abdullaev, Sergey Mikhailov, Rustam Saidov, Ruslan Chagaev, Artur Grigoryan Olympic and World champions in boxing Iroda Tuliaganova - WTA tennis champion Oksana Chusovitina - world champion gymnastics. Over the centuries, Uzbekistan has had a tradition of fostering equestrians and wrestlers (palvans). Some of the sports that originate in this country are the kurash, a type of upright wrestling, along with belbogli kurash turon. Other popular sports in Uzbekistan are football (soccer), boxing and sport wrestling. Since its independence in 1991, Uzbekistan has taken part in the Olympic Games with increasing success. Uzbekistan has participated three times in the Summer Olympics, and collected one gold and five bronze medals in boxing, two gold and two silver in wrestling and a silver medal in judo. Their only medal in the Winter Olympics so far came in freestyle skiing in Lillehammer 1994 when Lina Cheryazova won a gold medal in aerials. Some of the most important Uzbekistan sports include football, boxing, rugby and uloq. The Uzbekistan football team is managed by the Uzbekistan football federation. AFC is the confederation of Uzbekistan football team. After having participated in numerous competitions, it proved its strength in the Asian Games in 1994, where it won the victory title. It is considered to be the strongest team among the Central Asian nations like Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan and Tajikistan. Horse sport competition “kopkari” or “uloq” is equally close to all Turk speaking nations of the region such as Uzbeks, Kazakhs, Kyrgyz, and Turkmen. Kopkari is the competition of horsemen. It is usually held in a honor of big holidays or weddings at the end of the feast. Kopkari is a struggle, that is lead by a skilled horseman to win the race with certain conditions. Usually in the kopkari competition the referee throws to the middle of the pitch carcass of the goat filled with salt which is called uloq. This carcass is pressed by horseman’s leg to saddle. Horseman should race through his rivals in the pitch and be first to bring the carcass to the appointed spot. Horsemen can compete in groups and divide the prize among each other. The prizes can be a TV, a carpet, a national overcoat, cattle or some amount of money. The most nimbled (skilled horseman) on a strong and swift-footed horse picks up the thrown goat. As a rule he is surrounded by friends or fellow-villagers to protect and assist him from the competitors till the finish line. Horsemen handed down the secrets of correct feeding and training of fast horses across the generations. During the World War II some horses trained for racing in kopkari made incredible deeds. However, kopkari is a peaceful game which has played a significant role in the education and formation of strong men. At the present it is still organized in several districts of Kashkadarya, Surkhandarya, Samarkand and Bukhara regions. It has become a good tradition to organize the kopkari on the conventions of farmers, gardeners, cotton growers, Navruz holiday as well as in harvest festivals. The traditions of old horsemen and runners is being restored again. This is very important that one of the ancient interesting game traditions is revived and is experiencing a new stage of its development. Uzbekistan pays great attention to the development and promotion of sports and physical culture. Over the years of independence, the country has established an effective system of training of professional athletes, coaches and referees. The implementation of these objectives in every way contributes to promotion of healthy life-style, education of harmoniously developed young people, further development of physical culture and sports in the country. An important legal basis for ongoing reforms in this area is the Law of the Republic of Uzbekistan "On Physical Culture and Sports" and other laws and regulations directed to involvement of people, especially young people, women and children, to physical culture and sports. Young boys and girls, professionals of individual and game disciplines, are showing exclusive preparation and phenomenal skills at representative forums, eloquently confirm that they represent a country with rich sports traditions. The results of the measures can be seen in the growing number of our fellow citizens who are involved in sports and won prizes at various international tournaments. Since the Olympic Games in Atlanta in 1996 and till the London Olympics in 2012, from the Olympic Winter Games in 1994 in Lillehammer till the Olympic Winter Games in Sochi in 2014, our athletes won 6 gold, 5 silver and 10 bronze medals. In 2014, at the XVII Summer Asian Games and II Para-Asian Games held in the South Korean city of Incheon, our athletes have successfully defended the honor of the country. In the Asian Games 2014, 61 Uzbek athletes ranked among the winners, and at Para-Asian games our compatriots 22 times rose to the highest step of the podium. In addition, 15 of our Paralympic athletes have already won the license to the XV Paralympic Games to be held in Rio de Janeiro in 2016. Today, the names of such outstanding and talented athletes as judoka Rishod Sobirov, canoeist Vadim Menkov, wrestler Artur Taymazov, tennis players Denis Istomin and Nigina Abduraimova, swimmer Sergei Pankov, gymnast Ulyana Trofimova and Oksana Chusovitina, athlete Svetlana Radziwill, soccer player Odil Ahmedov, boxer Elshod Rasulov, taekwondoist Dmitry Shokin, and of course, FIFA referee Ravshan Irmatov, and many others glorified Uzbekistan far beyond its borders. The main work on the development of sport in the country is carried out by the Ministry of Culture and Sports. The Uzbek National Olympic Committee (NOC) conducts activity on further development of the Olympic Movement and participation of the local athletes in international competitions. In 1993, NOC became a member of the International Olympic Committee. The Uzbek State Institute of Physical Culture provides training of physical education teachers and coaches. It annually teaches about 2 thousand students. With the purpose of training of high-class athletes, the work on improving the material-technical base necessary for the formation of future champions is continued. In particular, the Republican Specialized Children and Youth Sports School of Olympic Reserve on rhythmic gymnastics was established on the basis of Universal Sports Palace. Central Asian Judo Center, National Center of boxing and Sports complex of Taekwondo Association have been built. The established sports infrastructure of Uzbekistan has become a venue for major international competitions, including world and Asian boxing, taekwondo, wrestling, fencing and other types of sports. The country has a strong focus on the selection of talented young athletes from among the pupils of sports clubs, teams and organization of training to improve sport skills, creation of necessary conditions for strengthening the sports reserve on the basis of further development of the high school of sports and colleges of Olympic reserve. In this regard, Uzbekistan’s policy to expand the large-scale involvement of children in sports is especially important. It is rightly considered as the basis of a healthy and harmoniously developed generation. The country has created a unique three-stage system of conducting of sports competitions among pupils and students - "Umid Nihollari", "Barkamol Avlod" and "Universiada", which make an invaluable contribution to the training of gifted and talented athletes defending the honor of their country at international sports tournament and Olympic Games. Establishment of the Fund for development of children's sports, in accordance with the Presidential Decree in 2002, became an important step in the development of children's sport. Its main task is to assist in the implementation of state policy in the field of physical education and sport among children, awakening interest in sports among the younger generation, protection of young people from various harmful influences, upbringing them in the spirit of patriotism. Since the establishment of the Fund, more than 1700 children's sports buildings in the capital and regions have been constructed and commissioned. All of them are provided with sports facilities that meet modern requirements. 95300 sports sections carry on their activities there. In 2014, the country has held 9500 sports events, about 7000 of them - in rural areas. 1.8 million juniors attended them. The development of children's sport in Uzbekistan gives appropriate results. In particular, in 2010, the national football team U-16 won the silver medal of the Asian Championship, and a year later they entered the top eight teams in the world championship U-17, which took place in Mexico. In 2012, Uzbekistan’s football team U-16 has achieved brilliant success when they gained a victory at the Asian championship. In 2012, in competitions on synchronized swimming in Malaysia our girls won 4 gold, 1 silver and 2 bronze medals. In Malaysia teams of boys and girls from Namangan region took first place at the international competition on water polo. Moreover, Shahida Zahidova, Sevara Babakulova and Gulsanam Yuldasheva won silver medals in synchronized swimming at the Asian Championship in Indonesia. Nine-years old chess player Nodirbek Abdusattarov won the world championship on rapid chess in the city of Maribor (Slovenia), which involved about 2600 players from 126 countries. In 2013, Nafisa Muminova became the first female chess player from Uzbekistan, who received the title of International FIDE Grandmaster. Her striking success went down in history of national sport. Dilshod Choriev and Ramziddin Saidov have won gold medals at the Judo Asian Championship. The year 2014 was the most successful. In August, Chinese city of Nanjing hosted II Summer Youth Olympic Games, which involved more than 3500 athletes from more than 200 countries. Our athletes have won 4 gold, 3 silver and 3 bronze medals. In September, three Uzbekistan’s athletes have won gold medals in the World Championship on universal fight which took place in Russia. Davron Salimov became the winner of the World Championship on hand-to-hand fighting. Men’s and women’s teams of Uzbekistan on water polo became the strongest among all the participants of the international tournament which was held in Thailand. Nine-years old Javohir Sindarov became world chess champion in Brazil. And the eight-years old Zarguna Ahrorkulova won the World Championships on karate-do in Minsk. "Gold" list can be continued. In general, over the past years, the number of medals won by young athletes is steadily increasing. In 2005, the Uzbek young athletes won 18 medals (5 gold, 6 silver and 7 bronze), and in 2010 - 155 (82 gold, 41 silver and 32 bronze), but last year they were awarded 391 medals (126 gold, 105 silver and 160 bronze). In 2015, from March 28 to April 7 the city of Sochi hosted an international football tournament among children's teams, in which teams from Uzbekistan gained the first two places. On May 1-3, 2015, more than 1800 representatives from 53 countries participated in the VI Karate-do World Championship in Georgia. Our sportsmen received 8 different medals. From June 25 to July 2, the Italian town of Abruzzi hosted an International competition on rhythmic gymnastics, where the representatives of Uzbekistan were awarded 8 medals. The young athletes have achieved great victories thanks to a significant contribution of their coaches. In Uzbekistan, the work focusing on the training of trainers, particularly among women, is carried out. An effective system of promoting of their work is established. The number of coaches in 2015 comparing with 2003 increased by nearly 1.8 times, including female trainers - almost 6 times. Along with this the composition of professional coaching and teaching staff has been changed qualitatively - about half of them have specialized higher education. The ongoing work in Uzbekistan on the development of sports is gaining recognition in the world. Visiting our country in 2013-2014, leaders and representatives of the Olympic Council of Asia, the Asian Paralympics Committee, International Federations of weightlifting, boxing, fencing, athletics and gymnastics, the International Union of wrestling, Asian Taekwondo Union, the World Anti-Doping Agency highly assessed the undertaken measures for development of the Olympic movement in Uzbekistan. For outstanding achievements in the development of sports and Olympic movement, the President of Uzbekistan was awarded the Medal of the International Olympic Committee. Also, for the profound contribution to the development of football in the country and in Asia, he was awarded by the Olympic Council of Asia. Thus, thanks to scale transformations undertaken in the country, sport has become one of the most prestigious areas of activity, especially among young people. Names of talented representatives of Uzbekistan, who won prestigious international awards, are inscribed in the annals of the national and world sport. 2. Mass Media in Uzbekistan. Newspapers In 1999, there were 471 newspapers and magazines, of which 328 were published by the various ministries and departments of the government, state enterprises, or "political parties." Almost all newspapers are printed at the state printing facilities, which makes it convenient and not-so-obvious for the print copy to be censored. Of the total number, 66 may be regarded as national, 68 regional (although the government does not accept such a category on grounds that Uzbekistan is not split into regions), and the remaining local. Some 109 were public or organizational, representing trade unions, the military, or other associations. The remaining 34 were in the private sector, which is a growing segment and financially independent of the government. They were mostly commercial or religionbased. Listed below are the principal newspapers of Uzbekistan, the year of their founding, name of the owner, and circulation (wherever available): Uzbek Newspapers: • Uzbekistan Ovozi, June 21, 1918; People's Democratic Party; 40,000 • Uzbekistan Adabieti Va Sanati ( Literature and Art of Uzbekistan ); January 4, 1956; Ministry of Culture & Association of Writers; 6,500 • Marifat ( Education ), 1931, Ministry of Education, 21,500 • Adolat ( Justice ); February 22, 1995; "Adolat" Socialist Democratic Party; 5,900 • Turkiston, 1925, "Kamolot" Youth Foundation, 8,000 • Toshkent Hakikati ( Tashkent Truth ), February 1954, Tashkent Oblast Administration, 19,000 • Mulkdor ( Proprietor ); January 10, 1995; Real Estate Exchange & State Committee for Entrepreneurship; 20,000 • Hurriyat, December 1996, Fund for Democratization of Media, 5,000 • Savdagor; August 19, 1992; Uzbeksavdo & Uzbekbirlashuv firms, 17,000 • Fidokor, May 1999, NDP, 32,000 • Sport; June 2, 1932; State Committee for Sport & Physical Training; 8,500 • Respublika; September 1, 1998; UzA Government Wire Service; NA Uzbek/Russian Newspapers: • Narodnoe; January 1, 1991; Government; 50,000 • Biznes Vestnik Vostoka (BVV), August 1991, Pravda Vostoka and Uzfininvest Joint Stock Company, 20,000 • Novosti Nedeli, August 1996, National Commodity Exchange, 5,000 • Na postu/Postda; May 12, 1993; Ministry of the Interior; 18,000 • Soliqlar va Bojhona I Tamojennie Vesti, January 1994, State Tax Committee, 45,000 • Vechernly Tashkent/Tashkent Oqshomi; January 1, 1966; City Mayor's Office, NA English Newspapers: • Good Morning • Uzbekistan Ovozi Times • Business Partner • Business Review Russian Newspapers: • Pravda Vostoka ( Truth of the East ); April 2, 1917; 20,000 • Tashkentsaya Pravda, February 1954, Tashkent Oblast Administration, 6,400 • Business Partner Uzbekistana • Golos Uzbekistana ( Voice of Uzbekistan ); June 21, 1918; PDP; 40,000 • Uchitel Uzbekistana ( Teacher of Uzbekistan ); January 1, 1980; Ministry of Education; 7,000 • Norodnoe Slovo ( People's Word ) • Molodyozh Uzbekistana ( Youth of Uzbekistan ), November 1926,"Kamolot" Youth Foundation & "Career-Service" Agency, 6,000 • Vechernij Tashkent ( Evening Tashkent ) • Business-vestnik Vostoka, Bvv ( Business News of the East ) • Novly Vek (formerly Kommercheskij Vestnik, Commercial News), January 1992, State Property Committee, 22,000 • Chastnaya Sobstvennost, May 1994, State Property Committee, 8,000 Russian/English Newspapers: • Delovoy Partner, 1991, Ministry of Foreign Economic Relations, 20,000 In terms of finance, the government subsidizes only a very limited number of newspapers. Most of them sustain themselves on the revenues they receive from advertisements, many of which are in the form of announcements, notices, or calls for tenders from various state agencies. Another source of income indirectly provided by the government is mandatory subscriptions by the various state offices to the state publications, The newspapers do not get much advertising from international companies, which find it difficult to operate because of the laws disallowing currency convertibility. Press Laws The Constitution of Uzbekistan plainly provides "freedom of thought, speech and convictions." Article 67 of the Constitution states that "media are free … censorship is impermissible." Yet in reality, the press and the other media experience censorship. Moreover, there are registration requirements that are misused to screen those who want to start a newspaper or magazine or renew their licenses. The basic law governing the media was adopted on June 14, 1991, three months before Uzbekistan's independence from the Soviet Union. It was supplemented by several decrees and regulations, including decree number 244, which laid down rules for registration. On November 26, 1996, the Uzbek Parliament promised liberalization of the press, to bring it in line with international standards. The following February, it adopted several laws on the relationship between the government and the media. Article 4 of the Law on Mass Media reiterated: "In the Republic of Uzbekistan, censorship on mass media is not permitted. No one has the right to request that materials and reports be approved prior to publication, or that any text be altered or completely removed from print (air)." Radio Just as in television, there are state-owned and independent radio stations in Uzbekistan. The State Radio has FM, medium-wave and short-wave transmissions. The State Radio has four channels, each with its own specialty: Channel 1 ("Uzbekistan") is the most important channel, paralleling Uzbek TV 1 in its programming (frequencies; LW, MW, SW, FM); Radio Channel 2, popularly known as "Mashal" (MW and FM), is directed to the youth and has more entertainment programs than others. Radio Channel 3, known as "Dostlik" (MW and FM) focuses on the minorities in the country; Radio Channel 4, known as "Yoshlar" (MW and FM), is directed toward the youth. Yet another government-owned radio station, "Radio Tashkent" broadcasts on a short-wave to numerous countries in 12 languages. There are seven FM radio stations in the capital city of Tashkent, one independent station that covers the three provinces of Ferghana, Andijan, and Namanghan. Five out of those in Tashkent are independent, Radio Grande (FM-101.5 MHZ) being the most popular among them. It was established in 1999 with substantial assistance from the Konrad Adenauer Foundation in Germany and the International Center for the Training of Journalists. It has one-hour programs in Russian, Uzbek, and English every day and besides music, it broadcasts hourly news— local, national, and international. Among the other private FM stations is radio Sezum, an Uzbek-US joint venture. Television There are about 35 independent TV stations in Uzbekistan along with the State TV and Radio Company. It is not designated as a "state" company by a decree of the Uzbek Cabinet, which expects it to be financially fully independent "as soon as possible." Analysts observe that, given its size and operations and the state of the private sector, it is likely to be state-owned for a long time. The largest of the cable TV stations is Kamalak TV, with as many as 10 Russian and international channels. The independent stations mostly broadcast to provincial areas. Even so, they practice self-censorship, only less than the State TV. Most independent stations have outmoded equipment and depend on the U.S. Internews, which helps them by providing equipment and training. Because most independent stations do not and cannot afford sophisticated editorial staff, the Internews collects news reports from most of these stations, develops them into a program, and then redistributes the news program to the stations ready for broadcast. Although all independent stations are, by definition, financially independent, some of them, such as those in Samarkand and Andijan are well-funded and can afford plans for expansion and quality improvement. They have their own news programs at the local level and are not, to that extent, completely dependent on the Internews. Besides, they have their own talk shows, which they broadcast on their own FM radio stations as well.

LECTURE 17. THE ROLE OF UZBEKISTAN IN THE WORLD COMMUNITY AND INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

Plan:

1. Development of the foundations of a peaceful foreign policy of the Republic of Uzbekistan.



2. Integration of Uzbekistan into the world community.

3. Priority areas of international relations and prospects for the development of international cooperation of Uzbekistan.

1. Development of the foundations of a peaceful foreign policy of the Republic of Uzbekistan.

Today, the independent state of Uzbekistan independently acts on the world stage and its position is increasingly taken into account when developing decisions at the regional and global levels. The foreign policy of such new states as Uzbekistan is an important factor in regional and world politics and international relations. The foreign policy of the Republic of Uzbekistan is important for its national independence, political and economic independence, strengthening sovereignty and security and the successful resolution of acute socio-economic problems. The experience of Uzbekistan’s international relations accumulated over the years of independence shows that pursuing an independent foreign policy, developing its own ways of entering the world community, determining the directions and priorities of international relations and their further development, establishing principles of peaceful coexistence, equal interstate relations and mutually beneficial cooperation contribute to a wide range of decisions internal and external problems.

The main direction of Uzbekistan’s foreign policy today is the active implementation of our strategic course towards full entry into the world community. Our republic is consistently implementing a foreign economic policy aimed at integrating its economy into the world economy. The establishment of a Eurasian economic, scientific and cultural bridge, an analogue of the Great Silk Road, is being put forward as a longterm perspective. The republic has all the prerequisites for its transformation into a kind of regional center for the interstate transit of goods, capital, labor and the integration of national interests in the field of economics, culture and politics.

The uniqueness of the reform path chosen by Uzbekistan is highly appreciated by the international community. Today, independent Uzbekistan is a full member of the UN, recognized by 170 countries of the world, has diplomatic relations with more than 130 states, many of which opened their embassies in Tashkent. More than 90 foreign representative offices are accredited in the republic, about 30 intergovernmental organizations and more than 15 non-governmental organizations operate.

The main principles that determine the international relations of Uzbekistan today:

•First: the supremacy of national-state interests with the utmost consideration of mutual interests.

•Second: equality and mutual benefit, non-interference in the internal affairs of other states.

•Third: openness for cooperation regardless of ideological beliefs, adherence to universal values, preservation of peace and security.

•Fourth: the priority of international law over domestic law.

•Fifth: the development of external relations on the basis of both bilateral and multilateral agreements.

The transition to a market economy will expand the boundaries of integration, develop the country's export opportunities, and contribute to the production of competitive products and access to the world market. From Uzbekistan to other countries, cotton fiber, non-ferrous metals, cable and wire products, ferrous metallurgy products, natural gas and electricity, products of light industry and chemistry, fruits and vegetables are supplied. Imported into the republic are new technologies, oil products, food products, machine tools and equipment.

With the creation of joint ventures, the sale of shares to foreign partners, and the use of their investment funds, the process of internationalization is further strengthened. Currently, there are more than 4 thousand joint ventures in Uzbekistan, in 1999 there were more than 22 thousand enterprises with foreign investments. The construction of the Asakinsk Automobile Plant, the workshop for the production of architectural glass at the Kvarts Production Association was completed, the Kabul-Toytepa-Textiles JV, the textile complex in Karshi, the Bukhara Oil Refinery and others were commissioned. More than 180 new types of products were mastered.

Now we are participating on a shared basis in the construction of the Tejen-Serakhs railway line, which is an integral part of the Trans-Asian highway connecting Beijing to Istanbul, in the reconstruction of the Aktau port in the Caspian Sea, in the construction and reconstruction of the Andijan-Osh-Ergashtom-Kashgar highways to China and Pakistan, as well as the Termez-Herat-Karachi road, giving access to the Indian Ocean. Uzbekistan takes part in the activities of the United Nations, of which it has been a member since March 2, 1992. Our country’s cooperation with the UN is developing on the basis of coordinating the goals and interests of both sides. Uzbekistan also widely cooperates with specialized UN agencies - UNESCO, the World Health Organization, the International Labor Organization, UNCTAD, UNICEF and others.

The United Nations allocated $ 200 million to introduce Uzbekistan to the international computer network "Internet". Uzbekistan has signed over 26 UN documents on the protection of human rights. Together with UNESCO (UNESCO apartment in Paris), the anniversaries of A. Temur were celebrated. M. Ulugbek, anniversaries of Bukhara, Khiva, etc.

International financial and economic organizations, such as the International Monetary Fund, the World Bank, the International Finance Corporation, the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, and others, also provide assistance in implementing economic reforms and ensuring the integration of Uzbekistan into the world community. Great importance is attached to the participation of our country in the work of the World Economic Forum in Davos.

Uzbekistan fruitfully cooperates with such regional international organizations as the European Union, OSCE, NATO, ECO, OIC, Non-Aligned Movement, etc. Sustainable development of our society along the path of deepening democratic transformations is also facilitated by cooperation with other international organizations, primarily in the Asian region, in particular, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO).

In addressing the issues of regional stabilization, the development of integration processes at the regional level, a special place is occupied by the relations between the countries that were formerly part of the Soviet Union. In December 1991, the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) was created. Rapprochement of the peoples of our countries is a natural historical process. As for integration at the level of Central Asian countries, it is distinguished by its specific features. A practical step in this direction was the signing in Tashkent by the presidents of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan of an agreement on the creation of a single economic space between these sovereign countries of the Central Asian region. In addition, there are common security threats to all the peoples living in this region. These are the drying up of the Aral Sea, the penetration of drugs, weapons, terrorism and religious fundamentalism, and the threat of an escalation of tension and instability on the part of Afghanistan, and a number of other factors.

2. Integration of Uzbekistan into the world community In foreign trade, economic, scientific and cultural relations, priority is given to the further strengthening and development of the republic’s export potential, the formation of an export-oriented economy, as well as the accelerated development of importsubstituting industries. Over time, it is necessary to deeply diversify the export structure from raw materials to forms more favorable for Uzbekistan: export of finished products, processing of agricultural raw materials, light industry products, and high-tech industries;

- pursuing a deliberate policy to liberalize foreign economic activity, representing greater freedom in establishing direct relations with foreign partners, selling their products abroad, introducing an increasingly preferential order of export and import of goods;

- stimulation of investment and innovation activities of enterprises in the field of export production by creating a preferential administrative and tax regime;

- creating the necessary legal, socio-economic and other conditions for attracting foreign investments into the economy of the republic, mainly in the form of direct capital investments, assisting in the organization of joint ventures, as well as ensuring the protection of investors' interests, the priority use of foreign loans, foreign currency proceeds from export to overseas purchase of vital food products, medicines, as well as technological equipment for the technical re-equipment of enterprises, processing agricultural raw materials, producing consumer goods;

- training qualified personnel for diplomatic work, as well as in the field of international law and foreign economic activity, the banking system and other newly formed structures. To expand the organization of training and internships of students and specialists in higher educational institutions and research centers, foreign firms, banks and companies;

- Organizational measures for joining international economic and financial organizations, etc.

Our compatriots can provide great help and assistance in the development of external relations, as well as in solving a number of internal socio-economic problems. The Uzbek diaspora abroad can serve as a living link in the establishment of economic, cultural and other relations with representatives of business foreign circles.

3. Priority areas of international relations and prospects for the development of international cooperation of Uzbekistan. Uzbekistan is well aware that connecting to integration processes requires, on the one hand, stability and sustainability in society, and on the other hand, consistent implementation of economic and political reforms, creation of reliable guarantees for mutually beneficial cooperation. Today, all conditions have been created for investments and long-term investments, which will undoubtedly bring significant benefits. Uzbekistan has rich reserves of natural raw materials, a variety of agricultural products. Uzbekistan is located on the territory of 447.4 thousand square kilometers. Its population is 28.8 million people. The republic has a favorable geostrategic position. Historically, the territory of modern Uzbekistan has been a place where ancient trade routes converged, there was an active process of external contacts and mutual enrichment of various cultures. And today, Uzbekistan is at the center of the former Soviet Central Asia with its autonomous energy and water systems, and in many matters serves as a link between the republics and takes an increasingly active role in developing relations with foreign countries.

What can Uzbekistan offer to business circles, the world of business and all those who wish to cooperate with it within the framework of generally accepted international standards?

1. Uzbekistan ranks eighth in the world in total gold production and fifth in per capita production. At the same time, the quality of Uzbek gold meets the highest world standards, and over the past two years it has won three international quality prizes three times. In Uzbekistan, 30 deposits with large reserves of uranium are concentrated. Producing 80 thousand tons of copper annually, Uzbekistan has huge reserves. There are also large deposits of lead, zinc, tungsten, lithium and other strategically important rare metals.

2. The Republic has a powerful, well-developed energy base. Explored gas reserves amount to about 2.5 trillion cubic meters, coal - over 2 billion tons, has more than 140 oil fields.

3. Cotton is the main wealth of the republic. If the whole of Central Asia produces about 2 million tons of cotton - fiber, then 1.5 million tons of them falls on Uzbekistan, which is the fourth producer of this crop in the world. The main area of cooperation here is to achieve deep processing and profitable supply of this valuable raw material to the world market.

4. Receiving up to 5 million tons of fruits and vegetables, many of which are unique in taste, our country is ready to cooperate in this area. The main directions of the republic’s interests in this industry are the creation of industries for the processing, storage, transportation of fruits and vegetables, and the production of packaging materials.

5. Uzbekistan has a developed internal transport infrastructure. However, the republic urgently needs the development of international transport links. Bilateral cooperation with neighboring countries, as well as multilateral cooperation within the framework of the Organization for Economic Cooperation (IVF), is aimed at accessing the world's main transport arteries. Huge reserves exist in promising forms of communication. 6. Uzbekistan has excellent potential for the development of the tourism industry. The whole world knows such Uzbek cities as Samarkand, Bukhara, Khiva, through which in ancient times the Great Silk Road ran. Over 4000 monuments of monumental architecture are located on the territory of the republic, many of which are under the protection of UNESCO. Natural and climatic conditions allow the reception of tourists year-round.

7. Broad cooperation, sustainable economic relations require a modern network of banking, insurance institutions and reform of the financial and monetary system. The republic legislated the possibility of creating banks with foreign capital. We have established good business contacts with the Swiss (UBS, Credit overhang), German (Deutsche Bank), banks where Uzbekistan keeps foreign currency gold as collateral, as well as with the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development and the World Bank. The republic attaches particular importance to the training of personnel for this sphere.



The Republic of Uzbekistan is open for equal and mutually beneficial cooperation, based on mutual respect and trust in a business partner, and is ready to create the most favorable conditions for those who want to have long-term relations with the republic, since economic cooperation is the main factor in the dialogue of states, preserving peace and increasing the well-being of people .
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